German is a West Germanic language, spoken in Central Europe. It is the most spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, Liechtenstein, it is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of 100 million people worldwide and the most spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
German is the second most taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level, the fourth most taught non-English language in the US, the second most used scientific language as well as the third most used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom and French are the most-sought after foreign languages for businesses. German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns and adjectives, three genders, two numbers, strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, it is notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world.
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects". Modern Standard German is a West Germanic language descended from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages; the Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: North Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse; the East Germanic languages are now extinct, the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, Dutch, Yiddish and others. Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift from those that were not.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, Low Franconian can be further distinguished as Irminonic and Istvaeonic, respectively; this classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones and Istvaeones. Standard German is based on a combination of Thuringian-Upper Saxon and Upper Franconian and Bavarian dialects, which are Central German and Upper German dialects, belonging to the Irminonic High German dialect group. German is therefore related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish, Yiddish. Related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German, the various Germanic dialects spoken in the French region of Grand Est, such as Alsatian and Lorraine Franconian.
After these High German dialects, standard German is related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects or Low German/Low Saxon dialects, neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic.
Second Polish Republic
The Second Polish Republic known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland in the period between the First and Second World Wars. Known as the Republic of Poland, sometimes Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state was re-established in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, the Free City of Danzig, Latvia and the Soviet Union, it had side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia; the Second Republic ceased to exist in 1939, when Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Slovak Republic, marking the beginning of the European theatre of World War II. In 1938, the Second Republic was the sixth largest country in Europe. According to the 1921 census, the number of inhabitants was 27.2 million. By 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, this had grown to an estimated 35.1 million.
A third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ruthenians. At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles lived outside the country's borders; the political conditions of the Second Republic were influenced by the aftermath of World War I and conflicts with neighbouring states and the emergence of Nazi Germany. The Second Republic maintained moderate economic development; the cultural hubs of interwar Poland – Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, Wilno and Lwów – became major European cities and the sites of internationally acclaimed universities and other institutions of higher education. After more than a century of Partitions between the Austrian, the Prussian, the Russian imperial powers, Poland re-emerged as a sovereign state at the end of the First World War in Europe in 1917-1918; the victorious Allies of World War I confirmed the rebirth of Poland in the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919. It was one of the great stories of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Poland solidified its independence in a series of border wars fought by the newly formed Polish Army from 1918 to 1921.
The extent of the eastern half of the interwar territory of Poland was settled diplomatically in 1922 and internationally recognized by the League of Nations. In the course of World War I, Germany gained overall dominance on the Eastern Front as the Imperial Russian Army fell back. German and Austro-Hungarian armies seized the Russian-ruled part of. In a failed attempt to resolve the Polish question as as possible, Berlin set up a German puppet state on 5 November 1916, with a governing Provisional Council of State and a Regency Council; the Council administered the country under German auspices, pending the election of a king. A month before Germany surrendered on 11 November 1918 and the war ended, the Regency Council had dissolved the Council of State, announced its intention to restore Polish independence. With the notable exception of the Marxist-oriented Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, most Polish political parties supported this move. On 23 October the Regency Council appointed a new government under Józef Świeżyński and began conscription into the Polish Army.
In 1918–1919, over 100 workers' councils sprang up on Polish territories. On 6 November socialists proclaimed the Republic of Tarnobrzeg at Tarnobrzeg in Austrian Galicia; the same day the Socialist, Ignacy Daszyński, set up a Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland in Lublin. On Sunday, 10 November at 7 a.m. Józef Piłsudski, newly freed from 16 months in a German prison in Magdeburg, returned by train to Warsaw. Piłsudski, together with Colonel Kazimierz Sosnkowski, was greeted at Warsaw's railway station by Regent Zdzisław Lubomirski and by Colonel Adam Koc. Next day, due to his popularity and support from most political parties, the Regency Council appointed Piłsudski as Commander in Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. On 14 November, the Council dissolved itself and transferred all its authority to Piłsudski as Chief of State. After consultation with Piłsudski, Daszyński's government dissolved itself and a new government formed under Jędrzej Moraczewski. In 1918 Italy became the first country in Europe to recognise Poland's renewed sovereignty.
Centers of government that formed at that time in Galicia included the National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn, the Republic of Zakopane and the Polish Liquidation Committee. Soon afterward, the Polish–Ukrainian War broke out in Lwów between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish irregular units made up of students known as the Lwów Eaglets, who were supported by the Polish Army. Meanwhile, in western Poland, another war of national liberation began under the banner of the Greater Poland uprising. In January 1919 Czechoslovakian forces attacked Polish units in the area of Zaolzie. Soon afterwards the Polish–Lithuanian War began, in August 1919 Polish-speaking residents of Upper Silesia initiated a series of three Silesian Uprisings; the most critical military conflict o
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
Polish Academy of Literature
The Polish Academy of Literature was one of the most important state institutions of literary life in the Second Polish Republic, operating between 1933–1939 with the headquarters in Warsaw. It was founded by the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Republic; the Academy was the highest opinion-forming authority in the country, in charge of all aspects of promoting and honoring the most outstanding contemporary achievements of Polish literature. According to its own statute, the main objective of the Academy was to raise the quality level of Poland's publishing, while working in conjunction with the government efforts and NGO endeavors focused on the advancement of Polish culture and art in general; the century of foreign Partitions of Poland, ending in 1918, was marked by the forcible suppression of Polish education and religion under Prussian, outright Russification in the territories occupied by the Tsarist Empire, reaching its epitome under Otto von Bismarck on the one hand, Nicholas II on the other.
It resulted in staggering levels of illiteracy on Polish lands, as noted by Stefan Żeromski in 1923. PAL was called forth to reinforce the historic standards of quality, exalt the honor of Poland's literary tradition and explore the intricacies of her heritage, it was proposed for the first time by Żeromski in 1920 but accepted as an idea only nine years in 1929. The structure of the Academy was modeled on the corresponding French Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, it consisted of 15 members chosen for life, seven of whom were selected by the Minister of Religion and Public Education. The remaining eight were proposed by the members of the first group. Notably, socialist writer and Freemason, Andrzej Strug declined the offer, upset by voices of official criticism of the movement; the Academy awarded two highest national honors for contribution to the development of Polish literature: the Gold and the Silver Laurel. Another prize widely regarded, was the Young Writer's Award, a door-opener for new and emerging talent.
The honorary members included the Academy's main promotors: President of Poland Ignacy Mościcki and Marshal Józef Piłsudski. Among the members of the Academy were the luminaries of Poland's literary life including its own president Wacław Sieroszewski, vicepresident Leopold Staff, secretary general Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski, popular writers such as Wacław Berent, Piotr Choynowski, Zofia Nałkowska, Zenon Przesmycki, Karol Irzykowski, Juliusz Kleiner, Bolesław Leśmian, Karol Hubert Rostworowski, Wincenty Rzymowski, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Jerzy Szaniawski, Tadeusz Zieliński; the composition changed after the death Choynowski and Leśmian and after the withdrawal from PAL by Rzymowski accused of plagiarism, by Rostworowski protesting against the change of government. The new members were soon appointed, including writers Ferdynand Goetel, Kornel Makuszyński, Jan Lorentowicz, Kazimierz Wierzyński; the Academy ceased to exist following the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939. In 1947 following World War II, in the Soviet-controlled People's Republic of Poland, there was a discussion among some communist writers about whether to reinstate the Academy.
The leading proponent of Polish Stalinism from Kuźnica, Jan Kott, summarized the subject in the following way: "The Academy is like the monarchy. But to start it afresh – that leads to trouble."
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang