Antonio Azarola y Gresillón
Antonio Azarola y Gresillón was a Spanish Navy officer, rear admiral of the Spanish Republican Navy. He was executed by firing squad on 4 August 1936 at the Ferrol Naval Base in Galicia, NW Spain, by rebel Navy officers for refusing to join the coup of July 1936 against the Spanish Republic that triggered the Spanish Civil War. Antonio Azarola had been the Minister of Defence of Spain between 30 December 1935 and 19 February 1936, during Manuel Portela Valladares tenure. Along with Captain Juan Sandalio Sánchez Ferragut, commander of Cruiser Almirante Cervera, Lieutenant Luis Sánchez Pinzón, Azarola was one of the few top naval officers who stood steadfastly loyal to the Spanish Republic at the time of the Francoist rebellion at the Ferrol Naval base. Antonio Azarola was born in Tafalla, Navarre in 1874, he belonged to a family of illustrious Spanish military men. Along his early military career Azarola was named twice the adjutant of vice admiral Ricardo Fernández Gutiérrez de Celis, whose daughter, Carmen Fernández García-Zúñiga, he married.
Azarola was a man of deep Christian convictions. Azarola was second in command of the Ferrol Naval Base, the most important Spanish Navy base in northern Spain, since November 1934, he was the commander of the Naval Arsenal. Azarola was named undersecretary of the Naval Ministry of the Spanish Republic, Spanish: Ministerio de Marina, the bureaucratic body that governed the naval and merchant marine forces of Spain, he rose to minister under the cabinet presided by Manuel Portela Valladares between 30 December 1935 and 19 February 1936, the last cabinet before the 1936 elections. What would be the last Naval Plan of the Spanish Republic was drawn up towards the end of his tenure in January 1936, before the Civil War; the plan envisaged the construction of two destroyers and two gunboats, as well as other minor vessels. In the crucial hours that followed the July 1936 coup of rebel generals, Azarola made a conscious decision to remain loyal to the Spanish Republic; when the anti-republican officers at Ferrol invited Azarola to join the rebellion he declared that his Christian principles were paramount.
As the highest leader of the naval base he admonished the rebel military officers, reminding them that their rebellion was tantamount to high treason, for they had made an oath of allegiance to the established government of Spain. Baffled by a situation that he could only define as an act of treason, Rear-Admiral Azarola refused to open the doors of the Arsenal in order to arm the trade unions and leftist political parties, a measure which could have saved his life and could have spelled doom for the rebellion in that region, he was arrested by rebel brothers Francisco and Salvador Moreno Fernández, navy officers who were lower in rank and who would be praised as heroes by General Franco during his dictatorship. The Et tu, Brute? Style words "Usted también, don Francisco" spoken by Rear-Admiral Azarola at the moment of his arrest to Francisco Moreno, a former close friend of his and admiral of the rebel fleet, have become famous. Azarola was executed by firing squad at 6 am on 4 August against the inner wall of the Cuartel de Dolores barracks.
His body was buried at the Vilagarcía de Arousa graveyard. He was survived by his son Antonio Azarola Fernández de Celis. Decades Rear Admiral Azarola was included in the list of the victims of Francoism made by Spanish Judge Baltasar Garzón. Spanish Republican Navy Spanish coup of July 1936 List of people executed by Francoist Spain Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory Bruno Alonso González, La flota republicana y la guerra civil de España, Ed. Renacimiento, México 1944 ISBN 84-96133-75-3 José Cervera, Avatares de la guerra española en el mar, Editorial Noray, 2011, ISBN 978-84-7486-237-9 Carlos Engel Masoliver, El Cuerpo de Oficiales en la guerra de España, Ed. Quirón, ISBN 978-84-96935075 Javier García Fernández, 25 militares de la República. Ministerio de Defensa, Madrid 2011 Homage to Rear Admiral Azarola Javier Fernández García, Comunidad El Pais Asturias Republicana - Muertes paralelas Charismatic judge who pursued Spain's fascist assassins finds himself on trial Comunidad El Pais - El Alzamiento del 36 en Galicia, Edicións do Castro, autor: Carlos Fernández Santander.
Foro por la Memoria - Provincia de Cádiz
Sancho VI of Navarre
Sancho Garcés VI, called the Wise was King of Navarre from 1150 until his death in 1194. He was the first monarch to drop the title of King of Pamplona in favour of King of Navarre, thus changing the designation of his kingdom. Sancho Garcés was responsible for bringing his kingdom into the political orbit of Europe, he was the eldest son of the Restorer and Margaret of L'Aigle. Sancho VI inherited a debilitated kingdom, subject of frequent raids by the Kingdom of Castile of Alfonso VII and by the County of Barcelona of Ramon Berenguer IV king of Aragon, who in 1140 had agreed the partition of the kingdom in the Treaty of Carrión, he tried to repair the borders of his kingdom, reduced by the Treaties of Tudején and Carrión, which he had been forced to sign with Castile and Aragón in his early reign. By the Accord of Soria, Castile was confirmed in its possession of conquered territories. In the face of a possible Castilian military takeover of further western Navarrese territories, Sancho VI re-asserted royal authority by founding several towns in 1181, including San Sebastián, Vitoria and Treviño, among others.
He was hostile to Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona, but Raymond's son King Alfonso II of Aragon divided the lands taken from Murcia with him by treaty of Sangüesa in 1168. In 1190, the two neighbours again signed a pact in Borja of mutual protection against Castilian expansion, he died on 27 June 1194, in Pamplona. Sancho Garcés married Sancha of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VII, King of León and Castile and his wife Berengaria of Barcelona, they had six children: Berengaria Sánchez, who became Queen consort of England after her marriage in 1191 to Richard I. She died childless. Sancho Sánchez, nicknamed the Strong, who succeeded his father and ruled as King of Navarre from 1194 to 1234, married first to Constance of Toulouse and a second time to a woman believed to have been daughter of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor or, according to other sources, of Yusuf II, caliph of Morocco. Blanche Sánchez, who became Countess of Champagne after her marriage to Theobald III and Count regent after his death.
Her son Theobald would become King of Navarre after the death of his uncle. Fernando Sánchez, buried at the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas. Teresa Sánchez Constanza Sánchez, buried in Marcilla. Luscombe, David; the New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, C.1024-c.1198, Part II. Cambridge University Press. O'Callaghan, Joseph F.. A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. Geni - Sancho VI el Sabio, rey de Navarra
Kingdom of Navarre
The Kingdom of Navarre the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France. The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista; the kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula. The city of Pamplona, had been the main city of the indigenous Vasconic population and was located amid a predominantly Basque-speaking area. In an event traditionally dated to 824, Íñigo Arista was elected or declared ruler of the area around Pamplona in opposition to Frankish expansion into the region as vassal to the Córdoba Emirate; this polity evolved into the Kingdom of Pamplona. In the first quarter of the 10th century the Kingdom was able to break its vassalage under Córdoba and expand militarily, but again found itself dominated by Córdoba until the early 11th century.
A series of partitions and dynastic changes led to a diminution of its territory and to periods of rule by the kings of Aragon and France. In the 15th century, another dynastic dispute over control by the king of Aragon led to internal divisions and the eventual conquest of the southern part of the kingdom by the Crown of Castile in 1512, it would become part of the unified Kingdom of Spain. The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined with France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France; the monarchs of this unified state took the title "King of France and Navarre" until its fall in the French Revolution, again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830. Today, significant parts of the ancient Kingdom of Navarre comprise the autonomous communities of Navarre, Basque Country and La Rioja. There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation of Latin navarros appears in Eginhard's chronicle of the feats of Charles the Great.
Other Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies for the name of Navarra/Nafarroa/Naparroa: Basque nabar: "brownish", "multicolor", which would be a contrast with the green mountain lands north of the original County of Navarre. Basque naba/Castilian nava + Basque herri; the linguist Joan Coromines considers naba as not Basque in origin but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate. The kingdom originated in the southern side of the western Pyrenees, in the flatlands around the city of Pamplona. According to Roman geographers such as Pliny the Elder and Livy, these regions were inhabited by the Vascones and other related Vasconic-Aquitanian tribes, a pre-Indo-European group of peoples who inhabited the southern slopes of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay; these tribes spoke an archaic version of the Basque language known by linguistics as Proto-Basque, as well as some other related languages, such as the Aquitanian language. The Romans took full control of the area by 74 BC, but unlike their northern neighbors, the Aquitanians, other tribes from the Iberian Peninsula, the Vascones negotiated their status within the Roman Empire.
The region first was part of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior of the Hispania Tarraconensis. It would be under the jurisdiction of the conventus iuridicus of Caesaraugusta; the Roman empire influenced the area in urbanization, infrastructure and industry. During the Sertorian War, Pompey would command the foundation of a city in Vasconic territory, giving origin to Pompaelo, modern-day Pamplona, founded on a existent Vasconic town. Romanization of the Vascones led to their eventual adoption of forms of Latin that would evolve into the Navarro-Aragonese language, though the Basque language would remain spoken in rural and mountainous areas. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Vascones were slow to be incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom, in a civil war that provided the opportunity for the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the Basque leadership joined in the appeal that, in the hope of stability, brought the Muslim conquerors. By 718, Pamplona had formed a pact that allowed a wide degree of autonomy in exchange for military and political subjugation, along with the payment of tribute to Córdoba.
Burial ornamentation shows strong contacts with the Merovingian France and the Gascons of Aquitaine, but items with Islamic inscriptions, while a Muslim cemetery in Pamplona, the use of which spanned several generations, suggests the presence of a Muslim garrison in the decades following the Arab invasion. The origin and foundation of the Kingdom of Pamplona is intrinsically related to the southern expansion of the Frankish kingdom under the Merovingians and their successors, the Carolingians. About 601, the Duchy of Vasconia was established by the Merovingians, based around Roman Novempopulania and extending from the southern branch of the river Garonne to the northern side of the Pyrenees; the first documented Duke of Vasconia was Genial, who would hold that position until 627. The Duchy of Vasconia became a frontier territory with varying levels of autonomy granted by the Merovingian monarchs; the suppression of the Duchy of Vasconia as wel
Francisco Espoz y Mina
Francisco Espoz Ilundáin, being better known as Francisco Espoz y Mina, was a Spanish guerrilla leader and general. He was born in Idocin in Navarre, his father, Juan Esteban Espoz y Mina, his mother, Maria Teresa Hundain y Ardaiz, belonged to the class of yeomen, rural smallholders. Mina worked on the small family farm until 1808; when Napoleon endeavoured to seize Spain in that year he enlisted in the Doyle regiment, entered the guerrilla group commanded by his nephew Francisco Javier Mina. When Javier was captured by the French on 21 March 1810, seven men of the group chose to follow Francisco, on 1 April 1810 the Junta of Aragon gave him the command of the guerrilleros of Navarre, his first act was to arrest and shoot at Estella a certain Echevarria, under pretence of being a guerrillero, was in fact a brigand. The national government in Cadiz gave him rank, by 7 September 1812 he had been promoted to the rank of commander-in-chief in Upper Aragon, on the left bank of the Ebro. In the interval he claimed that he had fought 143 actions big and little, had been wounded with bullet and lance, had taken 13 fortified posts, 14,000 prisoners, had never been surprised by the French.
Though some maintain that he was not at his best as a leader in battle, as a strategist Espoz y Mina was successful and displayed great organizing capacity. The French authorities were compelled to allow him to levy customs dues on all goods imported into Spain, except contraband of war, which he would not allow to pass without fighting; the money thus obtained was used to pay his bands a regular salary. He was able to avoid levying excessive contributions on the country and to maintain discipline among his men, whom he had brought to a respectable state of efficiency in 1812. Espoz y Mina claimed that he immobilized 26,000 French troops which would but for him have served with Marshal Marmont in the Salamanca campaign. In the campaign of 1813 and 1814 he served with distinction under the Duke of Wellington. After the restoration of Ferdinand VII he fell into disfavour. On 25/26 September he attempted to bring about an uprising at Pamplona in favor of the Liberal party, but failed, went into exile.
His political opinions were democratic and radical, as a yeoman he disliked the "hidalgos". The Revolution of 1820 brought him back, he served the Liberal party during the Trienio Liberal in Galicia and Catalonia. In this last district he made the only vigorous resistance to the French intervention in favor of Ferdinand VII. On 1 November 1823 he was compelled to capitulate, the French allowed him to escape to England by sea. In 1830 he took part in an unsuccessful rising against Ferdinand. On the death of the king he was recalled to Spain, the government of the regent Christina gave him the command against the Carlists in 1835, though they feared his Radicalism. By this time, years and wounds had undermined his health, he was opposed to Tomás de Zumalacárregui, an old officer of his in the War of Independence, an greater master of irregular mountain warfare. His health compelled him to resign in April 1835, his command in Catalonia was only memorable for the part he took in forcing the regent to grant a constitution in August 1836.
