The subfamily Caprinae is part of the ruminant family Bovidae, consists of medium-sized bovids. A member of this subfamily is called a caprine. A member is sometimes referred to as a goat-antelope, this term "goat-antelope" does not mean that these animals are true antelopes: a true antelope is a bovid with a cervid-like or antilocaprid-like morphology. Within this subfamily Caprinae, a prominent tribe, includes sheep and goats; some earlier taxonomies considered Caprinae a separate family called Capridae, but now it is considered a subfamily within the family Bovidae, whence a caprine is a kind of bovid. Although most goat-antelopes are gregarious and have stocky builds, they diverge in many other ways – the muskox is adapted to the extreme cold of the tundra; the European mouflon is thought to be the ancestor of the modern domestic sheep. Many species have become extinct since the last ice age largely because of human interaction. Of the survivors: Five are classified as endangered, Eight as vulnerable, Seven as of concern and needing conservation measures, but at lower risk, Seven species are secure.
Members of the group vary in size, from just over 1 m long for a full-grown grey goral, to 2.5 m long for a musk ox, from under 30 kg to more than 350 kg. Musk oxen in captivity have reached over 650 kg; the lifestyles of caprids fall into two broad classes:'resource-defenders', which are territorial and defend a small, food-rich area against other members of the same species. The resource-defenders are the more primitive group: they tend to be smaller in size, dark in colour and females alike, have long, tassellated ears, long manes, dagger-shaped horns; the grazers evolved more recently. They tend to be larger social, rather than mark territory with scent glands, they have evolved dominance behaviours. No sharp line divides the groups, but a continuum varies from the serows at one end of the spectrum to sheep, true goats, musk oxen at the other; the goat-antelope, or caprid, group is known from as early as the Miocene, when members of the group resembled the modern serow in their general body form.
The group did not reach its greatest diversity until the recent ice ages, when many of its members became specialised for marginal extreme, environments: mountains and the subarctic region. The ancestors of the modern sheep and goats are thought to have moved into mountainous regions – sheep becoming specialised occupants of the foothills and nearby plains, relying on flight and flocking for defence against predators, goats adapting to steep terrain where predators are at a disadvantage. FAMILY BOVIDAE Subfamily Caprinae Tribe Ovibovini Genus Budorcas Takin, Budorcas taxicolor Genus Ovibos Muskox, Ovibos moschatus Tribe Caprini Genus Ammotragus Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia Genus Arabitragus Arabian tahr, Arabitragus jayakari Genus Capra West Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica East Caucasian tur, Capra caucasica cylindricornis Markhor, Capra falconeri Wild goat, Capra aegagrus Domestic goat, Capra aegagrus hircus Alpine ibex, Capra ibex Nubian ibex, Capra nubiana Spanish ibex, Capra pyrenaica Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica Walia ibex, Capra walie Genus Hemitragus Himalayan tahr, Hemitragus jemlahicus Genus Ovis Argali, Ovis ammon Domestic sheep, Ovis aries Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis Dall or thinhorn sheep, Ovis dalli European mouflon, Ovis musimon Marco Polo sheep, Ovis polii Snow sheep, Ovis nivicola Wild sheep, Ovis orientalis Mouflon, Ovis orientalis orientalis Urial, Ovis orientalis vignei Genus Nilgiritragus Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiritragus hylocrius Genus Pseudois Bharal, Pseudois nayaur Dwarf blue sheep, Pseudois schaeferi Tribe Naemorhedini Genus Capricornis Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus Sumatran serow, Capricornis sumatraensis Taiwan serow, Capricornis swinhoei Chinese serow, Capricornis milneedwardsii Red serow, Capricornis rubidus Himalayan serow Capricornis thar Genus Nemorhaedus Red goral, Nemorhaedus baileyi Chinese goral, Nemorhaedus griseus Grey goral, Nemorhaedus goral Long-tailed goral, Naemorhedus caudatus Genus Oreamnos Mountain goat, Oreamnos americanus Genus Rupicapra Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica Alpine chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra The following extinct genera of Caprinae have been identified: Tribe Ovibovini Genus Bootherium † Bootherium bombifrons † Genus Euceratherium † Euceratherium collinum † Genus Makapania † Makapania broomi † Genus Soergelia † Soergelia mayfieldi † Genus Tsaidamotherium † Tsaidamotherium brevirostrum † Tsaidamotherium hedini † Tribe Caprini Genus Myotragus † Myotragus balearicus †Unsorted
Table Mountain is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the hiking to the top; the mountain forms part of the Table Mountain National Park. Table Mountain is home to a large array of fauna and flora, most of, endemic; the main feature of Table Mountain is the level plateau three kilometres from side to side, edged by impressive cliffs. The plateau, flanked by Devil's Peak to the east and by Lion's Head to the west, forms a dramatic backdrop to Cape Town; this broad sweep of mountainous heights, together with Signal Hill, forms the natural amphitheatre of the City Bowl and Table Bay harbour. The highest point on Table Mountain is towards the eastern end of the plateau and is marked by Maclear's Beacon, a stone cairn built in 1865 by Sir Thomas Maclear for trigonometrical survey, it is 1,086 metres above sea level, about 19 metres higher than the cable station at the western end of the plateau.
The cliffs of the main plateau are split by Platteklip Gorge, which provides an easy and direct ascent to the summit and was the route taken by António de Saldanha on the first recorded ascent of the mountain in 1503. The flat top of the mountain is covered by orographic clouds, formed when a south-easterly wind is directed up the mountain's slopes into colder air, where the moisture condenses to form the so-called "table cloth" of cloud. Legend attributes this phenomenon to a smoking contest between the Devil and a local pirate called Van Hunks; when the table cloth is seen, it symbolizes the contest. Table Mountain is at the northern end of a sandstone mountain range that forms the spine of the Cape Peninsula that terminates 50 kilometres to the south at the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Point. To the south of Table Mountain is a rugged "plateau" at a somewhat lower elevation than the Table Mountain Plateau, called the "Back Table"; the "Back Table" extends southwards for 6 km to the Constantia Nek-Hout Bay valley.
The Atlantic side of the Back Table, is known as the Twelve Apostles, which extends from Kloof Nek to Hout Bay. The eastern side of this portion of the Peninsula's mountain chain, extending from Devil's Peak, the eastern side of Table Mountain, the Back Table to Constantia Nek, does not have single name, as on the western side, it is better known by the names of the conservation areas on its lower slopes: Groote Schuur Estate, Newlands Forest, Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Cecilia Park, Constantia Nek. The upper 600-metre portion of the one-kilometre-high table-topped mountain, or mesa, consists of 450-510 million years old rocks belonging to the two lowermost layers of the Cape Fold Mountains; the uppermost, younger of the two layers, consists of hard quartzitic sandstone referred to as "Table Mountain Sandstone", or "Peninsula Formation Sandstone", resistant to erosion and forms characteristic steep grey crags. The 70-metre-thick lower layer, known as the "Graafwater Formation", consists of distinctively maroon-colored mudstones, which were laid down in much thinner horizontal strata than the Table Mountain Sandstone strata above it.
The Graafwater rocks can best be seen just above the contour path on the front of Table Mountain, around Devils Peak. They can been seen in the cutting along Chapman's Peak Drive; these rocks are believed to have originated in shallow tidal flats, in which a few Ordovician fossils, fossil tracks have been preserved. The overlying TMS arose in deeper water, either as a result of subsidence, or a rise in the sea level; the Graafwater rocks rest on the basement consisting of Cape Granite. Devil's Peak, Signal Hill, the City Bowl and much of the "Cape Flats", rest on folded and altered phyllites and hornfelses known informally as the Malmesbury shales; the Cape Granite and Malmesbury shales form the lower, gentler slopes of the Table Mountain range on the Cape Peninsula. They are of late Precambrian age; the basement rocks are not nearly as resistant to weathering as the TMS, but significant outcrops of the Cape Granite are visible on the western side of Lion's Head, elsewhere on the Peninsula. The weathered granite soil of the lower slopes of the Peninsula Mountain range are more fertile than the nutrient-poor soils derived from TMS.
