American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei
The American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei, founded in 1951 and based in Taipei, is a non-profit, non-partisan business organization dedicated to promoting the interests of international business in Taiwan. AmCham is the largest foreign business organization in Taiwan, with more than 1,000 members representing over 500 companies across a diverse array of sectors. Membership in AmCham Taipei does not require U. S. citizenship. AmCham is a founding member of APCAC; the Chamber's monthly journal is Taiwan Business TOPICS. An elected Board of Governors oversees AmCham, chooses one of its members to serve as Chairman for a one-year term; the Board hires a president to guide the overall direction and manage the day-to-day affairs of the Chamber. The current president is Bill Foreman. AmCham Taipei represents its diverse membership in government advocacy efforts, provides a forum for networking and access to information, encourages civic-minded participation in the greater Taiwan community. Much of AmCham's advocacy efforts begin in one of 24 committees, whose fields of activity range from Agro-Chemical and Manufacturing to Education & Training, Public Health and Travel & Tourism.
Most committees formulate a priority issues paper included in the Taiwan White Paper. Each year, AmCham publishes a white paper that summarizes AmCham's recommendations to the government and public on legislative and enforcement issues that have a major impact on the quality of the business environment; the primary purposes are advocacy. The paper assesses the Taiwan business climate on both the macro sector by sector, it provides a review of the status of last year's priority issues, states the current issues identified by AmCham's industry-specific committees, offers recommendations to the U. S. government. The Chamber's flagship publication provides year-round reporting and policy analysis in support of Chamber advocacy. First issued in 1969, TOPICS has become the definitive voice on the Taiwan business climate for executives, government officials, the media, academics; the magazine appears monthly and enjoys widespread distribution to prominent officials, elected representatives, think tanks in the United States and Taiwan.
The June issue is devoted to the Taiwan White Paper. An AmCham tradition since 1970, the Hiseh Nien Fan banquet is an opportunity to thank Taiwan government officials for their assistance in the previous year. Customarily, the president of the country is the keynote speaker. Once a year, an AmCham delegation meets with senior officials in the U. S. Administration and on Capitol Hill to discuss international business concerns regarding U. S.-Taiwan trade and commerce. AmCham registered with the Taipei City Government on 14 September 1951; the heads of five U. S. companies—three trading companies and the oil companies Caltex and Standard Vacuum —joined together to lobby Washington to open Taiwan's procurement of equipment, raw materials, commodities to U. S. private companies. After this early success, AmCham grew, with early members including Eli Lilly, Mattel and distributors for U. S. motion pictures. By the 1960s, the Chamber was developing into an active professional organization: In 1967, it held its first formal breakfast meeting.
U. S. companies played an important role in laying the groundwork for Taiwan's economic achievements in the consumer electronics, computer and flat panel display industries. General Instrument's decision in 1964 to set up a subsidiary on the island to make various electronic components was a pioneering investment that prompted other major U. S. electronics companies to follow suit and laid the groundwork for Taiwan's entry into consumer electronics, which led to the production of computers and flat panel displays. General Instrument grew into one of Taiwan's biggest employers. American firms helped advance Taiwan's 10 Big Projects, which in the 1970s provided the infrastructure foundation for the island's future economic prosperity. For Taiwan's first international-standard freeway—the Sun Yat-sen Freeway stretching from Keelung to Kaohsiung—U. S. Engineering companies helped to conduct feasibility studies, design several sections, provide construction engineering and inspection. Numerous American companies, including Amoco Chemical, Mesta Machine, General Electric, U.
S. Steel Corp. provided Taiwan's first integrated steel mill and its new petrochemical complex with investment, procurement and engineering consultation. American firms like Texas Instruments and Varian Associates were early entrants into the Hsinchu Science Park. Established in 1980 and inspired by the Stanford Research Park that nurtured Silicon Valley, Hsinchu has helped foster the development of some renowned global technology companies. Following the shock of U. S. derecognition of Taiwan, AmCham Taipei's leadership played an instrumental role in determining the form of the continued U. S. relationship with Taiwan. In 1976, under the chairmanship of Marinus “Dutch” van Gessel, AmCham made the strategic decision not to oppose the improvement of U. S. relations with mainland China—as long as it was not done at the expense of Taiwan. Van Gessel had served as Deputy Assistant Secretary in the U. S. Department of Commerce and by 1976 was heading up the Taiwan operations of Corning Glass. Concerned with giving due consideration to the potential impact on U.
