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Ex parte Vallandigham

Ex parte Vallandigham, 68 U. S. 243, is a United States Supreme Court case, involving a former congressman Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, who had violated an Army order against the public expression of sympathy for the Confederate States and their cause. Vallandigham was tried before a military tribunal by Major General Ambrose E. Burnside for treason after he delivered an incendiary speech at Mount Vernon. In February 1864, the Supreme Court avoided ruling on the question by instead unanimously holding that they could not take appeals from military tribunals at all. Clement Vallandigham, a member of the United States House of Representatives, was the acknowledged leader of the pro-Confederate faction known as Copperheads in Ohio. After General Burnside, commander of the Military District of Ohio, issued General Order Number 38, warning that the "habit of declaring sympathies for the enemy" would not be tolerated, Vallandigham gave a major speech charging the war was being fought not to save the Union but to free blacks and enslave whites.

To those who supported the war he declared, "Defeat, taxation sepulchres - these are your trophies." He called for "King Lincoln's" removal from the presidency. Accordingly, on May 5, Vallandingham was arrested as a violator of General Order No. 38. Vallandigham's enraged supporters burned the offices of the Dayton Journal, the local Republican newspaper, he was tried by a military court on 6–7 May, convicted of "uttering disloyal sentiments" and attempting to hinder the prosecution of the war, sentenced to two years' confinement in a military prison. A Federal circuit judge upheld Vallandigham's arrest and military trial as a valid exercise of the President's war powers. Despite repeated petitions, President Lincoln refused to repudiate Burnside's actions or release Vallandigham. In a letter written in response to one meeting of Albany Democrats, Lincoln explained his position: Must I shoot a simple-minded soldier boy who deserts, while I must not touch a hair of a wiley agitator who induces him to desert?

This is none the less injurious when effected by getting a father, or brother, or friend into a public meeting, there working upon his feelings till he is persuaded to write the soldier boy that he is fighting in a bad cause... However, in late May, Lincoln commuted Vallandigham's sentence to banishment to the Confederacy, from where he went to Canada. Meanwhile, Vallandigham's lawyers appealed the military tribunal's decision to the Supreme Court; the Court issued a unanimous ruling in February 1864, refusing to address Vallandigham's main argument that the military tribunal lacked jurisdiction to try him. Instead, they said the Court was only authorized to take appeals as regulated by Congress - and Congress had never authorized them to take an appeal from a military tribunal. Accordingly, they denied Vallandigham's appeal for lack of jurisdiction. After the war was over, the Court would again revisit this issue in Ex parte Milligan, a similar case where, instead of appealing his sentence by a military tribunal, Milligan would file for a writ of habeas corpus.

The court upheld Milligan and Vallandigham's claim that military tribunals lacked authority to try civilians when civil courts were open. Supreme Court cases of the American Civil War Ex parte Milligan Text of Ex parte Vallandigham, 68 U. S. 243 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Justia Library of Congress OpenJurist


Mocana is a Sunnyvale-based company that focuses on and embedded system security for industrial control systems and the Internet of Things. One of its main products, the IoT Security Platform, is a high-performance, ultra-optimized, OS-independent, high-assurance security platform, intended to support all device classes; this decoupling of the security implementation from the rest of application development allows for easier development of software for devices comprising the "Internet of Things", in which numerous independent networked devices communicate with each other in various ways. Mocana was launched as an embedded systems security company, but as of the early 2010s, the company has shifted its focus to protecting mobile devices and the apps and data on them. Mocana introduced its products in 2004 with a focus on embedded systems security; that same year the company launched Embedded Security Suite, a software product to secure communications between networked devices. In February 2005, while based in Menlo Park, the company joined the Freescale Semiconductor Developers Alliance Program, delivered that group's first security software.

In 2008, Mocana was cited as an example of how an independent company could provide security for smartphones. Mocana CEO Adrian Turner published an article in the San Jose Mercury News on the risks associated with non-PC networked devices. Media outlets across the U. S. cited this point in their coverage of the risks associated with advances in technology. Mocana sponsored the 7th Workshop on RFID Security and Privacy at the University of Massachusetts in 2011, it launched the Mobile Application Protection platform in 2011 with support for Android apps, added iOS app support in 2012. Following a Series D funding round in 2012, total investment in Mocana was $47 million. New CEO James Isaacs replaced Turner in September 2013. Interim CEO Peter Graham replaced Isaacs in April 2016. In April 2016, Mocana spun off its mobile security business to Blue Cedar Networks. William Diotte replaced Graham as CEO in May 2016. Mocana was based in San Francisco but moved to Sunnyvale in December 2017. Mocana's IoT Security Platform is a security software suite for embedded systems.

The software provides the cryptographic controls for embedded applications. The company offers customizable user agreements and optional FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic engines. Access to application source code is not required; the product's design is based in the assumption that many assurances of security from the device and its operating system may be compromised. This obviates the necessity of having "infallible" system-wide security policies. In addition, Mocana offers consulting services and advising on security threats in networked devices. Mocana's security technology is used in airplane in-flight entertainment systems, medical devices, battlefield communications, automobile firmware, cell phone carrier networks. Mocana senior analyst Robert Vamosi was cited in a 2011 piece in Bloomberg Businessweek comparing tech companies' approaches to security. Mocana's investors include Trident Capital, Intel Capital, Shasta Ventures, Southern Cross Venture Partners, Symantec; as of the August 2012 Series D, a total of $47 million has been raised.

Recognized by Frost & Sullivan as the leading IoT security platform for industrial manufacturing and automation in 2017 Mocana named most innovative security company by Leading Lights in 2017 Named as to the OnDemand 100 in 2013. Recognized by the World Economic Forum as a 2012 Technology Pioneer Named to the "Red Herring Global 100" in 2008. Mocana senior analyst Robert Vamosi published the book "When Gadgets Betray Us: The Dark Side of Convenience" in 2011. Mocana CEO Adrian Turner published the book Blue Sky Mining in 2012. Mocana engineer Dnyanesh Khatavkar presented the paper Quantizing the throughput reduction of IPSec with mobile IP at the 2002 Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, an IEEE conference


Elafin known as peptidase inhibitor 3 or skin-derived antileukoprotease, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PI3 gene. This gene encodes an elastase-specific protease inhibitor, which contains a WAP-type four-disulfide core domain, is thus a member of the WFDC domain family. Most WFDC gene members are localized to chromosome 20q12-q13 in two clusters: centromeric and telomeric; this gene belongs to the centromeric cluster. Elafin has been found to have utility in serving as a biomarker for graft versus host disease of the skin. Elafin plays some role in gut inflammation. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P19957 at the PDBe-KB

Residences of North Korean leaders

There are more than a dozen leader's residences in North Korea, according to Kim Jong-il’s former bodyguard Lee Young-kuk. Many of the residences were identified on satellite images in the North Korea Uncovered project. Ryongsong Residence is the central residence of Kim Jong-un. All residences are kept secret by the North Korean government and few photographs exist. Official residence North Korean leaders' trains North Korea Uncovered List of leaders of North Korea Blue House - the southern equivalent in the Republic of Korea "North Korea Uncovered –". North Korean Economy Watch. – Project for comprehensive mapping of North Korea "The Palaces of Pyongyang on Google Earth". One Free Korea. – Detailed satellite pictures of six North Korean leader's residences

Claudia Myers

Claudia Myers is an American screenwriter and producer. In addition, she is an Associate Professor of Film and Media at American University's School of Communication. Myers received an M. F. A from Columbia University's a BA from Yale University. In 2001, she directed the film Buddy & Grace; the romantic drama tells the story of an elderly man struggling with his wife who suffers with Alzheimer's. The film was screened at several festivals including Sundance Film Festival and Los Angeles International Film Festival, it won the Student Grant Award as part of the National Board of Review. Myers wrote and directed the film Kettle of Fish in 2006. A romantic comedy of a womanizing and commitment-phobic saxophonist in co-habitation with a research biologist; the film was a part of the Tribeca Film Festival in 2006. In 2014 Myers directed the film Fort Bliss. Fort Bliss is a film about an army medic and single mother Maggie Swann struggling to readjust to life with her family after a tour in Afghanistan.

The film won the Audience Award at the 2014 Champs-Élysées Film Festival. After the release, Independent Magazine named Myers one of the'10 Filmmakers to Watch in 2015'. Claudia Myers on IMDb