Saint Petersburg Mint
Saint Petersburg Mint is one of the worlds largest mints. It was founded by Peter the Great in 1724 on the territory of Peter and Paul Fortress and it is a part of the Goznak State-owned corporation. К истории создания Банковского монетного двора // Хранитель Эрмитажа, Сборник воспоминаний и научных статей к 100-летию со дня рождения И
Brass is a metal alloy made of copper and zinc, the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. It is an alloy, atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. By comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin, however and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic, aluminium and silicon. The term is applied to a variety of brasses. Modern practice in museums and archaeology increasingly avoids both terms for objects in favour of the all-embracing copper alloy. It is used in zippers, Brass is often used in situations in which it is important that sparks not be struck, such as in fittings and tools used near flammable or explosive materials. Brass has higher malleability than bronze or zinc, the relatively low melting point of brass and its flow characteristics make it a relatively easy material to cast. By varying the proportions of copper and zinc, the properties of the brass can be changed, allowing hard, the density of brass is 8.4 to 8.73 grams per cubic centimetre.
Today, almost 90% of all alloys are recycled. Because brass is not ferromagnetic, it can be separated from ferrous scrap by passing the scrap near a powerful magnet, Brass scrap is collected and transported to the foundry where it is melted and recast into billets. Billets are heated and extruded into the form and size. The general softness of brass means that it can often be machined without the use of cutting fluid, aluminium makes brass stronger and more corrosion-resistant. Aluminium causes a highly beneficial hard layer of oxide to be formed on the surface that is thin, transparent. Tin has an effect and finds its use especially in seawater applications. Combinations of iron, aluminium and manganese make brass wear and tear resistant, to enhance the machinability of brass, lead is often added in concentrations of around 2%. Since lead has a melting point than the other constituents of the brass. The pattern the globules form on the surface of the brass increases the available surface area which in turn affects the degree of leaching.
In addition, cutting operations can smear the lead globules over the surface and these effects can lead to significant lead leaching from brasses of comparatively low lead content
It incorporates 7 factories and 1 R&D institute involved in different stages of the development, manufacturing cycle. Goznak controls mints, which manufacture circulation coins, decorations and it manufactures credit cards, banking cards, phone cards. Goznak not only prints Russian money, but prints banknotes of foreign countries, including Lebanon, Guatemala, Rwanda and others. In 1838, a Russian academician Moritz von Jacobi, employed at this Department, in the 1890s, an employee of the Department Ivan Orlov invented and developed a new printing method called Orlovs printing. Also, he built multicolor printing presses, which would serve as a prototype for modern multicolor printing presses, Orlovs machines were still in use in some countries in the 1970s. After the October Revolution of 1917, the Department of State Currency Production was reorganized and renamed Goznak. Although the initial scope of Goznak had been the production of notes, the production of coins was added to its field of operation in 1941.
Goznak had its own All-union Research Institute in Moscow, in the 1920s, a Goznak employee and a prominent Soviet sculptor Ivan Shadr created the first samples of the Soviet money. Thus, all of the paper and printing factories and mints of the Goznak were equipped with the counting machines, after the revolution of 1917 the Saint-Petersburg Mint of Goznak was renamed into the Leningrad Mint. Its original name was returned in the 1990s, the Saint-Petersburg Paper Mill of Goznak was called the Leningrad Paper Mill during the Soviet period. In 1997, Perm Printing Factory launched telecards for public telephones, during the first year of the new site more than one million cards were produced. The quality of cards is fully in line with the international standard, in 1999, the Moscow Mint, for the first time in the history of Russia won the tender for the manufacture of currency for India. In October 1999, they signed an agreement with India for the manufacture of copper-nickel coins two and five rupees, in 2006 the Association of the State Companies Goznak has been transformed into the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Goznak.
Goznak includes 8 branches,2 Printing Factories,2 Paper Mills,2 Mints, Printing House, at the beginning of 2006, the Moscow Printing Factory of Goznak started with the personalization of the first ePassport. The personalization center is capable of processing of more than 5 million passports per year, on March 3,2008 Goznak has become a strategic enterprise of Russia
Emblem of Tajikistan
The State Emblem of Tajikistan is a modified version of the original emblem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic that was in use until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Prior to the Russian Revolution, the territory of Turkestan, of which Tajikistan was part, used the device of a unicorn on a golden shield, blazoned or. However, Tajikistan itself had no symbol, until 1992, Tajikistan had a emblem similar to all other Soviet Republics. The first emblem of independent Tajikistan from 1992-1993 was the Lion and Sun symbol and it was changed to the current version by the government of Emomalii Rahmon, which came to power at the end of 1992. Like other post-Soviet republics whose symbols do not predate the October Revolution, the base of the emblem contains a representation of a book and the Pamir Mountains. Written in the Russian and Tajik languages, Emblem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic Heraldicum. ru — Emblems of Tajikistan
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a states currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries, Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists, prior to the 17th century most money was commodity money, typically gold or silver. However, promises to pay were widely circulated and accepted as value at least five hundred years earlier in both Europe and Asia. The Song dynasty was the first to issue generally circulating paper currency, in 1455, in an effort to control inflation, the succeeding Ming Dynasty ended the use of paper money and closed much of Chinese trade. The Bank of Amsterdam, established in the Dutch Republic in 1609, is considered to be the forerunner to modern central banks. The Wisselbanks innovations helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of the banking system that now plays a vital role in the worlds economy.
Along with a number of local banks, it performed many functions of a central banking system. Lucien Gillard calls it the European guilder, and Adam Smith devotes many pages to explaining how the bank guilder works, the model of the Wisselbank as a state bank was adapted throughout Europe, including the Bank of Sweden and the Bank of England. Established by Dutch-Latvian Johan Palmstruch in 1668, Sveriges Riksbank is often considered by many as the worlds oldest central bank, the lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, which could be lent again. A Royal Charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694, the bank was given exclusive possession of the governments balances, and was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue banknotes. The £1. 2M was raised in 12 days, half of this was used to rebuild the Navy and these modern central banking functions evolved slowly through the 18th and 19th centuries. The currency crisis of 1797, caused by panicked depositors withdrawing from the Bank led to the government suspending convertibility of notes into specie payment.
The bank was accused by the bullionists of causing the exchange rate to fall from over issuing banknotes. Nevertheless, it was clear that the Bank was being treated as an organ of the state, henry Thornton, a merchant banker and monetary theorist has been described as the father of the modern central bank. An opponent of the real bills doctrine, he was a defender of the bullionist position, thorntons process of monetary expansion anticipated the theories of Knut Wicksell regarding the cumulative process which restates the Quantity Theory in a theoretically coherent form. Until the mid-nineteenth century, commercial banks were able to issue their own banknotes, many consider the origins of the central bank to lie with the passage of the Bank Charter Act of 1844. Under this law, authorisation to issue new banknotes was restricted to the Bank of England, at the same time, the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt
Cupronickel is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese. Despite its high content, cupronickel is silver in colour. Cupronickel is highly resistant to corrosion in seawater because its potential is adjusted to be neutral with regard to seawater. Another common use of cupronickel is in silver-coloured modern-circulated coins, a typical mix is 75% copper, 25% nickel, and a trace amount of manganese. In the past, true silver coins were debased with cupronickel, Cupronickel alloys are used for marine applications due to their resistance to seawater corrosion, good fabricability, and their effectiveness in lowering macrofouling levels. Alloys ranging in composition from 90% Cu–10% Ni to 70% Cu–30% Ni are commonly specified in heat exchanger or condenser tubes in a variety of marine applications. Desalination plants, Cupronickel alloys are used in brine heaters, heat rejection and recovery, offshore oil and gas platforms and processing and FPSO vessels, Cupronickel alloys are used in systems and splash zone sheathings.
Power generation, Cupronickel alloys are used in steam turbine condensers, oil coolers, auxiliary cooling systems and high pressure pre-heaters at nuclear, seawater system design, Cupronickel alloys are used in tubular heat exchangers and condensers and high pressure systems. Seawater system components, Cupronickel alloys are used in condenser and heat exchanger tubes, piping, pumps, in Europe, Switzerland pioneered the nickel billon coinage in 1850, with the addition of silver. In 1968, Switzerland adopted the far cheaper 75,25 copper to nickel ratio being used by the Belgians, the United States, and Germany. From 1947 to 2012, all “silver” coinage in the UK was made from cupronickel, prior to these dates, both denominations had been made only in silver in the United States. Cupronickel is the cladding on either side of United States half-dollars since 1971, some circulating coins, such as the United States Jefferson nickel, the Swiss franc, and the South Korean 500 and 100 won are made of solid cupronickel.
Single-core thermocouple cables use a single pair of thermocouple conductors such as iron-constantan. These have the element of constantan or nickel-chromium alloy within a sheath of copper. Cupronickel is used in cryogenic applications, beginning around the turn of the 20th century, bullet jackets were commonly made from this material. It was soon replaced with gilding metal to reduce fouling in the bore. Currently, cupronickel remains the basic material for silver-plated cutlery and it is commonly used for mechanical and electrical equipment, medical equipment, jewelry items, and as material for strings for string instruments. Fender Musical Instruments used CuNiFe magnets in their Wide Range Humbucker pickup for various Telecaster and Starcaster guitars during the 1970s, for high-quality cylinder locks and locking systems, cylinder cores are made from wear-resistant cupronickel
Nickel silver, German silver, new silver, nickel brass, alpacca, or electrum is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc. The usual formulation is 60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc, Nickel silver is named for its silvery appearance, but it contains no elemental silver unless plated. The name German silver refers to its development by 19th-century German metalworkers in imitation of the Chinese alloy known as paktong, all modern, commercially important nickel silvers contain significant amounts of zinc, and are sometimes considered a subset of brass. Nickel silver was first known and used in China, during the Qing dynasty, it was smuggled into various parts of the East Indies, despite a government ban on the export of nickel silver. It became known in the west from imported wares called bai-tong or paktong, according to Berthold Laufer, it was identical with khar sini, one of the seven metals recognized by Jābir ibn Hayyān. In Europe, consequently, it was at first called paktong, the earliest European mention of paktong occurs in the year 1597.
From until the end of the century there are references to it as having been exported from Canton to Europe. German imitations of paktong, began to appear from about 1750 onward, in 1770 the Suhl metalworks were able to produce a similar alloy. In 1823 a German competition was held to perfect the production process, the brothers Henniger in Berlin and Ernst August Geitner in Schneeberg independently achieved this goal. The manufacturer Berndorf named the trademark brand Alpacca, which became known in northern Europe for nickel silver. In 1830 the German process of manufacture was introduced into England and that is why today the alloy has lost its original name and is generally known as German silver. In 1832, a form of German silver was developed in Birmingham, after 1840, the development of electroplating caused nickel silver to become widely used. It formed an ideal and bright substrate for the plating process and it was used unplated in applications such as cheaper grades of cutlery. Nickel silver first became popular as a metal for silver-plated cutlery and other silverware.
It is widely used in the production of coins and its industrial and technical uses include marine fittings and plumbing fixtures for its corrosion resistance, and heating coils for its high electrical resistance. In the 19th century, particularly after 1868, Plains Indian jewelers were able to easily acquire sheets of German silver and they used them to cut and cold hammer a wide range of accessories and horse gear. Nickel silver is the metal of choice among contemporary Kiowa and Pawnee metalsmiths in Oklahoma, many of the metal fittings on modern higher-end equine harness and tack are of nickel silver. Early in the century, German silver was used by automobile manufacturers before the advent of steel sheet metal, for example
Supreme Assembly (Tajikistan)
The previous Chairman of the Majlisi namoyandagon was Saydullo Khayrulloyev was elected on 27 March 2000. He was succeeded by Shukurjon Zuhurov on March 16,2010, national Assembly, the upper chamber with 33 members,25 elected for a five-year term by deputies of local majlisi and 8 appointed by the president. The current Chairman of the Majlisi milli is Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev from April 17,2000, the bicameral legislature was introduced in the September 1999 constitution. Prior to that, Tajikistan had a unicameral legislature
Rudaki composed poems in the New Persian alphabet and is considered a founder of classical Persian literature. His poetry contains many of the oldest genres of Persian poetry including the quatrain, rudakis Nahr and Ayn, Khing- but and Surkhbut, and Wamiq and Azra have prospered on the riches of the oral tradition of folklores. Rudaki was born in 858 in Rudak, a located in the Samanid Empire which is now Panjakent. Even though most of his biographers assert that he was completely blind and his accurate knowledge and description of colors, as evident in his poetry, renders this assertion very doubtful. He was the poet to the Samanid ruler Nasr II in Bukhara, although he eventually fell out of favour. Early in his life, the fame of his accomplishments reached the ear of the Samanid Nasr II ibn Ahmad, the ruler of Khorasan and Transoxiana, Rudaki became his daily companion, amassed great wealth, and become highly honored. He was very adept singer and instrumentalist, the common opinion was that Rudaki was born blind or was blind from his childhood.
However, some of early biographies, like Samani and Nezami Aruzi do not emphasis his blindness as natural-born, ferdowsi just mentions in his Shahnameh that they recited Kelileh o Demneh to him and he rendered it into poem. Also using some of his poems we can see that he had sight, The contemporary Iranian scholar, Said Nafisi, has a book about Rudaki called Biography and Time of Rudaki. This revolt led to the overthrow of the Samanid king and Rudaki, as his companion, was tortured and blinded. After this, Rudaki went back to the town where he was born. Of the 1,300,000 verses attributed to him, only 52 qasidas and rubais survived, numerous fragments, are preserved in the Persian lexicon of Asadi Tusi. Paul Horn, Geschichte der persischen Literatur, p.73 E. G. Browne, Literary History of Persia, i. C. J. Pickering, A Persian Chaucer in National Review. More recently, in 1963, Saʻīd Nafīsī identified more fragments to be attributed to Rudaki and has assembled them, together with an extensive biography, sample Poetry, Look at the cloud, how it cries like a grieving man Thunder moans like a lover with a broken heart.
Now and the sun peeks from behind the clouds Like a prisoner hiding from the guard, for the 1100th anniversary of his birth, the Iranian government published a series of stamps showing his picture. An international seminar was held at Vahdat Hall, Iran on 21 December 2008, to mark his 1150th birth anniversary, with President Ahmadinejad, in this seminar, Rudaki was celebrated as the father of the Modern Persian literature. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature, ISBN 90-277-0143-1 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Rūdagī. Sassan Tabatabai, Father of Persian Verse and His Poetry, Amsterdam University Press, Abu Abd Allah, a biography by Professor Iraj Bashiri, University of Minnesota
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
Mir Syed Ali bin Shahab-ud-Din Hamadani was a Persian Sūfī of the Kubrāwī order, a poet and a prominent Shafii Muslim scholar. He was born in Hamadan, died in Kunar, and was buried in Khatlan and he played a major role in spreading Islam in Kashmir and he has influenced the culture of the Kashmir valley. He was known as Shāh Hamadhān and as Amīr-i Kabīr and he wrote several short works on spirituality and Sufism. He has influenced the works of his contemporary in Kashmir, the female Śaiva poet Lallēśvārī, risalah Nooriyah, is a tract on contemplation. Dur Mu’rifati Surat wa Sirat-i-Insaan, discusses the bodily and moral features of man, dur Haqaa’iki Tawbah, deals with the real nature of penitence. Hallil Nususi allal Fusus, is a commentary on Ibn-ul-‘Arabi’s Fusus-ul-Hikam, sharhi Qasidah Khamriyah Faridhiyah, is a commentary on the wine-qasidah of ‘Umar ibn ul-Fariz who died in 786 A. H. =1385 A. C. Risalatul Istalahaat, is a treatise on Sufic terms and expressions. Dah Qa’idah gives ten rules of contemplative life, kitabul Mawdah Fil Qurba, puts together traditions on affection among relatives.
Kitabus Sab’ina Fi Fadha’il Amiril Mu’minin, gives the seventy virtues of Hazrat ‘Ali, arba’ina Amiriyah, is forty traditions on man’s future life. Rawdhtul Firdaws, is an extract of a work entitled. AWRAAD-UL-FATHIYAH, gives a conception of the unity of God and his attributes
Shotemur was born on December 1,1899 in Shughnon District, Tajikistan, to a poor farmer family. At the age of 13 Shotemur started assisting his family on the field, from 1914 to 1918 he worked at a factory in Tashkent. In 1921 he began pursuing a career and was sent back to the Pamirs as a member of the political-military team. From 1923 to 1924 he worked as an instructor of the national department of Tajikistans Communist Party Central Committee. At the same time he headed the Tajik communist section, during his lifetime Shirinsho Shotemur held many leading positions in the Tajik government and in the communist party. In 1937 Shotemur was charged with participation in a nationalistic organization. Later the same year the Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR sentenced Shotemur to death and he was executed on October 27,1937. In 1956 Shotemur was posthumously rehabilitated by Military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR, Shirinsho Shotemur was one of the main initiators of establishing the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic in 1924.
As of 1927 Shotemur was the Tajik ASSRs representative in the Uzbek SSR, in 1929, Shirinsho Shotemur successfully insisted on joining Sughd Province to the Tajik ASSR. The same year he initiated the exit of Tajikistan from the Uzbek SSR, many Soviet historians believe that his initiatives to separate Tajikistan from the Uzbek SSR caused his rivals to falsify charges against Shotemur, which led to his death sentence. Shirinsho Shotemur was awarded with prestigious state awards during his lifetime, as well as posthumously, in 1930 Shirinsho Shotemur married Alexandra Mikhailovna Kiselyova, who had recently moved to Tajikistan. Shotemur has two sons - Shirinsho Jr. and Rustam, after Shirinshos arrest in 1937, his wife was sent off to political prisoners family camp in Siberia. His children, who were at their grandparents house at the time of arrest, in 1940 the boys received a letter from their mother, in which she wrote in a coded language that she would return. However, on the way home she was detained again and sent to Krasnoyarsk, even after her final return in 1944 Alexandra was not allowed to live with her children.
Later the same year she died, for political reasons Shirinsho Shotemur Jr. faced problems entering a university after school. Soon a friend helped the family to change his brothers name to Rustam Arturovich Avotyn to avoid further problems. Shotemur Sr. s other family members in Tajik SSR were subject to repression, Shirinsho Jr. and Rustam had no contact with their Tajik relatives until their fathers name was officially rehabilitated. Biography, Shirinsho Shotemur The Big Soviet Encyclopedia Official website of the President of Republic of Tajikistan Tajik National Information Agency Khovar Centrasia. ru