S. business interests of any change in U. S. diplomatic relations, in January 1977
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Electricity sector in Taiwan
The electricity sector in Taiwan ranges from generation, transmission and sales of electricity, covering Taiwan island and its offshore islands. Electricity sector in Taiwan is regulated by its state-owned electric power utility company Taiwan Power Company, established on 1 May 1946. After the liberalization of Taiwan electricity market in January 1995, there are total of 9 independent power producers in Taiwan up to date, which are: Ever Power IPP Co. Ltd. Ho-Ping Power Company Hsin Tao Power Corporation Mai-Liao Power Corporation Star Energy Power Corporation Sun Ba Power Corporation Chiahui Power Corporation Kuo Kuang Power Corporation Hsing Yuan Power Corporation At the end of 2016, the total installed capacity of electricity in Taiwan was 49.06 GW, which came from coal-based thermal, gas-based thermal, renewable energy, fuel-based thermal and pumped storage hydro. Total power generation in 2017 was 270,279 GWh --, supplied from coal, natural gas, renewables and pumped-storage hydro. In 2012, Taipower purchased 7,652.1 MW of electricity from Taiwan's current nine IPP.
Taiwan has seen an annual growth of 4.4% in terms of electricity generation in 1992–2012. In terms of price to produce electricity, the average generation cost of electricity in Taiwan was US$7.0 cent/kWh, which consists of US$1.9 cent/kWh for nuclear, US$5.8 cent/kWh for coal and US$11.25 cent/kWh for natural gas. Taipower operates three types of power plant based on the generation characteristics, which are peaking power plant, load following power plant and base load power plant. In 2012, the base load power source constituted for 42.4% of the total power generation in Taiwan, below the expected level of 55-65%. Over the past decade, the capacity of peak load energy sources was between 10.3-14.8% lower than the expected 10-15% value. As of 2007, Taiwan had a total of 78 power plants, which are 39 hydro power plants, 27 thermal power plants, 9 wind farms and 3 nuclear power plants. Taiwan is home to Taichung Power Plant, the world's largest coal-fired power plant with a 5,500 MW installed capacity, with additional 324 MW from its gas turbine and wind power generated electricity.
The power plant is located in Taichung. The plant is the largest power plant in Taiwan; the Tatan Power Plant in Guanyin, Taoyuan is the world's largest gas turbine combined cycle power plant at the capacity of 4,419 MW. In 2013, for steam turbine-based power plants, the plants have 31.89% for oil-fired plants, 35.71% for coal-fired plants and 30.93% for gas-fired plants of efficiency. The power plants have efficiency of 37.17% for diesel engine plants, 25.08% for gas turbine plants and 44.78% for combined cycle plants. Taiwan set the reserve margin between power power demand to be 6 % minimum. Any value below that number would trigger an alert. Once the reserve margin falls below the 900 MW alert level, power rationing will be put into place. In 2014, the reserved margin of electricity in Taiwan was 14.7%, in 2015 it felt to 10.4%. On 19 October 2016, it felt to 2.38%, below the 900 MW threshold value, triggering the warning. As of end of 2013, Taiwan owned a total of 17,054 km length of transmission line with the voltage levels of the transmission system are 345 kV and 161 kV.
All of the transmission lines are owned by Taipower. The total length of the distribution line is 351,474 km and it goes up deep as the 4th level for underground distribution. Taipower is implementing the 6-year 7th Power Transmission and Substation Project starting January 2010 until December 2015 with a total investment of NT$238.9 billion. The project will completed a new and expanded section of transmission lines running 2,370 km, a group of 130 substations and an expanded main transformer capacity of 23,560 MVA; as of end of 2013, there were 598 substations within Taiwan's electrical grid, which consist of 29 EHV substations, 275 primary substations and 294 secondary substations with a capacity of 58,500 MVA, 71,480 MVA and 22,127 MVA respectively. Around 70% of its distribution system has been automated. Taipower allocated US$800 million worth of investment for the development of distribution automation and smart substations. In 2007, Taipower completed a smart grid roadmap for the future 20 years.
It contains three phases, which are medium term and long term. It targets four areas, namely power grid safety and reliability, energy efficiency, customer service quality and integration of distributed power sources. In 2013, Taiwan's line losses accounted for 2.96 % of total domestic consumption. At the customers end, electricity in Taiwan uses 60 Hz; the peak load in Taiwan's electrical grid was 33,957 MW in 2013 and 34,820 MW in 2014. It is predicted that the peak load will reach 43,010 MW in 2026. On 2 July 2015 at 1:48 p.m. local time, electricity load instantaneously reached its highest peak in Taiwan history at 35,380 MW. On 6 July 2015, the peak load record was broken when electricity consumption reached 35,560 MW at 1:45 p.m. local time, putting the reserve margin to an alarming level at 3.07%. In 2013, the total annual electricity consumption in Taiwan was 202 TWh, ranging from industrial, residential and others; the per capita electricity consumption in 2012 was 10,424 kWh. As of 2015, the growth of electricity consumption is projected to grow by 1.9% annually.
Northern Taiwan consumes 40% of the total power generated in Taiwan, it relies on Central Taiwan and Southern Taiwan for additional power source. In 2012, there were a total of 13 millions of electricity customers in Taiwan, ranging from resid
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit. Lending activities can be performed either indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world. In the history of banking, a number of banking dynasties – notably, the Medicis, the Fuggers, the Welsers, the Berenbergs, the Rothschilds – have played a central role over many centuries.
The oldest existing retail bank is Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, while the oldest existing merchant bank is Berenberg Bank. The concept of banking may have begun in ancient Assyria and Babylonia, with merchants offering loans of grain as collateral within a barter system. Lenders in ancient Greece and during the Roman Empire added two important innovations: they accepted deposits and changed money. Archaeology from this period in ancient China and India shows evidence of money lending. More modern banking can be traced to medieval and early Renaissance Italy, to the rich cities in the centre and north like Florence, Siena and Genoa; the Bardi and Peruzzi families dominated banking in 14th-century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe. One of the most famous Italian banks was the Medici Bank, set up by Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici in 1397; the earliest known state deposit bank, Banco di San Giorgio, was founded in 1407 at Italy. Modern banking practices, including fractional reserve banking and the issue of banknotes, emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Merchants started to store their gold with the goldsmiths of London, who possessed private vaults, charged a fee for that service. In exchange for each deposit of precious metal, the goldsmiths issued receipts certifying the quantity and purity of the metal they held as a bailee; the goldsmiths began to lend the money out on behalf of the depositor, which led to the development of modern banking practices. The goldsmith paid interest on these deposits. Since the promissory notes were payable on demand, the advances to the goldsmith's customers were repayable over a longer time period, this was an early form of fractional reserve banking; the promissory notes developed into an assignable instrument which could circulate as a safe and convenient form of money backed by the goldsmith's promise to pay, allowing goldsmiths to advance loans with little risk of default. Thus, the goldsmiths of London became the forerunners of banking by creating new money based on credit; the Bank of England was the first to begin the permanent issue of banknotes, in 1695.
The Royal Bank of Scotland established the first overdraft facility in 1728. By the beginning of the 19th century a bankers' clearing house was established in London to allow multiple banks to clear transactions; the Rothschilds pioneered international finance on a large scale, financing the purchase of the Suez canal for the British government. The word bank was taken Middle English from Middle French banque, from Old Italian banco, meaning "table", from Old High German banc, bank "bench, counter". Benches were used as makeshift desks or exchange counters during the Renaissance by Jewish Florentine bankers, who used to make their transactions atop desks covered by green tablecloths; the definition of a bank varies from country to country. See the relevant country pages under for more information. Under English common law, a banker is defined as a person who carries on the business of banking by conducting current accounts for his customers, paying cheques drawn on him/her and collecting cheques for his/her customers.
In most common law jurisdictions there is a Bills of Exchange Act that codifies the law in relation to negotiable instruments, including cheques, this Act contains a statutory definition of the term banker: banker includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking'. Although this definition seems circular, it is functional, because it ensures that the legal basis for bank transactions such as cheques does not depend on how the bank is structured or regulated; the business of banking is in many English common law countries not defined by statute but by common law, the definition above. In other English common law jurisdictions there are statutory definitions of the business of banking or banking business; when looking at these definitions it is important to keep in mind that they are defining the business of banking for the purposes of the legislation, not in general. In particular, most of the definitions are from legislation that has the purpose of regulating and supervising banks rather than regulating the actual business of banking.
However, in many cases the statutory definition mirrors the common law one. Examples of statutory definitions: "banking business" means the business of receiving money on current or deposit account and collecting cheques drawn by or paid in by customers, the making
Taiwan Stock Exchange
The Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation is a financial institution, located in Taipei 101, in Taipei, Taiwan. The TWSE was established in 1961 and began operating as a stock exchange on 9 February 1962, it is regulated by the Financial Supervisory Commission. As of 31 December 2013, the Taiwan Stock Exchange had 809 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of NT$24,519,622 million; the exchange broadcasts before-hour information from 7:40 to 8:40. It has normal trading sessions from 09:00 to 13:45 and fixed price post-market sessions from 14:00 to 15:00 on all days of the week except Saturdays and holidays declared by the exchange in advance; the current chairman of the TWSE is Hsu Jan-yau. The President is Lee Chi-hsien; the Taiwan Capitalization Weighted Stock Index is the stock market index that measures the performance of aggregate listed stocks on TWSE. Taiwan Capitalization Weighted Stock Index List of companies in Taiwan List of East Asian stock exchanges List of stock exchanges Official website
Finance is a field, concerned with the allocation of assets and liabilities over space and time under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. Matters in personal finance revolve around: Protection against unforeseen personal events, as well as events in the wider economies Transference of family wealth across generations Effects of tax policies management of personal finances Effects of credit on individual financial standing Development of a savings plan or financing for large purchases Planning a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability Pursuing a checking and/or a savings account Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance and saving for retirement.
Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations. The six key areas of personal financial planning, as suggested by the Financial Planning Standards Board, are: Financial position: is concerned with understanding the personal resources available by examining net worth and household cash flows. Net worth is a person's balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that person's control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flows total up all from the expected sources of income within a year, minus all expected expenses within the same year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree and in what time the personal goals can be accomplished. Adequate protection: the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks; these risks can be divided into the following: liability, death, disability and long term care. Some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract.
Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance. Business owners, professionals and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a critical piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning: the income tax is the single largest expense in a household. Managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, which can be used to reduce the lifetime tax burden. Most modern governments use a progressive tax; as one's income grows, a higher marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the myriad tax breaks when planning one's personal finances can make a significant impact in which can save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals: planning how to accumulate enough money – for large purchases and life events – is what most people consider to be financial planning.
Major reasons to accumulate assets include purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, saving for retirement. Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals. A major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the financial planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking and regular savings to be invested in a variety of investments. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, which will subject the portfolio to a number of risks. Managing these portfolio risks is most accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity; this asset allocation will prescribe a percentage allocation to be invested in stocks, bonds and alternative investments.
The allocation should take into consideration the personal risk profile of every investor, since risk attitudes vary from person to person. Retirement planning is the process of understanding how much it costs to live at retirement, coming up with a plan to distribute assets to meet any income shortfall. Methods for retirement plans include taking advantage of government allowed structures to manage tax liability including: individual structures, or employer sponsored retirement plans and life insurance products. Estate planning involves planning for the disposition of one's assets after death. There is a tax due to the state or federal government at one's death. Avoiding these taxes means that more of one's assets will be distributed to one's heirs. One can leave one's assets to friends or charitable groups. Corporate finance deals with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.
Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Corporate f
Telecommunications in Taiwan
Telecommunications in Taiwan comprise the following communication media, deployed in the Taiwan Area of the Republic of China and regulated by the National Communications Commission of the Executive Yuan. Since the mid-1970s there has been an accelerating shift from traditional personal services to modern personal services and modern commercial services. Domestic television has long carried many foreign programs, liberalization of import restrictions in the 1980s brought more. There are about 30 daily newspapers and thousands of periodicals, many of the latter house organs of various political and non-political organizations; the government sets general guidelines for the political and cultural content of newspapers and periodicals. There are three television stations and about 30 radio broadcasting companies with more than 180 stations. Telephones - main lines in use: 16.433 million Telephones - mobile cellular: 27.84 million Telephone system: general assessment: provides telecommunication service for every business and private need domestic: modern.
See for rankings: List of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptionsThe number of broadband subscribers in Taiwan surpassed 4.5 million by the end of March 2007. This number is 20% of the total population. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the authorities surveil the e-mail or telecommunication chat rooms without appropriate legal authority; the constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. An independent press, an effective judiciary, a functioning democratic political system combine to protect freedom of speech and press. Individual groups engage in the peaceful expression on views via the Internet, including via the e-mail. In accordance to a survey conducted by Taiwan's Institute for Information Industry, an NGO, 81.8% of households had Internet access at the end of 2011. The websites of mainland institutions such as the Communist Party of China, People's Daily, China Central Television can be accessed from Taiwan.
However, in April 2019, Mainland Affairs Council deputy minister Chiu Chui-cheng stated that the country was planning to block the Chinese video services iQiyi and Tencent Video in the lead-up to the 2020 Taiwan presidential election, fearing that the services could be used to create "cultural and political influences" by the mainland and impact the vote. List of companies of Taiwan Censorship in Taiwan Media of Taiwan CIA - The World Factbook - Taiwan Ministry Of Transportation And Communications website Press in Taiwan http://www.twnic.net.tw/English/Index.htm (Taiwan Network Information Center