Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period
St. Peter Sandstone
The St. Peter Sandstone is an Ordovician formation in the Chazyan stage of the Champlainian series. This sandstone originated as a sheet of sand in clear, shallow water near the shore of a Paleozoic sea and consists of fine-to-medium-size, the extent of the formation spans north-south from Minnesota to Arkansas and east-west from Illinois into Nebraska and South Dakota. The formation was named by Owen after the Minnesota River, known as the St. Peter River, the type locality is at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers near Fort Snelling, Minnesota. In eastern Missouri the stone consists of sand that is 99. 44% silica. Examples can be seen at Minnehaha Falls in Minneapolis, the bluffs from downtown to Mounds Park in Saint Paul, St. Peter sandstone, called Ottawa Sand in commercial applications, has a relatively uniform size and shape for each grain. It is used for the manufacture of glass, for filter and molding sand and its purity is especially important to glassmakers. The uniform particle size makes the sand useful for laboratory experiments.
St. Unklesbay, A. G, & Vineyard, Jerry D. Missouri Geology – Three Billion Years of Volcanoes, Sediments, void ratio of sand Argonne National Laboratory, Division of Educational Program Twin Cities Geology - Mississippi National River and Recreation Area
The Driftless Area or Paleozoic Plateau is a region in the American Midwest noted mainly for its deeply carved river valleys. While primarily in southwestern Wisconsin, it includes areas of southeastern Minnesota, northeastern Iowa, the region includes elevations ranging from 603 to 1,719 feet at Blue Mound State Park and covers an area of 16,203 square miles. The regions peculiar terrain is the result of its having escaped glaciation in the last glacial period, retreating glaciers leave behind silt, sand and boulders called drift. The northern and eastern lobes were in part diverted around the area by the Watersmeet Dome, the Green Bay and Lake Michigan lobes were partially blocked by the bedrock of the Door Peninsula, which presently separates Green Bay from Lake Michigan. In earlier phases of the Wisconsinan, the Driftless Area was totally surrounded by ice, in the adjacent glaciated regions, the glacial retreat left behind drift, which buried all former topographical features. Surface water was forced to carve out new stream beds, the region is characterized by an eroded plateau with bedrock overlain by varying thicknesses of loess.
Most characteristically, the valleys are deeply dissected. The bluffs lining this reach of the Mississippi River currently climb to nearly 600 feet, in Minnesota, Pre-Illinoian-age till was probably removed by natural means prior to the deposition of loess. The sedimentary rocks of the walls date to the Paleozoic Era and are often covered with colluvium or loess. In the east, the Baraboo Range, an ancient, profoundly eroded monadnock, the area has not undergone much tectonic action, as all the visible layers of sedimentary rock are approximately horizontal. Karst topography is found throughout the Driftless area and this is characterized by caves and cave systems, disappearing streams, blind valleys, underground streams, sinkholes and cold streams. Disappearing streams occur where surface waters sinks down into the earth through fractured bedrock or a sinkhole, either joining an aquifer, blind valleys are formed by disappearing streams and lack an outlet to any other stream. Sinkholes are the result of the collapse of the roof of a cave, disappearing streams can re-emerge as large cold springs.
Cold streams with cold springs as their sources are noted as superb trout habitat, the Mississippi River passes through the Driftless Area between and including Pool 2 and Pool 13. As rivers and streams approach their confluence with the Mississippi, their canyons grow progressively steeper and deeper, the change in elevation above sea level from ridgetops lining a stream to its confluence with the Big River can reach well past 650 feet in only a few miles. The Waukon Municipal Airport is reliably established as being 1,281 feet above sea level, the Army Corps of Engineers maintains a river level in Pool 9 of about 619 feet above sea level, which covers Lansing. Maps and signs issued by the Iowa Department of Transportation indicate Waukon and this is a drop of more than 660 feet in less than 20 miles. The role of isostatic rebound on the process of stream incision in the area is not clearly understood, there are many small towns in the Driftless Area, especially in river valleys, at or upstream from the Mississippi
Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula. The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be cut and sewn, which made it a valuable building, crafting. Even today birch bark remains a popular type of wood for various handicrafts and arts, Birch bark contains substances of medicinal and chemical interest. Some of those products have properties that help preserve bark artifacts. Removing birch bark from trees is harmful to tree health. Instead, it can be removed fairly easily from the trunk or branches of dead wood, by cutting a slit lengthwise through the bark, the best time for collection is spring or early summer, as the bark is of better quality and most easily removed. Removing the outer layer of bark from the trunk of a tree may not kill it. Removal of the layer, the phloem, kills the tree by preventing the flow of sap to the roots. To prevent it from rolling up during storage, the bark should be spread open, Birch bark can be cut with a sharp knife, and worked like cardboard.
