Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Guangzhou known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities. Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.
This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World". The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years, Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.
Guǎngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name 廣州, simplified in mainland China to 广州 in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province, after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou and Fuzhou got their names; the character 廣 or 广—which appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty. Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city; the origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered, including that it may have referred to two local mountains. The city has sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh as Khanfu.
Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang. The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "穗", after its nickname "Rice City"; the city has long borne the nickname City of Rams or City of the Five Rams from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation. The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story; the more recent City of Flowers is taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery. The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong". Although it and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was conflated with Guangdong by some authors, it was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region.
The 19th-century name "Kwang-chow foo" derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital. A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by 1100 BC; some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan, king of Zhou from 314–256 BC. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of mud. Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River in 214 BC to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years. Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 BC, it remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia and Africa.
Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in
Towns of China
When referring to political divisions of China, town is the standard English translation of the Chinese 镇. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China classifies towns as third-level administrative units, along with townships and ethnic minority townships. A township is smaller in population and more remote than a town. To a higher-level administrative units, the borders of a town would include an urban core, as well as rural area with some villages. Towns in China are small in size and in population compared to cities, but those with particular characteristics can enjoy great popularity among tourists. For example, the ancient town of Fenghuang attracts young backpackers every year for its minority ethnic culture and architecture. A typical provincial map would show a zhen with a circle centered at its urban area and labeled with its name, while a more detailed one would show the borders dividing the county or county-level city into town and/or township units; the town in which the county government is located is "invisible" on less-detailed maps, because its circle is labeled with the name of the county rather than the name of the actual zhen into which this urban area falls.
For example, the county government of Tongshan County, Hubei is located in Tongyang Town, but the maps would show it with a circle labeled "Tongshan County" or "Tongshan". Road signs would normally show distance to "Tongshan" rather than "Tongyang". On the other hand, more detailed maps - e.g. maps of individual prefecture-level cities in a provincial atlas - would label the county seat location with both the name of the county and, in a smaller font, with the name of the township. Intercity buses, trains, or riverboats destined to, or stopping at a county seat may designate its destination either by the name of the county or the name of the county-seat township. In contrast to the PRC, in the official translation adopted in the ROC, both xiāng and zhèn are translated as "townships", with zhèn being "urban" township,'with xiāng translated as "rural" township
Dongchong is a town of Nansha District, People's Republic of China. Dongchong is located in the center of the Pearl River Delta, it is 18 kilometers from the centre of Nansha. Within Dongchong there are several districts and suburbs, including: Dawen Village Dongchong Shiji Nanchong Dongdao Guantan Shipai Qingsheng Sansha Shagongbao Taishi The economy of Dongchong is changing from agricultural based to industrial. Located in the Pearl River Delta and close to Hong Kong, the area has attracted manufacturers from Hong Kong and abroad. Residents of Dongchong commute by motorcycle or public transit. Guangzhou Metro's Dongchong Station connects it with the rest of Guangzhou. Panyu Public Transport operates public buses that run through major roads in Dongchong using an RFID card system or cash. Private bus operators and taxis are used by visitors and non-local residents from Nansha Ferry Terminal. Dongchong is conveniently linked to other parts of Guangzhou and Pearl River Delta through Nansha Port Expressway, G4W Guangzhou–Macau Expressway and Guangzhou South Second Ring Expressway.
Humen Second Bridge which linked Dongchong to Dongguang is under construction and is expected to complete by 2018. The Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong express; the Qingsheng station opened on 26 December 2011. From there it travels south to Dongguan and Shenzhen North Station and travels north to Guangzhou South Railway Station. A list of attractions in Dongchong: Dongchong Greenway Dawen Greenway-upon-Water Dongchong Fortress Jixiangwei Museum Dongchong Cultural Centre Schools include the Dongchong Middle School and Dongchong First Primary School; the Dongchong Middle School is one of the two dedicated sites in Nansha for running the National Entrance Examination. The Dongchong Central Kindergarten is one of the around 150 provincial-level public kindergartens in Guangdong. Wanxing Garden Jinxiu New Town Dongfa Second Avenue Austin Villa: Austin Villa is a residential development in Dongchong in city of Panyu; the development consists of a mix of flats and houses built in the mid 1990s to 2001. Situated within Austin Villa are more than 1,000 homes, most of them are owned by Hongkongers or overseas Chinese.
There are 2 major clubhouses with a restaurant. Located towards the front of the development is a small shopping arcade for residents to buy their necessities here. A shuttle runs in the development to transport residents around the development and to the main gate. Panyu Public Transport route 11 bus stops at Austin Villa. Dongchong government website Invest Dongchong Dongchong Chamber of Commerce Dongchong Central Kindergarten Dongchong First Primary School Dongchong Middle School
Panyu romanized as Punyu, is a district of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province in southern China. It is the site of the oldest parts of Guangzhou, dating back to the Qin Empire, although it was a separate county-level city before its incorporation into modern Guangzhou; the present district covers an area of about 661.88 square kilometres. Panyu lies at the heart of the Pearl River Delta, its boundary straddles from latitudes 22.26' to 23.05', sprawls from longitudes 113.14' to 113.42'. Facing the Lion Sea in the east and the estuary of the Pearl River in the south, its eastern border is separated from the Dongguan by a strip of water, the western border of Panyu is adjacent to the cities of Nanhai and Zhongshan, while it abuts the downtown of Guangzhou in the north; the site of the People's government of Panyu is Shiqiao, 17 kilometres from downtown Guangzhou and 38 and 42 nautical miles from the cities of Hong Kong and Macao respectively. The Chinese settlement at Panyu was established by the Qin armies under Zhao Tuo during their first failed invasion of the Baiyue in Guangdong in 214 BC.
There are at least 11 separate theories on the etymology of the name. Upon the fall of the Qin, Zhao Tuo established Panyu as the capital of his kingdom of Nanyue in 204 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that it was a burgeoning commercial center: among the present material object remnants, there are those of Southeast Asian and African origin. Yuexiu District, most of Baiyun and Huangpu Districts, parts of parts of Liwan and Tianhe Districts were part of Panyu County but were ceded to Guangzhou as it expanded. On 20 May 1992, Panyu County was upgraded into a county-level city and, on 21 May 2000, Panyu was converted into a district of Guangzhou. By 28 April 2005, the southern part of Panyu was split off as the new Nansha District. On 30 September 2012, three southern towns of Panyu—Dongchong and Lanhe—were removed to Nansha's jurisdiction. Panyu district administers six towns; the district executive and judiciary are based in the Shiqiao, together with the CPC and PSB branches. On 1 December 2012 three towns were transfer to Nansha District.
The following towns have been abolished, some by absorption into the Development zone of the Nansha District. Lianhuashan Xinken Tanzhouu Yuwotou Huangge Hengli Wanqingsha Dongchong Dagang Lanhe Under its various Subdistricts and Towns, Panyu has 305 administration villages - i.e. 305 village governments. There are other'natural villages' which administratively count as being in one or another of the official villages. Statistics shows that in the year of 1998, the GDP in the district was 33.25 billion yuan, an increase of 13% over the previous year, the GDP per capita was 35.5 thousand Yuan, an increase of 11%, compared with the previous year. Guangzhou Metro Lines 2 and 3 serve parts of Panyu District. Line 2 was extended into the district in Sept. 2010. Guangzhou South Station, the main high-speed railway station serving Guangzhou, is situated within the boundaries of Panyu District. Panyu Public Transport operates buses in the district. Panyu is service by four metro lines operated by Guangzhou Metro: Line 2 - Luoxi, Huijiang, Guangzhou South Station Line 3 - Xiajiao, Hanxi Changlong, Panyu Square Line 4 - Higher Education Mega Center North, Higher Education Mega Center South, Guanqiao, Haibang, Qingsheng Line 7 - Guangzhou South Station, Xiecun, Hanxi Changlong, Nancun Wanbo, Banqiao, Higher Education Mega Center South Yuyin Mount Garden：One of the four famous gardens in Guangdong Province in the Qing Dynasty.
Baomo Garden Lotus Hill Changlong Night Zoo Xiangjiang Wildlife World Chime-Long Paradise Guangdong Zhongyuan High School Guangzhou Korea School People born in or with family links to the Panyu District: Panyu has a cooperational agreement with: Aveiro, Portugal Prague 5, Czech Republic Hung Shing Panyu Panyu District official website Photos of Panyu, courtesy of Vince K. Chan Panyu Travel Guide'Red Diamond', on Panyu's diamond processing industry, by Venkatesan Vembu, Daily News & Analysis, 11 March 2007
The Nansha District is a district of Guangzhou, China. It is the home of the present-day port of Guangzhou, as well as the Nansha Wetland Park; the Nansha Technology Development Zone was carved out of Panyu District in 1993. In 2005, it was named Nansha District. In September 2012, Nansha was designated a State-level New Area as Nansha New Area, the sixth such area. Nansha is served by one metro line operated by Guangzhou Metro: Line 4 - Dongchong, Huangge Auto Town, Jiaomen, Feishajiao, Dachong, Nanheng, Nansha Passenger Port Official website of Nansha District government
Guangdong is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year. This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh; the provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015. Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China. However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China, were part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.
Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars, making its economy the same size as Mexico. The province contributes 12% of the PRC's national economic output, is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou. "Guǎng" means "wide" or "vast", has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. The name "Guang" came from Guangxin, an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù and Guǎngnán Xīlù, which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù and Guǎngxī Lù. "Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão, refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries.
The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital; the Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta 7,000 years before present, with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP, the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP. In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was introduced from the middle Yangtze River area. In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present; the Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture, which occurred from 4600–4200 BP. Inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue, the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou.
The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE; as time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong shifted to Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s; as more migrants arrived, the local population was assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty. "Guangnan East" is the source of the name "Guangdong". As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou; the defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynas