Taiwanese Romanization System

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Taiwanese Romanization System
Traditional Chinese 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案
Simplified Chinese 台湾闽南语罗马字拼音方案
Tâi-lô
Traditional Chinese 臺羅拼音
Simplified Chinese 台罗拼音

The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn, Chinese: 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin: Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[1] It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/.

Taiwanese Romanization System

Alphabet[edit]

Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter A B E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng O Oo P Ph S T Th Ts Tsh U
Lower case a b e g h i j k kh l m n ng nn o oo p ph s t th ts tsh u
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it has no capital letter.
  • Palatalization occurs when "J, S, Ts, Tsh" followed by "i", so "Ji, Si, Tsi, Tshi" sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels, while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

Values[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Initials
Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
ㄇ 毛(moo)
n [n]
ㄋ 耐(nāi)
ng [ŋ]
ㄫ 雅(ngá)
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
ㄅ 邊(pian)
b [b]
ㆠ 文(bûn)
t [t]
ㄉ 地(tē)
k [k]
ㄍ 求(kiû)
g [g]
ㆣ 語(gí)
Aspirated ph [pʰ]
ㄆ 波(pho)
th [tʰ]
ㄊ 他(thann)
kh [kʰ]
ㄎ 去(khì)
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
ㄗ 曾(tsan)
j [dz]
ㆡ 熱(jua̍h)
tsi [tɕ]
ㄐ 尖(tsiam)
ji [dʑ]
ㆢ 入(ji̍p)
Aspirated tsh [tsʰ]
ㄘ 出(tshut)
tshi [tɕʰ]
ㄑ 手(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
ㄙ 衫(sann)
si [ɕ]
ㄒ 寫(siá)
h [h]
ㄏ 喜(hí)
Lateral l [l]
ㄌ 柳(liú)
Finals
Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal consonant -m [m]
-n [n]
-ng [ŋ]
Stop consonant -p [p̚]
-t [t̚]
-k [k̚]
-h [ʔ]
Syllabic consonant
Bilabial Velar
Nasal m [m̩]
ㆬ 姆(ḿ)
ng [ŋ̍]
ㆭ 酸(sng)

Vowels & Rhymes[edit]

Simple & Nasal
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal
Close i [i]
ㄧ 衣(i)
inn [ĩ]
ㆪ 圓(înn)
u [u]
ㄨ 污(u)
unn [ũ]
ㆫ 張(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
ㆤ 禮(lé)
enn [ẽ]
ㆥ 生(senn)
o[ə]
ㄜ 高(ko)
oo [ɔ]
ㆦ 烏(oo)
onn [ɔ̃]
ㆧ 翁(onn)
Open a [a]
ㄚ 查(tsa)
ann [ã]
ㆩ 衫(sann)
Dialect
Tâi-lô IPA Bopomofo
ir [ɨ]
er [ə]
ee [ɛ]
ere [əe] ㄜㆤ[a]
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[a] a ann am an ang ap at ak ah annh
[ai] ai ainn aih ainnh
[au] au auh
[e] e enn eh ennh
[i] i inn im in ing ip it ik ih innh
[ia] ia iann iam ian iang iap iat iak iah iannh
[iau] iau iaunn iauh
[iə] io ioh
[iɔ] iong iok
[iu] iu iunn iuh iunnh
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [ŋ] [p̚] [t̚] [k̚] [ʔ]
[ə] o oh
[ɔ] oo onn om ong op ok ooh onnh
[u] u un ut uh
[ua] ua uann uan uat uah
[uai] uai uainn
[ue] ue ueh
[ui] ui
[m̩] m mh
[ŋ̍] ng ngh
  • ing pronounced [ɪəŋ], ik pronounced [ɪək̚].

Tones[edit]

Tone No. 1 2 3 4 5 7 8
Name 陰平 上聲 陰去 陰入 陽平 陽去 陽入
im-pîng siōng-siann im-khì im-ji̍p iông-pîng iông-khì iông-ji̍p
Symbol None Acute Grave None (-p, -t, -k, -h) Circumflex macron Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
´ ` ˆ ˉ ̍
Pitch ˥˥ ˥˩ ˧˩ ˧ʔ ˨˦ ˧˧ ˥ʔ
55 51 31 24 33
Example tong (東) tóng (黨) tòng (棟) tok (督) tông (同) tōng (洞) to̍k (毒)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.

Ø b g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th ts tsh
a a ba ga ha ka kha la ma na nga pa pha sa ta tha tsa tsha a
ah ah bah hah kah khah lah nah pah phah sah tah thah tsah tshah ah
ai ai bai gai hai kai khai lai mai nai ngai pai phai sai tai thai tsai tshai ai
ainn ainn hainn kainn khainn phainn tainn tsainn ainn
ak ak bak gak hak kak khak lak pak phak sak tak thak tsak tshak ak
am am gam ham kam kham lam sam tam tham tsam tsham am
an an ban gan han kan khan lan pan phan san tan than tsan tshan an
ang ang bang gang hang kang khang lang pang phang sang tang thang tsang tshang ang
ann ann hann kann khann phann sann tann thann tsann tshann ann
annh hannh sannh annh
ap ap hap kap khap lap sap tap thap tsap tshap ap
at at bat hat kat khat lat pat sat tat that tsat tshat at
au au bau gau hau kau khau lau mau nau ngau pau phau sau tau thau tsau tshau au
auh kauh lauh mauh nauh phauh tauh tshauh auh
e e be ge he ke khe le me ne nge pe phe se te the tse tshe e
eh eh beh heh keh kheh leh meh neh ngeh peh seh teh theh tseh tsheh eh
enn enn henn kenn khenn penn phenn senn tenn thenn tsenn tshenn enn
ennh hennh khennh ennh
i i bi gi hi ji ki khi li mi ni pi phi si ti thi tsi tshi i
ia ia gia hia jia kia khia mia nia ngia sia tia tsia tshia ia
iah iah giah hiah kiah khiah liah piah phiah siah tiah thiah tsiah tshiah iah
iak khiak piak phiak siak tiak tshiak iak
iam iam giam hiam jiam kiam khiam liam siam tiam thiam tsiam tshiam iam
ian ian bian gian hian jian kian khian lian pian phian sian tian thian tsian tshian ian
iang iang giang hiang jiang khiang liang piang phiang siang tsiang tshiang iang
iann iann hiann kiann piann siann tiann thiann tsiann tshiann iann
iannh hiannh iannh
iap iap giap hiap jiap kiap khiap liap siap tiap thiap tsiap tshiap iap
iat iat biat giat hiat jiat kiat khiat liat piat phiat siat tiat thiat tsiat tshiat iat
iau iau biau giau hiau jiau kiau khiau liau miau niau ngiau piau phiau siau tiau thiau tsiau tshiau iau
iauh hiauh khiauh ngiauh iauh
iaunn iaunn iaunn
ih bih khih mih nih pih phih sih tih thih tsih tshih ih
ik ik bik gik hik kik lik pik phik sik tik thik tsik tshik ik
im im gim him jim kim khim lim sim tim thim tsim tshim im
in in bin gin hin jin kin khin lin pin phin sin tin thin tsin tshin in
ing ing bing ging hing king khing ling ping phing sing ting thing tsing tshing ing
inn inn hinn kinn khinn sinn tinn thinn tsinn tshinn inn
io io bio gio hio jio kio khio lio pio phio sio tio thio tsio tshio io
ioh ioh gioh hioh kioh khioh lioh sioh tioh tsioh tshioh ioh
iok iok giok hiok jiok kiok khiok liok siok tiok thiok tsiok tshiok iok
iong iong giong hiong jiong kiong khiong liong siong tiong thiong tsiong tshiong iong
ip ip hip jip kip khip lip sip tsip tship ip
it it bit hit jit kit khit pit phit sit tit tsit tshit it
iu iu biu giu hiu jiu kiu khiu liu niu piu siu tiu thiu tsiu tshiu iu
iunn iunn hiunn kiunn khiunn siunn tiunn tsiunn tshiunn iunn
iunnh iunnh hiunnh iunnh
m m hm m
mh hmh mh
ng ng hng kng khng mng nng png sng tng thng tsng tshng ng
ngh hngh phngh sngh tshngh ngh
o o bo go ho ko kho lo po pho so to tho tso tsho o
oh oh hoh koh loh poh phoh soh toh thoh tsoh tshoh oh
ok ok bok gok hok kok khok lok pok phok sok tok thok tsok tshok ok
om om som tom om
ong ong bong gong hong kong khong long pong phong song tong thong tsong tshong ong
onn onn honn konn onn
onnh onnh honnh onnh
oo oo boo goo hoo koo khoo loo moo noo ngoo poo phoo soo too thoo tsoo tshoo oo
ooh mooh ooh
u u bu gu hu ju ku khu lu pu phu su tu thu tsu tshu u
ua ua bua gua hua kua khua lua mua nua pua phua sua tua thua tsua tshua ua
uah uah buah huah juah kuah khuah luah puah phuah suah thuah tsuah tshuah uah
uai uai huai kuai khuai suai uai
uainn uainn huainn kuainn suainn tsuainn uainn
uan uan buan guan huan kuan khuan luan puan phuan suan tuan thuan tsuan tshuan uan
uang uang tshuang uang
uann uann huann kuann khuann puann phuann suann tuann thuann tshuann uann
uat uat buat guat huat kuat khuat luat puat phuat suat tuat thuat tsuat uat
ue ue bue gue hue jue kue khue lue pue phue sue tue tsue tshue ue
ueh ueh bueh gueh hueh kueh khueh pueh phueh sueh ueh
uh uh khuh puh phuh tuh thuh tsuh tshuh uh
ui ui bui gui hui kui khui lui mui pui phui sui tui thui tsui tshui ui
un un bun gun hun jun kun khun lun pun phun sun tun thun tsun tshun un
ut ut but hut kut khut lut put phut sut tut thut tsut tshut ut
Ø b g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th ts tsh

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In version of Ngoo Siu-le (zh), /ɘe/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "ㄜExtended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg" is replaced with "Extended Bopomofo oe.svg".

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cheng Jei-cheng (2008). Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese) (2nd ed.). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8. 
  2. ^ 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案使用手冊 (PDF) (in Chinese). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1. 

External links[edit]