Taiwan under Qing rule
Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa from 1683 to 1895. The Qing court sent an army led by general Shi Lang and annexed Taiwan in 1683, it was governed as Taiwan Prefecture of Fokien Province until the declaration of Fokien-Taiwan Province in 1887. Qing rule over Taiwan ended when Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Following the death of Zheng Jing in 1681, the Qing dynasty seized the advantage presented by the struggle for succession and dispatched their navy with Shi Lang at its head to destroy the Zheng fleet off the Penghu Islands. In 1683 following the Battle of Penghu, Qing troops landed in Taiwan. Zheng Keshuang gave in to Qing demands for surrender, his Kingdom of Tungning was incorporated into the Qing Empire as part of Fujian Province, thereby ending two decades of rule by the Zheng family; the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty annexed Taiwan to remove any threat to his dynasty from remaining resistance forces on the island.
However, Qing authorities did not want to develop Taiwan over aggressively as this might have encouraged potential resistances force to build a base there. Accordingly, the early Qing dynasty ruled Taiwan passively as part of Fujian, until work began to create a separate province in 1885. In 1721, a Hokkien-Hakka rebellion led by Zhu Yigui captured Taiwan-fu and established a government reminiscent of the Ming dynasty. In the immediate aftermath of Zhu Yigui rebellion, the desire to open up new land for cultivation saw government encouraging the expansion of Han Chinese migration to other areas of the island. For instance, the population in the Tamsui area had grown to the point where the government needed an administrative centre there, in addition to a military outpost; the government tried to build a centre with local aboriginal corvée labor, but treated them more like slaves and provoked an uprising. Aboriginal groups split their loyalties —most joined the uprising; the aboriginal revolt was put down within a few months with the arrival of additional troops.
The Lin Shuangwen rebellion occurred in 1787–1788. Lin, an immigrant from Zhangzhou, had come to Taiwan with his father in the 1770s, he was involved in the secret Earth Society whose origins are not clear. Lin's father was detained by the local authorities in suspicion of his activities with the society. There was initial success in pushing government forces out of Lin's home base in Changhua. By this point, the fighting was drawing in Zhangzhou people beyond just the society members, activating the old feuds; the government sent sufficient force to restore order. Though they never again were serious to push out the government or encompass the whole island, feuds went on sporadically for most of the 19th century, only started coming to an end in the 1860s. There were more than a hundred rebellions during the early Qing; the frequency of rebellions and civil strife in Qing Taiwan is evoked by the common saying "every three years an uprising. Given the strategic and commercial value of Taiwan, there were British suggestions in 1840 and 1841 to seize the island.
In September 1841, during the First Opium War, the British transport ship Nerbudda became shipwrecked near Keelung Harbour due to a typhoon. The brig Ann became shipwrecked in March 1842. Most of the crew were Indian lascars. Survivors from both ships were transferred by authorities to the capital Tainan; the Taiwan Qing commanders, Ta-hung-ah and Yao Ying, filed a disingenuous report to the emperor, claiming to have defended against an attack from the Keelung fort. In October 1841, HMS Nimrod sailed to Keelung to search for the Nerbudda survivors, but after Captain Joseph Pearse found out that they were sent south for imprisonment, he ordered the bombardment of the harbour and destroyed 27 sets of cannon before returning to Hong Kong. Most of the survivors—over 130 from the Nerbudda and 54 from the Ann—were executed in Tainan in August 1842; the Aboriginals slaughtered the shipwrecked crews of western ships. In 1867 the entire American crew of the Rover were massacred by aboriginals in the Rover incident.
When the Americans launched the punitive Formosa Expedition in retaliation, the aboriginals defeated the Americans and forced them to retreat, killing an American marine while suffering no casualties themselves. In the Mudan Incident, Aboriginals slaughtered 54 Ryukyuan sailors which led to the Japanese invasion of Taiwan against the Aboriginals; the waters around Taiwan were pirate infested. During the Sino-French War the French attempted an invasion of Taiwan during the Keelung Campaign. Liu Mingchuan, leading the defence of Taiwan, recruited Aboriginals to serve alongside the Chinese government soldiers and Hakka militia in fighting against the French; the French were defeated at the Battle of Tamsui and the Qing forces pinned the French down at Keelung in an eight-month-long campaign before the French withdrew. The Hakka used their owned muskets instead of modern western rifles. Qing had three main policies relating to the governance of Taiwan; the first policy was to restrict the qualification and nu
Taiwanese Hokkien known as Taiwanese, is a variety of Hokkien Chinese spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people, who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty; the Pe̍h-ōe-jī romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien. Taiwanese Hokkien is similar to the speeches of Amoy and Zhangzhou, as well as their dialectal forms used in Southeast Asia and are mutually intelligible; the mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan has given prominence to the Taiwanese variety of Hokkien since the 1980s. Taiwanese Hokkien is a branched-off variety of a group of Southern Min dialects. Like many Min varieties, it has distinct literary and colloquial layers of vocabulary associated with formal and informal registers respectively; the literary layer can be traced to the late Tang dynasty, can thus be related to Middle Chinese. In contrast, the colloquial layers of Min varieties are believed to have branched from the mainstream of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty.
Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to Hokkien variants spoken in Southern Fujian those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou later Amoy. Taiwanese Hokkien contains loanwords from Japanese and the native Formosan languages. Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu, Sakai Toru, Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ, based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial Taiwanese with the Austronesian and Tai language families; the literary form of Hokkien was brought to Taiwan by early emigrants. Tale of the Lychee Mirror, a manuscript for a series of plays published during the Ming dynasty in 1566, is one of the earliest known works; this form of the language is now extinct. However, literary readings of the numbers are used in certain contexts such as reciting telephone numbers. During Yuan dynasty, Fujian province became a major international port for trade with the outside world. From that period onwards, due to political and economic reasons, many people from Hokkien-speaking regions started to emigrate overseas.
This included the undeveloped island of Formosa, starting around 1600. They brought with them Hokkien. During the late Ming dynasty, due to political chaos, there was increased migration from southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong to Taiwan; the earliest immigrants who were involved in the development of Taiwan included pirate-merchants Chinese Peter and Zheng Zhilong. In 1621, Chinese Peter and his forces, hailing from Zhangzhou, occupied Ponkan and started to develop Tirosen. After the death of Peter and another pirate, Li Dan of Quanzhou, Zheng sought to dominate the Strait of Taiwan. By 1628, he had grown so powerful that the Ming court bestowed him the official title, "Patrolling Admiral". In 1624, the number of Chinese in the island was about 25,000. During the reign of Chongzhen Emperor, there were frequent droughts in the Fujian region. Zheng and a Chinese official suggested to send victims to Taiwan and provide "for each person three taels of silver and for each three people one ox". Although this plan was never carried out, the Zheng family maintained an interest in Taiwan that would have dire consequences for the Dutch, who ruled Taiwan as Dutch Formosa at the time.
In 1624 and 1626, the Dutch and Spanish forces occupied the Keelung areas, respectively. During the 40 years of Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan, many Han Chinese from the Quanzhou and Hakka regions of mainland China were recruited to help develop Taiwan; because of intermingling with Siraya people as well as Dutch colonial rule, the Hokkien dialects started to deviate from the original Hokkien spoken in mainland China. In the 1661 Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Chinese general Koxinga expelled the Dutch and established the Kingdom of Tungning. Koxinga originated from the Quanzhou region. Chen Yonghua, in charge of establishing the education system of Tungning originated from Quanzhou; because most of the soldiers he brought to Taiwan came from Quanzhou, the prestige variant of Hokkien on the island at the time was the Quanzhou dialect. In 1683, Chinese admiral Shi Lang attacked Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu, ending the Tungning era and beginning Qing dynasty rule. In the following years, in order to prevent people from rebelling, the Qing court instituted a ban on migration to Taiwan the migration of Hakka people from Guangdong province, which led Hokkien to become a prestige language in Taiwan.
In the first decades of the 18th century, the linguistic differences between the Qing imperial bureaucrats and the commoners was recorded by the Mandarin-speaking first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan, Huang Shujing: The tone of Huang's message foretold the uneasy relationships between different language communities and colonial establishments over the next few centuries. The ban on migration to Taiwan was relaxed sometime after 1722. During the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. Civil unrest and armed conflicts were frequent. In addition to resistance against governments (both Chinese and J
The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei, founded in 1911, is an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan. The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1911 that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China; the KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era, it was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan; this government retained China's UN seat until 1971. Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986, political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power.
The KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. However, in the 2016 general and presidential election the Democratic Progressive Party gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President; the party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan, as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely; the KMT holds to a "One China Principle": it considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus.
In order to ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the "Three Noes" policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou: no unification, no independence and no use of force. The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy, who founded Revive China Society at the capital of the Republic of Hawaii, Honolulu, on 24 November 1894. In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan to form the Tongmenghui on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic style government; the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on 12 February. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, where Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.
Sun was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy; the party sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915.
While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. In order to join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution; as a result, he became sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang of China and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920. In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers.
Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern – arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorgan
James W. Davidson
James Wheeler Davidson was an explorer, United States diplomat and philanthropist. He is remembered for The Island of Formosa and Present on the history of Taiwan and noted for aiding the internationalisation of Rotary International. In 1893 Davidson was a member of the Peary expedition to Greenland, attempting to find a route to the North Pole. In 1895 he travelled to Taiwan as a war correspondent to report on the transition from Qing rule to Japanese rule, witnessed the resistance to the Japanese takeover which centred on the short-lived Republic of Formosa, he was decorated by the Emperor of Japan in 1895 with Order of Rising Sun for services rendered Japanese army in capturing the capital of Formosa. Once the Japanese established control over the island, he took up a job as a trader based in the town of Tamsui. In June 1897, he was appointed by President Cleveland consular agent for the island of Formosa, where he remained nine years, during which time he wrote numerous monographs on Formosan affairs.