For sharp bending, the fold should be scored first with a blunt stylus, fresh bark can be worked as is, bark that has dried up should be softened by steaming, by soaking in warm water, or over a fire. Birch bark was a construction material in any part of the world where birch trees were available. Containers like wrappings, baskets, boxes, or quivers were made by most societies well before pottery was invented. etc, more than one variety of birch is used. In North America, the population used birch bark for canoes, scrolls, ritual art, torches, musical instruments, clothing. In Scandinavia and Finland, it was used as the substratum of sod roofs and birch-bark roofs, for making boxes and buckets, fishing implements, in Russia, many birch bark manuscripts have survived from the Middle Ages. Birch bark knife handles are popular tools to be made currently, in India, birch-bark, along with dried palm leaves, replaced parchment as the primary writing medium. The oldest known Buddhist manuscripts, from Afghanistan, were written on birch bark, Birch bark makes an outstanding tinder, as the inner layers will stay dry even through heavy rainstorms.
To render birch bark useless as tinder, it must be soaked for a period of time. Birch bark manuscript Mazinibaganjigan Wiigwaasabak Wiigwaas entry in Wiktionary The Algonquin Birchbark Canoe, mcPhee, The Survival of the Bark Canoe, Farrar and Giroux, New York,1975
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Chile, Greenland, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America.
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age
Krapina Neanderthal site
The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene. Deprecated classifications may be found on the fossils page, most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. Westview Press, Boulder CO. ISBN 978-0-8133-3482-0, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Larsen, Clark Spencer, Robert M, Daniel L. CS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Smithsonian Human Origins Program, schultz, J. Phenetic Affinities Among Early Homo Crania from East and South Africa
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered
Crawford County, Wisconsin
Crawford County is a county in the southwest part of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,644 and its county seat is Prairie du Chien. It originally covered the half of Wisconsins present area. In 1836, it was transferred to the newly formed Wisconsin Territory as Michigan prepared for statehood and has gradually been subdivided into its present area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 599 square miles, the countys highest point is near St. James Church in Rising Sun. Three rivers run through the county, The Kickapoo River, nicknamed the crookedest river in Wisconsin was carved out by glacial run-off and it is considered one of the best Class 1 paddling rivers in the Midwest. The Wisconsin River borders the southern edge. Although it is the states busiest river, its run within the county is tranquil, with high bluff escarpments, the Mississippi River, serves as the countys western border. The steep limestone cliffs are interspersed with bluffs and prairies, there were 8,480 housing units at an average density of 6/km².
The racial makeup of the county was 96. 61% White,1. 78% Black or African American,0. 23% Native American,0. 38% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 17% from other races, and 0. 68% from two or more races. 0. 9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,33. 6% were of German,16. 0% Norwegian,11. 4% Irish,7. 2% Czech,7. 2% English and 6. 4% United States or American ancestry. 26. 70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was out with 24. 25% under the age of 20,8. 10% from 18 to 24,26. 20% from 20 to 44,31. 16% from 45 to 64. The median age was 39 years, for every 100 females there were 102.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.30 males, Prairie du Chien Municipal Airport serves Crawford County and the surrounding communities. Official Crawford County website Crawford County map at the Wisconsin Department of Transportation Crawford County Health and Demographic Data