Most of the vineyards found on the Cape Peninsula are therefore found on these granitic slopes of the Table Mountain range. The mountain owes it table-top flatness to the fact that it is a syncline mountain, meaning that it once was the bottom of a valley; the anticline, or highest point of the series of folds that Table Mountain was once part of, lay to the east, but, weathered away, together with the underlying softer Malmesbury shale and granite basement, to form the "Cape Flats". The "Cape Flats" form the isthmus; the Fold Mountains reappear as the Hottentots-Holland Mountain range on the mainland side of the "Cape Flats". What has added to the mountain's table-top flatness is that it consists of the hard, lower layer of the Table Mountain Sandstone Formation; this was topped by a thin glacial tillite layer, known as the Pakhuis Formation (see
The Giraffidae are a family of ruminant artiodactyl mammals that share a common ancestor with cervids and bovids. This family, once a diverse group spread throughout Eurasia and Africa, presently comprises only two extant genera, the giraffe and the okapi. Both are confined to sub-Saharan Africa: the giraffe to the open savannas, the okapi to the dense rainforest of the Congo; the two genera look different on first sight, but share a number of common features, including a long, dark-coloured tongue, lobed canine teeth, horns covered in skin, called ossicones. Molecular studies present the Giraffidae as a sister group to the Cervidae and Bovidae; the giraffids evolved from a group of even-toed ungulates in the early Miocene 25 million years ago. They formed part of a late mammal diversification that produced cattle and deer following a climate change that transformed subtropical woodlands into open savannah grasslands; the giraffids diversified into many now extinct forms that inhabited large parts of Eurasia and spread into Africa, where the only still extant forms persist.
The most primitive forms had short necks and were about the size of a modern red deer, somewhat similar to the modern okapi. The two main groups of extinct giraffids are: one group with robust limb bones, the Sivatheriinae, represented by Sivatherium during the Plio-Pleistocene, another with long, slender limb bones classified in different subfamilies. While Giraffa and Palaeotragus can be attributed to the latter group, the placement of Okapia and Mitilanotherium remains disputed, their closest fossil relatives include the deer-like palaeomerycids and the climacocerids, many genera of the latter having once been identified as giraffes themselves. Fossil records indicate that many other giraffids thrived between the Miocene era and the recent past. One major group of extinct giraffids, the sivatheres, had enormous, branching ossicones, would have looked more like massive deer than giraffes. FAMILY GIRAFFIDAE †Canthumeryx †Indratherium †Injanatherium †Progiraffa †Propalaeomeryx †Shansitherium †Umbrotherium †Zarafa Subfamily Sivatheriinae †Birgerbohlinia †Bramatherium †Decennatherium †Helladotherium †Hydaspitherium †Sivatherium †Vishnutherium Subfamily Giraffinae Tribe Giraffini †Bohlinia Giraffa including the one extant giraffe species †Honanotherium †Mitilanotherium Tribe Palaeotragini Subtribe Palaeotragina †Giraffokeryx †Macedonitherium †Palaeogiraffa †Palaeotragus †Samotherium Subtribe Okapiina Okapia including the okapi, Okapia johnstoni The giraffe stands 5–6 m tall, with males taller than females.
The giraffe and the okapi have long legs. Ossicones are present on females in the giraffe but only on males in the okapi. Giraffids share many common features with other ruminants, they have cloven hooves and cannon bones, much like bovids, a complex, four-chambered stomach. They have no upper incisors or upper canines, replacing them with a horny pad. An long diastema is seen between the front and cheek teeth; the latter are selenodont. Like most other ruminants, the dental formula for giraffids is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. Giraffids have prehensile tongues; the extant giraffids, the forest-dwelling okapi and the savannah-living giraffe, have several features in common, including a pair of skin-covered horns, called ossicones, up to 15 cm long. The okapi's neck is long compared to most ruminants, but not nearly so long. Male giraffes are the tallest of all mammals, their horns reach 5.5 m above the ground and their shoulder 3.3 m, whereas the okapi has a shoulder height of 1.7 m. The two extant genera are now confined to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The okapi is restricted to a small range in the northern rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although the range of the giraffe is larger, it once covered an area twice the present size — all parts of Africa that could offer an arid and dry landscape furnished with trees; the social structure and behavior is markedly different in okapis and giraffes, but although little is known of the okapi's behavior in the wild, a few things are known to be present in both species: They have an ambling gait similar to camels, with their weight supported alternately by their left and right legs, while their necks maintain balance. Giraffes can run at up to 60 km/h this way and are documented to have covered 1,500 km in the Sahel during the dry season; the dominance hierarchy, well-documented among giraffes, has been seen among captive okapis. An adult giraffe head can weigh 30 kg, and, if necessary, male giraffes establish a hierarchy among themselves by swinging their heads at each other horns first, a behavior known as "necking".
A subordinate okapi signals submission by placing its neck on the ground. Giraffes are sociable, whereas okapis live solitary lives. Giraffes temporarily form herds of up to 20 individuals. Okapis are seen in mother-offspring pairs, although they gather around a prime food source. Giraffe are non-territorial, but have ranges that can vary between — 5–654 km2 — depending on food availability whereas okapis have indi
An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
The Arabian tahr is a species of tahr native to eastern Arabia. Until it was placed in the genus Hemitragus, but genetic evidence supports its removal to a separate monotypic genus; the Arabian tahr is the smallest species of tahr. The animal is of stocky build with backward-arching horns in both sexes. Males are much more robust than females, its coat consists with a dark stripe running down the back. Males possess the most impressive manes which extend right down the back and grow longer, based on the age. In the oldest males the muzzle darkens to black and the eye stripes darken; as with most mountain goats and sheep, it has rubbery hooves to provide balance and traction on the steep, rocky slopes. The Arabian tahr lives on steep rocky slopes of Al Hajar Mountains in the Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates, at altitudes of up to 1,800 metres above sea level, it is found in the area of Jebel Hafeet. The species was first described from specimens obtained by Dr. A. S. G. Jayakar from Jebel Taw and given the name of Hemitragus jayakari.
It was separated into the newly created genus Arabitragus on the basis of a study on the molecular phylogeny of the group in 2005. The genus name Arabitragus is derived from the Greek words aravikós meaning "Arabian" and trágos meaning "goat". Unlike other species of tahr, the Arabian tahr is solitary or lives in small groups consisting of a female and a kid, or a male, and instead of forming herds during seasonal ruts, reproduction occurs in small, dispersed family units. There are reports of births occurring throughout the year, gestation lasts from 140–145 days; these animals are browsers, feeding on grass, shrubs and fruits of most trees. They are dependent on water and need to drink every two or three days during summer, they would descend from their point of elevation to drink from river courses known as wadis, would travel to new areas when water dries up. The goat was preyed upon by the Arabian leopard; the Arabian tahr is endangered due to intense overgrazing and poaching, habitat destruction.
In Oman, a recent increase of human migration to urban areas has resulted in domestic goats becoming feral and foraging in places which were once the tahr's home. Habitat degradation is another major threat, due to construction of roads and mineral extraction. Poaching occurs when the animals descend down from the mountains for a fresh drink. In 1973, efforts were planned to protect the Arabian tahr, and in 1975, it was granted in the Hajar Mountains. In 1980, a captive breeding program was set up at the Omani Mammal Breeding Center in order to reintroduce captive-bred individuals back into the wild. There are now one in Oman and two in the United Arab Emirates. However, many people seem to be unaware about the tahr's grave situations, leading to other conservation initiatives to focus on the publicity and educational campaigns to raise the animals profile. In April 2009, the Wadi Wurayah preserve in the Emirate of Fujairah was set aside by royal decree in the Emirates for the protection of the tahr.
Another place in the UAE, set up for its conservation is Sir Bani Yas in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Himalayan tahr Nilgiri tahr Wildlife of Oman Wildlife of the United Arab Emirates Arabian Tahr in Oman Arabian Tahr in United Arab Emirates Arabian Tahr entry in ARKive
Siberian musk deer
The Siberian musk deer is a musk deer found in the mountain forests of Northeast Asia. It is most common in the taiga of southern Siberia, but is found in parts of Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and the Korean peninsula, their small shape allows them to hide from predators through tiny openings in the rocky terrain and allow them to run exceptionally fast from their predators. Although bearing fangs, Siberian musk deer are herbivores with their main source of nutrients being lichens. Due to the severe amount of poaching for its musk gland, the deer population is continuing to decrease, it is expected. However, efforts from each sighted countries are beginning to reintroduce the musk deer's population. Siberia, North Mongolia, North China and Korea - M. m. moschiferus Russian Far East - M. m. turovi Verkhoyansk Ridge - M. m. arcticus Sakhalin - M. m. sachalinensis Korea - M. m. parvipes It takes a year for the Siberian musk deer to reach maturity with an average deer to live at least 10 – 14 years. During breeding season, male deer will grow tusks instead of antlers.
These tusks are used to attract females. Tusks that are longer and stronger creates a more intimidating stance and becomes more attractive to females as the offspring of that male are to become healthier and fit. Once the male and the female deer have procreated, the females will become pregnant lasting over 6 months and can give birth to 1-3 offspring between the months of May through June. Musk will mark their territory warning trespassing deers not to cross the boundary; when marking their territories, musk deer gather fallen branches, tree trunks, as well as plant stems and place them in a circle. While placing the various branches around the circle, the deer will do an olfactory examination and turn the back of its body towards the marked territories. Other ways the Siberian Musk Deer will mark its territory is by defecating in marked territories or unclaimed territories. Most Siberian musk deer are nocturnal inhabiting the mountainous taiga and found in shrub-covered slopes where foods are abundant.
The rocky location provides crevices and crags for the musk deer to hide from many predators, such as lynx and wolverines. Musk deer have a preference for digestible nutritious foods that are both rich in protein and low in fiber. During periods of winter, musk deer can survive in poorer food quality ranging in foods that are low in proteins but are high in energy and can be digested; the majority of their diet consists of lichens, pine needles and tree barks. During the winter, 99% of musk deer's diet are lichens. Siberian Musk deer have a preference for digestible nutritious foods, it is nocturnal, migrates only over short distances. It prefers altitudes of more than 2600 m. Adults are small, weighing 7–17 kg; the Siberian musk deer is classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN. It is hunted for its musk gland. Only a few tens of grams can be extracted from an adult male, it is possible to remove the gland without killing the deer, but this is done. In 2016, the Korean company Sooam Biotech was reported to be attempting to clone the Siberian musk deer to help conserve the species.
The most striking characteristics of the Siberian musk deer are kangaroo-like face. Males grow the teeth for display instead of antlers. A distinct subspecies roams the island of Sakhalin. World population: 230,000 Declining Russian Federation, Sakhalin population: 600-500 Declining Russian Federation, the Eastern Siberian population: 27,000-30,000 Declining Russian Federation, Far Eastern population: 150,000 Declining Mongolia: 44,000 Declining China: unknown Declining Democratic People's Republic of Korea: unknown Declining Republic of Korea: unknown Declining Siberian musk deer preputial gland secretions are constituted of free fatty acids and phenols and steroids. Cholestanol, androsterone, Δ4-3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostene, 5β,3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostane, 5α,3β,17α-dihydroxyandrostane, 5β,3α,17β-dihydroxyandrostane and 5β,3α,17α-dihydroxyandrostane can be isolated from the steroid fraction. 3-Methylpentadecanone was not identified among the secretion lipids. The decline of the Siberian Musk Deer's population began in China where most of the deer population was abundant.
Most notably in the Sichuan plains, the musk production was accounted for 80% of the domestic trade in the 1950s. New sightings of musk deer was spotted in the upper northeast Asia and Russia. After the 1980s, the production begins to decline due to hunting for their musk glands; the cycle of over-harvesting the deer's musk continued until the exploitation reduced the musk deer's population. Another threat comes from the habitat loss by deforestation. For a long period, China cut more of its forest. 200million cm3 of China's forest recourses were cut down in the past 25 years in order to harvest the timber stock in trade for commerce. Deforestation is a severe threat to the musk deer's long term survival because the deer can only live in a few areas; the Siberian musk deer is considered vulnerable, but is declining to endangerment. In Russia, the Siberian Musk Deer is protected as Very Rare under part 7.1 of the Law of the Mongolian Animal Kingdom and under the 1995 Mongolian Hunting Law. The musk deers are protected under the National Parks which accounts for 13% of the Siberian Musk Deer population.
In China, at the international level, trading mus