Disappointed by the lack of a comprehensive general history of the island in English, Davidson undertook eight years of research on the subject, poring through accounts in many languages until he was able to write his magnum opus in 1903, which he called The Island of Formosa and Present. The book has gone through several reprints, remains a central work in the study of the history of Taiwan, with one commentator describing it as "the major English language survey of Taiwan for its days and still the most consulted English language source". In 1903, he obtained leave of absence, under the auspices of the Russian Communications Department made a careful survey of the territory adjacent to the Asian section of the Trans-Siberian Railway, collecting material for a complete report of this territory, extracts from which appeared in the Century Magazine. In 1904, Davidson was appointed to Dalny, one of the political consulates, where he was expected to promote Secretary Hay's "open door" policy.
Be became consul at Andong and commercial attaché to the American legation and special agent of the Department of State. He was appointed by President Roosevelt in 1905 consul general at Shanghai, he served in Nanjing. Invalided out of the service in 1905, he returned to the United States to convalesce, subsequently emigrating to Canada once he had recovered. Once there he became involved in the lumber business, making his fortune and becoming a pillar of the local community. Davidson was an enthusiastic member of the Rotary club in Calgary, when the organisation wanted to extend its reach throughout the Mediterranean, Middle East, Southeast Asia and Australasia, he was the logical choice as envoy to the region because of his prior international experience. Leaving in 1914, he spent CAN$250,000 of his own money to establish branches of Rotary International in Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Jerusalem, Siam, in several of the Malay states including Seremban, Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh and Singapore.
In total his trip lasted two and one-half years, he was responsible for founding over twenty branches of the organisation around the world. He was a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and member of the Asiatic Society, the Explorers Club and the Authors' Club. In 1915, he was president of eight banks in North Dakota. Davidson died in Vancouver in his adopted homeland of Canada on 18 June 1933. Davidson, James W.. Formosa Camphor and Its Future. Davidson, James W.. "A Review of the History of Formosa, a Sketch of the Life of Koxinga, the First King of Formosa". Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. 24: 112–136. Retrieved 22 November 2014. Davidson, James W.. Formosa under Japanese rule. London: Japan Society. OCLC 860694076. Davidson, James W.. The Island of Formosa and Present: history, people and commercial prospects: tea, sugar, coal, economical plants, other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. OCLC 1887893. OL 6931635M. Davidson, James W.. The Island of Formosa: historical view from 1430 to 1900, people and commercial prospects, camphor, gold, sulphur, economical plants and other productions.
OCLC 780197423. Davidson, James W.. The Island of Formosa and Present: history, people and commercial prospects: tea, sugar, coal, economical plants, other productions. Taipei, Taiwan: Southern Materials Center. ISBN 957-638-124-X. OCLC 155703226. Lampard, J. Robert; the Life and Times of James and Lillian Davidson. ISBN 978-1-55383-111-2. Wright, David Curtis and Lin, Hsin-yi. From Province to Republic to Colony: The James Wheeler Davidson Collection on the Origins and Early Development of Japanese Rule in Taiwan, 1895-1905. ISBN 978-986-05-3164-0
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
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Fujian, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, the Taiwan Strait to the east; the name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou, two cities in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty. While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China; as a result of the Chinese Civil War, Historical Fujian is now divided between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China based in Taiwan, both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administration divisions. The majority of the territory of historical Fujian make up the Fujian province of the PRC; the Fujian province of the ROC is made up of the Matsu Islands, the Wuqiu Islands and the Kinmen Islands, the two latter archipelagos constituting Kinmen County. Recent archaeological discoveries demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC.
From the Keqiutou site, an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about 70 kilometres southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, bones and ceramics have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, definitive evidence of weaving. The Tanshishan site in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level; the Huangtulun site in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character. Tianlong Jiao notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B. P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on on fishing and hunting, alongside with limited agriculture. There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal Zhejiang. Keqiutou culture 壳丘头文化 Tanshishan culture 昙石山文化 Damaoshan culture 大帽山文化 Huangguashan culture 黄瓜山文化 There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures.
Niubishan culture 牛鼻山文化 Hulushan culture 葫芦山文化 Fujian was where the kingdom of Minyue was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn", an ethnic name, "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north; this is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is older. Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status. In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang; the Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom, thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years.
His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, southern Zhejiang. After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong and Zhejiang in the 2nd century BC; this was stopped by the Han dynasty. The Han emperor decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC; the rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end. The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains; the first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war.
These immigrants were from eight families in central China: Lin, Chen, Zhan, Qiu, He, Hu. The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian. Isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan, Fujian served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian. During the Sui and Tang eras a large
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro