Lester Lawrence Lessig III is an American academic and political activist. He is the Roy L. Furman Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and the former director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University. Lessig was a candidate for the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 U. S. withdrew before the primaries. Lessig is a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright and radio frequency spectrum in technology applications. In 2001, he founded Creative Commons, a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and to share legally. Prior to his most recent appointment at Harvard, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School, where he founded the Center for Internet and Society, at the University of Chicago, he is a former board member of Software Freedom Law Center. C. lobbying groups Public Knowledge and Free Press. As a political activist, Lessig has called for state-based activism to promote substantive reform of government with a Second Constitutional Convention.
In May 2014, he launched a crowd-funded political action committee which he termed Mayday PAC with the purpose of electing candidates to Congress who would pass campaign finance reform. Lessig is the co-founder of Rootstrikers, is on the boards of MapLight and Represent. Us, he serves on the advisory boards of the Sunlight Foundation. In August 2015, Lessig announced that he was exploring a possible candidacy for President of the United States, promising to run if his exploratory committee raised $1 million by Labor Day. After accomplishing this, on September 6, 2015, Lessig announced that he was entering the race to become a candidate for the 2016 Democratic Party's presidential nomination. Lessig has described his candidacy as a referendum on campaign finance reform and electoral reform legislation, he stated that, if elected, he would serve a full term as president with his proposed reforms as his legislative priorities. He ended his campaign in November 2015, citing rule changes from the Democratic Party that precluded him from appearing in the televised debates.
Lessig earned a B. A. degree in economics and a B. S. degree in management from the University of Pennsylvania, an M. A. degree in philosophy from the University of Cambridge in England, a J. D. degree from Yale Law School in 1989. After graduating from law school, he clerked for a year for Judge Richard Posner, at the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago and another year for Justice Antonin Scalia at the Supreme Court. Lessig started his academic career at the University of Chicago Law School, where he was professor from 1991 to 1997; as co-director of the Center for the Study of Constitutionalism in Eastern Europe there, he helped the newly-independent Republic of Georgia draft a constitution. From 1997 to 2000, he was at Harvard Law School, holding for a year the chair of Berkman Professor of Law, affiliated with the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, he subsequently joined Stanford Law School, where he established the school's Center for Internet and Society. Lessig returned to Harvard in July 2009 as professor and director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics.
In 2013, Lessig was appointed as the Roy L. Furman Professor of Leadership. Lessig was portrayed by Christopher Lloyd during season 6 of The West Wing. Lessig has been politically liberal since studying philosophy at Cambridge in the mid-1980s. By the late 1980s, two influential conservative judges, Judge Richard Posner and Justice Antonin Scalia, selected him to serve as a law clerk, choosing him for his supposed "brilliance" rather than for his ideology and making him the "token liberal" on their staffs. Posner would call him "the most distinguished law professor of his generation."Lessig has emphasized in interviews that his philosophy experience at Cambridge radically changed his values and career path. He had held strong conservative or libertarian political views, desired a career in business, was a active member of Teenage Republicans, served as the Youth Governor for Pennsylvania through the YMCA Youth and Government program in 1978, pursued a Republican political career. What was intended to be a year abroad at Cambridge convinced him instead to stay another two years to complete an undergraduate degree in philosophy and develop his changed political values.
During this time, he traveled in the Eastern Bloc, where he acquired a lifelong interest in Eastern European law and politics. Lessig remains skeptical of government intervention but favors some regulation, calling himself "a constitutionalist." On one occasion, Lessig commended the John McCain campaign for discussing fair use rights in a letter to YouTube where it took issue with YouTube for indulging overreaching copyright claims leading to the removal of various campaign videos. In computer science, "code" refers to the text of a computer program. In law, "code" can refer to the texts. In his 1999 book Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Lessig explores the ways in which code in both senses can be instruments for social control, leading to his dictum that "Code is law." Lessig updated his work in order to keep up with the prevailing views of the time and released the book as Code: Version 2.0 in December 2006. Lessig has been a proponent of the remix culture since the early 2000s. In his 2008 book Remix he presents this as a de
Beamer is a LaTeX document class for creating slides for presentations. It supports LaTeX + dvips; the name is taken from the German word "Beamer" as a pseudo-anglicism for "video projector". The Beamer class is not the first LaTeX class for creating presentations, like many of its predecessors, it has special syntax for defining "slides". Slides can be built up on-screen in stages as if by revealing text, hidden or covered; this is handled with PDF output by creating successive pages that preserve the layout but add new elements, so that advancing to the next page in the PDF file appears to add something to the displayed page, when in fact it has redrawn the page. The list of features supported by Beamer is quite long; the most important features, according to the user guide are: Beamer can be used with pdflatex, latex+dvips and xelatex. Latex+dvipdfm isn’t supported; the standard commands of LaTeX still work. A \tableofcontents will still create a table of contents, \section is still used to create structure, itemize still creates a list.
Overlays and dynamic effects can be created. The appearance of presentations can be modified using themes; the layout, the colors, the fonts used in a presentation can be changed globally, while preserving control over the most minute detail. A special style file allows for the use the LaTeX source of a presentation directly in other LaTeX classes such as article or book; this makes it easy to create presentations out of lecture notes or lecture notes out of presentations. The final output is a PDF file, making it portable and worry-free, in the sense that a given presentation will always look the same no matter the machine it is opened on. Source code for Beamer presentations, like any other LaTeX file, can be created using any text editor, but there is specific support for Beamer syntax in AUCTeX and LyX. Beamer supports syntax of other LaTeX presentation packages, including Prosper and Foils, by using compatibility packages. Beamer provides the ability to make "handouts", a version of the output suitable for printing, without the dynamic features, so that the printed version of a slide shows the final version that will appear during the presentation.
For putting more than one frame on the paper, the pgfpages package is to be used. An "article" version is available, rendered on standard sized paper, with frame titles used as paragraph titles, no special slide layout/colors, keeping the sectioning; this version is suitable for lecture notes or for having a single source file for an article and the slides for the talk about this article. Beamer depends on PGF for some of its features. Powerdot – a LaTeX class for making professional-looking presentation slides Prosper – a LaTeX class for writing transparencies Voß, Herbert. Presentations with LaTeX. Berlin: Lehmanns Media. ISBN 9783865414960. Beamer home page beamerposter – a Beamer extension for scientific conference posters in DIN-A0 size or bigger Till Tantau, Joseph Wright, Vedran Miletić User's guide – from www.ctan.org Beamer Theme Matrix wiki2beamer: Tool to create Beamer presentations from a wiki-like syntax Dohmen, Klaus Dual Screen Presentations with the LaTeX Beamer Class under X – from The PracTeX Journal Beamer2Thesis Introduction to Beamer – How to make a presentation Using beamer.cls: "An intentionally incomplete guide" from LaTeX for Logicians Beamer by Example from PracTEX Journal, many examples of both TeX source and formatted output Introduction to Beamer on Wikibooks A presentation using the LaTeX Beamer class
Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program, created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software company named Forethought, Inc. It was released on April 20, 1987 for Macintosh computers only. Microsoft acquired PowerPoint for $14 million three months; this was Microsoft's first significant acquisition, Microsoft set up a new business unit for PowerPoint in Silicon Valley where Forethought had been located. Microsoft PowerPoint is one of many programs run by the company Microsoft and can be identified by its trademark orange, P initial on the logo, it offers users many ways to display information from simple presentations to complex multimedia presentations. PowerPoint became a component of the Microsoft Office suite, first offered in 1989 for Macintosh and in 1990 for Windows, which bundled several Microsoft apps. Beginning with PowerPoint 4.0, PowerPoint was integrated into Microsoft Office development, adopted shared common components and a converged user interface. PowerPoint's market share was small at first, prior to introducing a version for Microsoft Windows, but grew with the growth of Windows and of Office.
Since the late 1990s, PowerPoint's worldwide market share of presentation software has been estimated at 95 percent. PowerPoint was designed to provide visuals for group presentations within business organizations, but has come to be widely used in many other communication situations, both in business and beyond; the impact of this much wider use of PowerPoint has been experienced as a powerful change throughout society, with strong reactions including advice that it should be used less, should be used differently, or should be used better. The first PowerPoint version was used to produce overhead transparencies, the second could produce color 35mm slides; the third version introduced video output of virtual slideshows to digital projectors, which would over time replace physical transparencies and slides. A dozen major versions since have added many additional features and modes of operation and have made PowerPoint available beyond Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows, adding versions for iOS, web access.
PowerPoint was created by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin at a software startup in Silicon Valley named Forethought, Inc. Forethought had been founded in 1983 to create an integrated environment and applications for future personal computers that would provide a graphical user interface, but it had run into difficulties requiring a "restart" and new plan. On July 5, 1984, Forethought hired Robert Gaskins as its vice president of product development to create a new application that would be suited to the new graphical personal computers, such as Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh. Gaskins produced his initial description of PowerPoint about a month in the form of a 2-page document titled "Presentation Graphics for Overhead Projection." By October 1984 Gaskins had selected Dennis Austin to be the developer for PowerPoint. Gaskins and Austin worked together on the definition and design of the new product for nearly a year, produced the first specification document dated August 21, 1985; this first design document showed a product as it would look in Microsoft Windows 1.0, which at that time had not been released.
Development from that spec was begun by Austin for Macintosh first. About six months on May 1, 1986, Gaskins and Austin chose a second developer to join the project, Thomas Rudkin. Gaskins prepared two final product specification marketing documents in June 1986. At about the same time, Austin and Gaskins produced a second and final major design specification document, this time showing a Macintosh look. Throughout this development period the product was called "Presenter." Just before release, there was a last-minute check with Forethought's lawyers to register the name as a trademark, "Presenter" was unexpectedly rejected because it had been used by someone else. Gaskins says that he thought of "PowerPoint", based on the product's goal of "empowering" individual presenters, sent that name to the lawyers for clearance, while all the documentation was hastily revised. Funding to complete development of PowerPoint was assured in mid-January, 1987, when a new Apple Computer venture capital fund, called Apple's Strategic Investment Group, selected PowerPoint to be its first investment.
A month on February 22, 1987, Forethought announced PowerPoint at the Personal Computer Forum in Phoenix. By early 1987, Microsoft was starting to plan a new application to create presentations, an activity led by Jeff Raikes, head of marketing for the Applications Division. Microsoft assigned an internal group to write a specification and plan for a new presentation product, they contemplated an acquisition to speed up development, in early 1987 Microsoft sent a letter of intent to acquire Dave Winer's product called MORE, an outlining program that could print its outlines as bullet charts. During this preparatory activity Raikes discovered that a program to make overhead presentations was being developed by Forethought, Inc. and that it was nearly completed. Raikes and others visited Forethought on February 1987, for a confidential demonstration. Raikes recounted his reaction to s
Audrey Tang is a Taiwanese free software programmer, described as one of the "ten greats of Taiwanese computing personalities." In August 2016, she was invited to join the Taiwan Executive Yuan as a minister without portfolio, making her the first transgender official in the top executive cabinet. Tang's parents are Lee Ya-ching. Tang showed an early interest in computers, beginning to learn Perl programming at age 12. Two years she dropped out of high school, unable to adapt to student life. By the year 2000, at the age of 19, Tang had held positions in software companies, worked in California's Silicon Valley as an entrepreneur. In late 2005, Tang began transitioning to female, including changing her English and Chinese names, citing a need to reconcile her outward appearance with her self-image; when her gender transition is brought up, Tang has said, ″I've been shutting reality off and lived exclusively on the net for many years, because my brain knows for sure that I am a woman, but the social expectations demand otherwise″The Television news channel of Republic of China, ETToday, reports that she has an IQ of 180.
She is a vocal proponent for individualist anarchism. Tang is better known for initiating and leading the Pugs project, a joint effort from the Haskell and Perl communities to implement the Perl 6 language. On CPAN, Tang initiated over 100 Perl projects between June 2001 and July 2006, including the popular Perl Archive Toolkit, a cross-platform packaging and deployment tool for Perl 5, she is responsible for setting up smoke test and digital signature systems for CPAN. In October 2005, she was a speaker at O'Reilly Media's European Open Source Convention in Amsterdam. Tang was named a minister without portfolio in the Lin Chuan cabinet in August 2016, she took office as the "Digital Minister" on October 1, was placed in charge of helping government agencies communicate policy goals and managing information published by the government, both via digital means. Tang was quoted saying, "My existence is not to become a minister for a certain group, nor to broadcast government propaganda. Instead, it is to become a "channel" to allow greater combinations of intelligence and strength to come together."
Tang was given this role in the Taiwanese cabinet, as a minister without portfolio, to bridge the gap between the older and younger generations. Tang is working on the development of free software, for the public to access, show that the new Taiwanese sharing economy, is in fact a working system. At age 35, Tang became the youngest minister without portfolio in Taiwanese history. Aker, Brian. 架設 Slash 社群網站. Taipei, Taiwan: O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-986-7794-22-2. Huang, Echo. "Taiwan's new digital minister is a transgender software programmer who wants to make governement more open". Quartz. Audrey's Personal Blog. An interview with Autrijus by Debby Podcast interview with Audrey on Perlcast Perl Archive Toolkit Audrey's contributions on CPAN "SocialCalc" Can Taiwan Build An'Asian Silicon Valley'? "Asian Silicon Valley" in Taoyuan misses key points'Asian Silicon Valley' project will change Taiwan's future: premier Asian Silicon Valley = Taiwan’s DPP Collision with Student Movement