Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, as well as hosting multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". Baghdad was the largest city of the Middle Ages for much of the Abbasid era, peaking at a population of more than a million; the city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, Baghdad regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture.
In contemporary times, the city has faced severe infrastructural damage, most due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks; the war had resulted in a substantial loss of historical artifacts as well. As of 2018, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, ranked by Mercer as the worst of 231 major cities as measured by quality-of-life; the name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, its origin is disputed. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name looked for its roots in Persian, they suggested various meanings, the most common of, "bestowed by God". Modern scholars tend to favor this etymology, which views the word as a compound of bagh "god" and dād "given", In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god", while the second can be traced to dadāti.
A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "gift of Mithra". There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan or a village called Bagh-šan in Iran; the name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins. A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian, the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha"; some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations. When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace; this was the official name on coins and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule.
They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, where my descendants will reign afterward"; the city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, uncommon during this time. Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, located some 30 km to the southeast. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad.
Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire, which had earlier replaced the city of Babylon. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received; the residents are Hanbal. Bagdad is home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it; the Sultan of Bagdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tartar king. In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise, it took four years to build. Mansur assembled engineers and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans. July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahva
Districts of Iraq
Iraq's 19 governorates are subdivided into 120 districts. The district bears the same name as the district capital; the districts are listed below, by governorate: Al-Qa'im District Al-Rutba District Ana District Falluja District Haditha District Hīt District Ramadi District Rawah District Al-Khidhir District Al-Rumaitha District Al-Salman District Al-Samawa District Afaq District Al-Shamiya District Diwaniya District Hamza District Al-Mahawil District Al-Musayab District Hashimiya District Hilla District Administrative Districts in Baghdad City Rusafa Adhamiyah Sadr City (formerly Thawra District 9 Nissan Karadah Al-Za'franiya Karkh Kadhimyah Mansour Al Rashid Administrative Districts in Baghdad Suburban Abu Ghraib District Al Istiqlal District Al-Mada'in District Mahmudiya District Taji District Al Tarmia District Abu Al-Khaseeb District Al-Midaina District Al-Qurna District Al-Zubair District Basrah District al-Faw District Al-Chibayish District Al-Rifa'i District Al-Shatra District Nassriya District Suq Al-Shoyokh District Al-Khalis District Al-Muqdadiya District Baladrooz District Ba'quba District Khanaqin District Kifri District Ain Al-Tamur District Al-Hindiya District Kerbala District Al-Hawiga District Daquq District Kirkuk District Al-Dibs District Ali Al-Gharbi District Al-Kahla District Al-Maimouna District Al-Mejar Al-Kabi District Amara District Qal'at Saleh District Al-Manathera District Kufa District Najaf District Note that northern Sinjar, northern Tel Afar and northern Shekhan districts are under illegal Kurdistan Regional Government de facto control.
Akre District Al-Ba'aj District Al-Hamdaniya District Hatra District Mosul District Shekhan District Sinjar District Tel Afar District Tel Keppe District Al-Daur District Al-Shirqat District Baiji District Balad District Samarra District Tikrit District Tooz District Dujail District Al-Hai District Al-Na'maniya District Al-Suwaira District Badra District Kut District Dohuk Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Amadiya District Dahuk District Sumel District Zakho District Erbil Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan, while the status of the southern Makhmur District is contested. Erbil District Koisanjaq District Shaqlawa District, cities are Salahaddin and Hareer Soran District, cities are Town of Soran and Diana Makhmur District Mergasur District Choman District Sulaymaniyah Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Pshdar District Chamchamal District Darbandokeh District Dokan District Kalar District Rania District Sharbazher District Sulaymaniya District Saidsadiq District Sharazoor District Penjwin District Mawat District Qaradagh District Halabja Governorate is part of Iraqi Kurdistan and still a part of Sulaymaniyah Governorate.
Halabja Sirwan Khurmal District Byara District List of postal codes in Iraq Governorates of Iraq humanitarianinfo district map humanitarianinfo governorate map
Camp Taji is a military installation known as Camp Cooke used by coalition forces near Taji or Al Taji, Iraq. The camp is located in a rural region 27 km north of the city of Baghdad in the Baghdad Governorate. Al-Taji airfield, located in the volatile Sunni Triangle, was an Iraqi Republican Guard base during the Saddam era, it was once a center for the manufacture of chemical weapons. UNSCOM found at Taji 6,000 empty canisters designed to be filled with chemical weapons for use in 122mm rockets. According to the Gulf War Airpower Survey, there was a Sector Operations Center located at Al Taji; the airbase is served by a 1,700 m runway. Taji was the largest tank maintenance facility in Iraq. Taji was bombed during Operation Desert Fox in which 13 different targets in the Camp were hit during the December 1998 air strikes; the base came under American control following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In April 2003, Al Taji was an airfield and supply depot for Saddam Hussein's Iraqi Army prior to the invasion of Iraq.
The 14th Combat Engineer Battalion and 5th Combat Engineer Battalion, attached to the 4th Infantry Division, pushed from Kuwait to Al Taji Iraq and cleared the majority of buildings at Al Taji. It was referred to as Taji; the 14th ENGR BN pushed further to Tikrit 5th Engr left C. CO and HHC on Taji pushing B.co and A Co. farther into Iraq. C. Co 5th Engr cleared and secured buildings and the perimeter of the Al Taji airfield along with an infantry Unit from a US National Guard, Co B, 1–179 IN, 45th iBCT, Oklahoma Army National Guard. After the C.co 5th Engineers and a National Guard infantry unit had cleared the Airfield and supply depot. Several weapons and mortar caches were taken control of on Taji and the surrounding area; the camp was occupied by the Division Artillery of the 4th Infantry Division the base was referred to as Forward Operating Base Gunner. However, most still referred to it as Al Taji or Taji; the Base Defense Operations Center and Mayor Cell during this time was operated by the 44th Rear Area Operations Center, Illinois Army National Guard.
In early May 2003, Elements of DIVARTY'S 2nd Battalion, 20th Field Artillery and the 1st Battalion, 44th Air Defense Artillery conducted stability and security operations in and around FOB Gunner until March 2004. The 5th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment from Fort Sill, Oklahoma arrived in early May 2003 to provide security support for the Airfield until they were reassigned to Camp Cedar II in the late fall of 2003; the 751st Quartermaster Company, was located at the camp from May 2003 until April 2004. It established the C. E. M. Warehouses, storing weapons, vehicles and anything deemed significant; the 751st QMCO 1st platoon cleaned and maintained an ice facility providing ice to the soldiers of FOB Gunner. The 452nd Quartermaster Army reserve unit from Winthrop, Mn was there providing much needed fuel and supplies for the day-to-day operations of the base. Building the F. S. S. P. to supply surrounding area. They ran C. E. M. Warehouses, storing weapons, vehicles and anything deemed significant.
In February 2004 the 4th ID DIVARTY relinquished authority over to elements of 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division. 3rd BCT had been in the process of redeploying, some of its elements having moved to Kuwait, when it was informed that it would have to assume control of Camp Taji until units from 1st Cavalry Division arrived in March. 3rd BCT deployed 4th Battalion, 1st Field Artillery, the 70th Engineer Battalion and elements of 1st Battalion 69th Armor Regiment to Camp Taji to fill this six week gap. While under the control of 1st Armored Division, the Camp was renamed Camp Cooke, in honor of the 1st Armored Division Command Sergeant Major, killed during OIF I. 3rd BCT was relieved at Camp Taji on 24 March 2004 by 1st Battalion, 206th Field Artillery, an element of the 39th Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. 1st Cavalry Division elements stationed at Camp Taji included: The 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team from the Arkansas National Guard. The 1st Cavalry Division Support Command, 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division, including the 1st Battalion, 25th Aviation Regiment from the 25th Infantry Division, Co.
E 3/126 Avn MAARNG, 615th ASB. 1st Battalion, 69th Infantry Regiment, assigned to the 256th Brigade Combat Team, Louisiana National Guard. 51 RAOC, South Carolina National Guard which functioned as the Mayor Cell and supported the BDOC 27th Main Support Battalion from the 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas 980th EN BN from Texas Army Reserves (heavily supplemented with soldiers from 863rd Engr BN and 983rd Engr BN 980th QM Co USAR out of Bay City, MI. Ran and expanded the bulk fuel site, conducted convoy security as well. Early in the 1CD rotation, an order was issued by MND-B that all Forward Operating Bases would have Arabic names, so Camp Cooke reverted to Camp Taji and the new Dining Facility at Camp Taji was renamed in honor of CSM Cooke; the 39 BCT controlled the Area of Operations surrounding Camp Taji at this time. The 1st Battalion, 206th Field Artillery of the 39th BCT along with Battery A, 1st Battalion, 103rd Field Artillery of the Rhode Island National Guard where the main base defense force in 2004 to include gate security, QRF, as well as convoy escort and the inherent Field artillery mission.
The 1–206th FA and A/1-103rd FA supplied a Military Assistance Training Team to train, live with and fight along
Republican Guard (Iraq)
Not to be confused with Syrian Republican Guard The Iraqi Republican Guard was a branch of the Iraqi military from 1964 to 2003 during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. It became the Republican Guard Corps, the Republican Guard Forces Command with its expansion into two corps; the Republican Guard was disbanded in 2003, after the invasion of Iraq by a U. S.-led international coalition. The Republican Guard were the elite troops of the Iraqi army directly reporting to Saddam Hussein, unlike the paramilitary force Fedayeen Saddam, the ordinary Iraqi Army, they were better trained, disciplined and paid more than ordinary Iraqi soldiers, receiving bonuses, new cars, subsidized housing. Formed in 1969, it was created to be a Presidential Guard, its primary objective was to maintain the stability of the regime and provide protection against internal and external enemies. During the Iran–Iraq War, it was expanded into a large military force, it was disbanded along with the rest of Iraqi military after the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority of the administering U.
S. and British forces. The force's last commander was the younger son of Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein was so confident about the capability of the guard that he had said: "In history when they write about Napoleon's Guard, they will arrange them next to the Republican Guard of Iraq."Because of their elite status Republican Guards received better equipment and uniforms than their regular Army counterparts, could be identified by distinctive markings or items of head dress. Members of the regular Republican Guards conventionally wore a scarlet-colored triangle insignia on both shoulders of their uniforms; the Special Republican Guards wore a maroon beret with the national eagle device, a special variation of the triangle shoulder insignia in maroon with green Arabic lettering. The bright red qardoon distinguished Republican Guards; the Guard had limited capabilities. By 1986 the war had exhausted Iraq with both Iraq suffering heavy casualties. Iran had by captured Al Faw Peninsula and pushed Iraqi forces beyond the pre-war border and captured territory inside Iraq, repulsing counterattacks by the Republican Guard.
This, coupled with another defeat at the Battle of Mehran, caused the Iraqi Ba'ath Party to convene the Ba'ath Extraordinary Congress of July 1986. During this Congress the Ba'ath Party decided on a new strategy to overhaul the Iraqi military and utilize Iraq's manpower capability; the government closed all colleges and universities and began a mass mobilization program to force draft dodgers into the Iraqi Popular Army. This decision allowed for the drafting of thousands of university students, who were sent to military summer camps. In addition, the military began accepting volunteers from throughout Iraq. With this massive influx of manpower the Republican Guard expanded to over 25 brigades which were led by loyal officers drawn from the Iraqi military; this force conducted the Tawakalna ala Allah Operations which, allowed for the eviction of the Iranians out of occupied Iraqi territory including the liberation of Al-Faw, as well as allowing for renewed major offensives into Iran. The order of battle according to Iranian sources was as follows: 1st Mechanized Brigade 2nd, 10th Armored Brigades 3rd Special Forces Brigade 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 16th, 17th Infantry Brigades 11th Commando BrigadeIt should be noted that there are some claims of units with names that are unknown.
See articles Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm Between the invasion of Kuwait and the Persian Gulf War, the number of Republican Guard formations was expanded and the Guard was reorganized. The Republican Guard Forces Command was created during this period. At the beginning of the Persian Gulf War, it consisted of the following units: Republican Guard, CO Lieutenant General Iyad Futayyih Khalifah al-Rawi1st Republican Guard Corps, deployed in southern Iraq and northern Kuwait, consisted of: 1st Hammurabi Armoured Division, CO Major General Qais Abd al-Razaq. 2nd al-Medinah al-Munawera Armoured Division 3rd Tawakalna ala-Allah Mechanised Division 4th Al Faw Motorized Infantry Division 2d Republican Guard Corps deployed south of Baghdad consisted of: 5th Baghdad Mechanised Division, a square division of four brigades, was able to be split into two small half-divisions 6th Nebuchadnezzar Motorized Infantry Division 7th Adnan Motorized Infantry DivisionDeployed outside of the corps structure were various other units including: 8th As Saiqa Special Forces Division - contained a marine brigade, a parachute brigade, a special forces brigade.
The marine brigade was deployed on Kuwait's nine islands, all of which with the exception of Failaka Island are uninhabited. The brigade was headquartered on Bubiyan IslandThe Republican Guard included two Corps Headquarters, the Allah Akbar Republican Guard Operations Command, the Fat'h al-Mubayyin Republican Guard Operations Command, separate artillery detachments and numerous field support units. Between the invasion of Kuwait and the start of the war on January 17, 1991, f
Iraq the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandeans and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present; the official languages of Iraq are Kurdish. Iraq has a coastline measuring 58 km on the northern Persian Gulf and encompasses the Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range and the eastern part of the Syrian Desert. Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf; these rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers known as Mesopotamia, is referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Uruk, from which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian empires, it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century, it was made up of three provinces, called vilayets in the Ottoman language: Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, Basra Vilayet. In April 1920 the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was created under the authority of the League of Nations. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in 1921 under Faisal I of Iraq; the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from the UK in 1932. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 until 2003. After an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005; the US presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country. Out of the insurgency came a destructive group calling itself ISIL, which took large parts of the north and west, it has since been defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue. A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September 2017. On 9 December 2017, then-Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared victory over ISIL after the group lost its territory in Iraq. Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of one autonomous region; the country's official religion is Islam. Culturally, Iraq has a rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets.
Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab world, some of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets. Iraq is a founding member of the UN as well as of the Arab League, OIC, Non-Aligned Movement and the IMF; the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city", UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿAjamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran; the term included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq. Prior to the middle of the 19th century, the term Eyraca Arabic was used to describe Iraq.
The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. As an Arabic word, عراق means "hem", "shore", "bank", or "edge", so that the name by folk etymology came to be interpreted as "the escarpment", viz. at the south and east of the Jazira Plateau, which forms the northern and western edge of the "al-Iraq arabi" area. The Arabic pronunciation is. In English, it is either or, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Random House Dictionary; the pronunciation is heard in US media. In accordance with the 2005 Constitution, the official name of the state is the "Republic of Iraq". Between 65,000 BC and 35,000 BC northern Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave This same region is the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from 11,000 BC. Since 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture (k
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.