He died at Barcelona on 24 December 1836. In 1825 Espoz y Mina published A Short Extract from the Life of General Mina, in Spanish and English, in London. Mention is made of him in all histories of the affairs of Spain during the first third of the 19th century, his full Memoirs were published by his widow at Madrid in 1851–52. The Plaza de Mina in Cadiz, Spain is named after him. Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mina, Francisco Espoz y". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 500–501
Pamplona or Iruña is the capital city of the Autonomous Community of Navarre, in Spain, also of the former Kingdom of Navarre. Pamplona is the second largest city in the greater Basque cultural region, composed of two Spanish autonomous communities and Basque Country, the French Basque Country. Pamplona has a moderate climate being at 446 metres in terms of elevation. In addition to its elevation, Pamplona being inland results in cool nights by Spanish standards; the city is famous worldwide for the running of the bulls during the San Fermín festival, held annually from July 6 to 14. This festival was brought to literary renown with the 1926 publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, it is home to Osasuna, the only Navarrese football club to have played in the Spanish top division. Pamplona is located in the middle of Navarre in a rounded valley, known as the Basin of Pamplona, that links the mountainous North with the Ebro valley, it is 92 km from the city of San Sebastián, 117 km from Bilbao, 735 km from Paris and 407 km from Madrid.
The climate and landscape of the basin is a transition between those two main Navarrese geographical regions. Its central position at crossroads has served as a commercial link between those different natural parts of Navarre; the historical centre of the city is on the left bank of a tributary of the Ebro. The city has developed on both sides of the river; the climate of Pamplona is classified as oceanic with influences of a semi-continental mediterranean climate. Precipitation patterns do not vary much over the course of the year as is typical of marine climates, but both classifications are possible due to the Mediterranean patterns of somewhat drier summer months. Sunshine hours are more similar to the oceanic coastal climate in nearby Basque locations than typical Spanish mediterranean areas are, but rainfall is lower than in Bilbao and San Sebastián. In the winter of 75–74 BC, the area served as a camp for the Roman general Pompey in the war against Sertorius, he is considered to be the founder of Pompaelo, "as if Pompeiopolis" in Strabo's words, which became Pamplona, in modern Spanish.
However, in times it has been discovered that it was the chief town of the Vascones. They called it Iruña, translating to'the city'. Roman Pompaelo was located in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the Ab Asturica Burdigalam, the road from Burdigala to Asturica. During the Germanic invasions of 409 and as a result of Rechiar´s ravaging, Pamplona went through much disruption and destruction, starting a cycle of general decline along with other towns across the Basque territory but managing to keep some sort of urban life. During the Visigothic period, Pamplona alternated between self-rule, Visigoth domination or Frankish suzerainty in the Duchy of Vasconia. In the years 466 to 472, Pamplona was conquered by the Visigoth count Gauteric, but they seemed to abandon the restless position soon, struggling as the Visigoth Kingdom was to survive and rearrange its lands after their defeats in Gaul. During the beginning of the 6th century, Pamplona stuck to an unstable self-rule, but in 541 Pamplona along with other northern Iberian cities was raided by the Franks.
Circa 581, the Visigoth king Liuvigild overcame the Basques, seized Pamplona, founded in the town of Victoriacum. Despite the legend citing Saint Fermin as the first bishop of Pamplona and his baptising of 40,000 pagan inhabitants in just three days, the first reliable accounts of a bishop date from 589, when bishop Liliolus attended the Third Council of Toledo. After 684 and 693, a bishop called Opilano is mentioned again in 829, followed by Wiliesind and a certain Jimenez from 880 to 890. In the 10th century, important gaps are found in bishop succession, recorded unbroken only after 1005. At the time of the Umayyad invasion in 711, the Visigothic king Roderic was fighting the Basques in Pamplona and had to turn his attention to the new enemy coming from the south. By 714-16, the Umayyad troops had reached the Basque-held Pamplona, with the town submitting after a treaty was brokered between the inhabitants and the Arab military commanders; the position was garrisoned by Berbers, who were stationed on the outside of the actual fortress, established the cemetery unearthed not long ago at the Castle Square.
During the following years, the Basques south of the Pyrenees don't seem to have shown much resistance to the Moorish thrust, Pamplona may have flourished as a launching point and centre of assembly for their expeditions into Gascony. In 740, the Wali Uqba ibn al-Hayyay imposed direct central Cordovan discipline on the city. However, in 755 the last governor of Al-Andalus, Yusuf al Fihri, sent an expedition north to quash Basque unrest near Pamplona, resulting in the defeat of the Arab army. From 755 until 781, Pamplona remained autonomous relying on regional alliances. Although sources are not clear, it seems apparent that in 778 the town was in hands of a Basque local or a Muslim rebel faction loyal to the Franks at the moment of Charlemagne's crossing of the Pyrenees to the south. However, on his way back from the failed expedition to Saragossa in August, the walls and the town were destroyed by Charlemagne (ahead of the Frankish defeat in the famous Ba
History of the Basques
The Basques are an indigenous ethno-linguistic group inhabiting Basque Country. Their history is therefore interconnected with Spanish and French history and with the history of many other past and present countries in Europe and the Americas, where a large number of their descendants keep attached to their roots, clustering around Basque clubs. In the 1st century, Strabo wrote that the northern parts of what are now Navarre and Aragon were inhabited by the Vascones. Despite the evident etymological connection between Vascones and the modern denomination Basque, there is no direct proof that the Vascones were the modern Basques' ancestors or spoke the language that has evolved into modern Basque, although this is suggested both by the consistent toponymy of the area and by a few personal names on tombstones dating from the Roman period. Three different peoples inhabited the territory of the present Basque Autonomous Community: the Varduli and Autrigones. Historical sources do not state whether these tribes were related to the Vascones and/or the Aquitani.
The area where a Basque-related language is best attested from an early period is Gascony in France, to the north of the present-day Basque region, whose ancient inhabitants, the Aquitani, spoke a language related to Basque. During the Middle Ages, the name Vascones and its derivates were extended to cover the entire Basque-speaking population of the present-day Basque Country, bordering areas and farther east and north. Although little is known about the prehistory of the Basques before the period of Roman occupation owing to the difficulty in identifying evidence for specific cultural traits, the mainstream view today is that the Basque area shows signs of archaeological continuity since the Aurignacian period. Many Basque archaeological sites, including cave dwellings such as Santimamiñe, provide evidence for continuity from Aurignacian times down to the Iron Age, shortly before Roman occupation; the possibility therefore cannot be ruled out of at least some of the same people having continued to inhabit the area for thirty millennia.
Some scholars have interpreted the Basque words aizto'knife' and aizkora'axe' as containing aitz'stone', which they take as evidence that the Basque language dates back to the Stone Age. However, stone was abandoned in the Chalcolithic, aizkora is sometimes considered to be loaned from Latin asciola. A high concentration of Rh- among Basques, who have the highest level worldwide, had been interpreted as suggestive of the antiquity and lack of admixture of the Basque genetic stock. In the 1990s Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza published his findings according to which one of the main European autosomal components, PC 5, was shown to be a Basque trait believed to have receded owing to the migration of Eastern peoples during the Neolithic and Metal Ages. X chromosome microsatellites seem to point to Basques being the most direct descendants of prehistoric Western Europeans, having the highest percent of "Western European genes" but found at high levels among neighbor populations, as they are direct descendants of the same People.
However, mitochondrial DNA have cast doubts over this theory. Along the same lines, a genetic study carried out in 2001 revealed that the Y-chromosome of Celtic populations do not differ statistically from the Basques, establishing a link between them and such populations as the Irish and the Welsh; the following alternative theories about the prehistoric origins of the Basques have all had adherents at some time but are rejected by many scholars and do not represent the consensus view: Basques as Neolithic settlers: According to this theory, a precursor of the Basque language might have arrived about 6,000 years ago with the advance of agriculture. The only archaeological evidence that could support this hypothesis would be that for the Ebro valley area. Basques arrived together with the Indo-Europeans: Linked to an unproven linguistic hypothesis that includes Basque and some Caucasian languages in a single super-family. If such a Basque-Caucasian connection did exist, it would have to be at too great a time depth to be relevant to Indo-European migrations.
Apart from a Celtic presence in the Ebro valley during the Urnfield culture, archaeology offers little support for this hypothesis. The Basque language shows few certain Celtic or other Indo-European loans, other than those transmitted via Latin or Romance in historic times. Basques as an Iberian subgroup: Based on occasional use by early Basques of the Iberian alphabet and Julius Caesar's description of the Aquitanians as Iberians. Apparent similarities between the undeciphered Iberian language and Basque have been cited, but this fails to account for the fact that attempts so far to decipher Iberian using Basque as a reference have failed. In 2015, a new scientific study of Basque DNA was published which seems to indicate that Basques are descendants of Neolithic farmers who mixed with local hunters before becoming genetically isolated from the rest of Europe for millennia. Mattias Jakobsson from Uppsala University in Sweden analysed genetic material from eight Stone Age human skeletons found in El Portalón Cavern in Atapuerca, northern Spain.
These individuals lived between 3,500 and 5,500 years ago, after the transition to farming in southwest Europe. The results show; the official findings were p
The Chalcolithic, a name derived from the Greek: χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and from λίθος líthos, "stone" or Copper Age known as the Eneolithic or Aeneolithic is an archaeological period which researchers regard as part of the broader Neolithic. In the context of Eastern Europe, archaeologists prefer the term "Eneolithic" to "Chalcolithic" or other alternatives. In the Chalcolithic period, copper predominated in metalworking technology. Hence it was the period; the archaeological site of Belovode, on Rudnik mountain in Serbia has the oldest securely-dated evidence of copper smelting, from 7000 BP. The Copper Age in the Ancient Near East began in the late 5th millennium BC and lasted for about a millennium before it gave rise to the Early Bronze Age; the transition from the European Copper Age to Bronze Age Europe occurs about the same time, between the late 5th and the late 3rd millennia BC. The multiple names result from multiple recognitions of the period; the term Bronze Age meant that either copper or bronze was being used as the chief hard substance for the manufacture of tools and weapons.
In 1881, John Evans recognized that use of copper preceded the use of bronze, distinguished between a transitional Copper Age and the Bronze Age proper. He did not include the transitional period in the three-age system of Early and Late Bronze Age, but placed it outside the tripartite system, at its beginning, he did not, present it as a fourth age but chose to retain the traditional tripartite system. In 1884, Gaetano Chierici following the lead of Evans, renamed it in Italian as the eneo-litica, or "bronze–stone" transition; the phrase was never intended to mean that the period was the only one in which both bronze and stone were used. The Copper Age features the use excluding bronze; the part -litica names the Stone Age as the point from which the transition began and is not another -lithic age. Subsequently, British scholars used either Evans's "Copper Age" or the term "Eneolithic", a translation of Chierici's eneo-litica. After several years, a number of complaints appeared in the literature that "Eneolithic" seemed to the untrained eye to be produced from e-neolithic, "outside the Neolithic" not a definitive characterization of the Copper Age.
Around 1900, many writers began to substitute Chalcolithic for Eneolithic, to avoid the false segmentation. It was that the misunderstanding began among those who did not know Italian; the Chalcolithic was seen as a new -lithic age, a part of the Stone Age in which copper was used, which may appear paradoxical. Today, Copper Age and Chalcolithic are used synonymously to mean Evans's original definition of Copper Age; the literature of European archaeology in general avoids the use of "Chalcolithic", whereas Middle Eastern archaeologists use it. "Chalcolithic" is not used by British prehistorians, who disagree as to whether it applies in the British context. The emergence of metallurgy may have occurred first in the Fertile Crescent; the earliest use of lead is documented here from the late Neolithic settlement of Yarim Tepe in Iraq, "The earliest lead finds in the ancient Near East are a 6th millennium BC bangle from Yarim Tepe in northern Iraq and a later conical lead piece from Halaf period Arpachiyah, near Mosul.
As native lead is rare, such artifacts raise the possibility that lead smelting may have begun before copper smelting." Copper smelting is documented at this site at about the same time period, although the use of lead seems to precede copper smelting. Early metallurgy is documented at the nearby site of Tell Maghzaliyah, which seems to be dated earlier, lacks pottery. Analysis of stone tool assemblages from sites on the Tehran Plain, in Iran, has illustrated the effects of the introduction of copper working technologies on the in-place systems of lithic craft specialists and raw materials. Networks of exchange and specialized processing and production that had evolved during the Neolithic seem to have collapsed by the Middle Chalcolithic and been replaced by the use of local materials by a household-based production of stone tools; the Timna Valley contains evidence of copper mining in 7000–5000 BC. The process of transition from Neolithic to Chalcolithic in the Middle East is characterized in archaeological stone tool assemblages by a decline in high quality raw material procurement and use.
This dramatic shift is seen throughout the region, including Iran. Here, analysis of six archaeological sites determined a marked downward trend in not only material quality, but in aesthetic variation in the lithic artefacts. Fazeli et al. use these results as evidence of the loss of craft specialisation caused by increased use of copper tools. An archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of coppermaking from 7,500 years ago; the find in June 2010 extends the known record of copper smelting by about 800 years, suggests that copper smelting may have been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source. In Serbia, a copper axe was found at Prokuplje, which indicates use of metal in Europe by 7,500 years ago, many years earlier than believed. Knowledge of the use of copper was far more widespread than