Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. In English "plaster" means a material used for the interiors of buildings, while "render" refers to external applications. Another imprecise term used for the material is stucco, often used for plasterwork, worked in some way to produce relief decoration, rather than flat surfaces; the most common types of plaster contain either gypsum, lime, or cement, but all work in a similar way. The plaster is manufactured as a dry powder and is mixed with water to form a stiff but workable paste before it is applied to the surface; the reaction with water liberates heat through crystallization and the hydrated plaster hardens. Plaster can be easily worked with metal tools or sandpaper, can be moulded, either on site or to make pre-formed sections in advance, which are put in place with adhesive. Plaster is not a strong material. Forms of plaster have several other uses.
In medicine plaster orthopedic casts are still used for supporting set broken bones. In dentistry plaster is used to make dental impressions. Various types of models and moulds are made with plaster. In art, lime plaster is the traditional matrix for fresco painting. In the ancient world, as well as the sort of ornamental designs in plaster relief that are still used, plaster was widely used to create large figurative reliefs for walls, though few of these have survived. Clay plaster is a mixture of clay and water with the addition of plant fibers for tensile strength over wood lath. Clay plaster has been used since antiquity. Settlers in the American colonies used clay plaster on the interiors of their houses: “Interior plastering in the form of clay antedated the building of houses of frame, must have been visible in the inside of wattle filling in those earliest frame houses in which …wainscot had not been indulged. Clay continued in the use long after the adoption of laths and brick filling for the frame."
Where lime was not available or accessible it was rationed or substituted with other binders. In Martin E. Weaver’s seminal work he says, “Mud plaster consists of clay or earth, mixed with water to give a “plastic” or workable consistency. If the clay mixture is too plastic it will shrink and distort on drying, it will probably drop off the wall. Sand and fine gravels were added to reduce the concentrations of fine clay particles which were the cause of the excessive shrinkage.” Straw or grass was added sometimes with the addition of manure. In the Earliest European settlers’ plasterwork, a mud plaster was used or more a mud-lime mixture. McKee writes, of a circa 1675 Massachusetts contract that specified the plasterer, “Is to lath and siele the four rooms of the house betwixt the joists overhead with a coat of lime and haire upon the clay. 5. To lath and plaster partitions of the house with clay and lime, to fill and plaister them with lime and haire besides. 6. The said Daniel Andrews is to find lime, clay, haire, together with laborers and workmen….”
Records of the New Haven colony in 1641 mention hay as well as lime and hair also. In German houses of Pennsylvania the use of clay persisted.” Old Economy Village is one such German settlement. The early Nineteenth-Century utopian village in present-day Ambridge, used clay plaster substrate in the brick and wood frame high architecture of the Feast Hall, Great House and other large and commercial structures as well as in the brick and log dwellings of the society members; the use of clay in plaster and in laying brickwork appears to have been a common practice at that time not just in the construction of Economy village when the settlement was founded in 1824. Specifications for the construction of, “Lock keepers houses on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, written about 1828, require stone walls to be laid with clay mortar, excepting 3 inches on the outside of the walls…which to be good lime mortar and well pointed.” The choice of clay was because of its low cost, but the availability. At Economy, root cellars dug under the houses yielded clay and sand, or the nearby Ohio river yielded washed sand from the sand bars.
Other required building materials were sourced locally. The surrounding forests of the new village of Economy provided straight grain, old-growth oak trees for lath. Hand split lath starts with a log of straight grained wood of the required length; the log is spit into quarters and smaller and smaller bolts with wedges and a sledge. When small enough, a froe and mallet were used to split away narrow strips of lath - unattainable with field trees and their many limbs. Farm animals pastured in the fields cleared of trees provided the hair and manure for the float coat of plaster. Fields of wheat and grains provided straw and other grasses for binders for the clay plaster, but there was no uniformity in clay plaster recipes. Straw or grass was added sometimes with the addition of manure providing fiber for tensile strength as well as protein adhesive. Proteins in the manure act as binders; the hydrogen bonds of p
Goguryeo called Goryeo, was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. Along with Baekje and Silla, Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it was an active participant in the power struggle for control of the Korean peninsula and was associated with the foreign affairs of neighboring polities in China and Japan. The Samguk sagi, a 12th-century text from Goryeo, indicates that Goguryeo was founded in 37 BCE by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo, enthroned as Dongmyeong. Goguryeo was one of the great powers in East Asia, until its defeat by a Silla–Tang alliance in 668 after prolonged exhaustion and internal strife caused by the death of Yeon Gaesomun. After its fall, its territory was divided among the states of Later Balhae; the name Goryeo, a shortened form of Goguryeo, was adopted as the official name in the 5th century, is the origin of the English name "Korea". In the geographic monographs of the Book of Han, the word Goguryeo made its first appearance in 113 BCE in the name of Gaogouli County under the jurisdiction of Xuantu Commandery.
In the Old Book of Tang, it is recorded that Emperor Taizong refers to Goguryeo's history as being some 900 years old. According to the 12th-century Samguk sagi and the 13th-century Samgungnyusa, a prince from the Buyeo kingdom named Jumong fled after a power struggle with other princes of the court and founded Goguryeo in 37 BCE in a region called Jolbon Buyeo thought to be located in the middle Yalu and Tongjia River basin, overlapping the current China-North Korea border. In 75 BCE, a group of Yemaek who may have originated from Goguryeo made an incursion into China's Xuantu Commandery west of the Yalu. However, the weight of textual evidence from the Old Book of Tang, New Book of Tang, the Samguk sagi, the Nihon Shoki as well as other ancient sources would support a 37 BCE or "middle" first century BCE foundation date for Goguryeo. Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo.
The first mention of Goguryeo as a group label associated with Yemaek tribes is a reference in the Han Shu that discusses a Goguryeo revolt in 12 CE, during which they broke away from the influence of the Chinese at Xuantu. At its founding, the Goguryeo people are believed to be a blend of people from Buyeo and Yemaek, as leadership from Buyeo may have fled their kingdom and integrated with existing Yemaek chiefdoms; the Records of the Three Kingdoms, in the section titled "Accounts of the Eastern Barbarians", implied that Buyeo and the Yemaek people were ethnically related and spoke a similar language. Both Goguryeo and Baekje originated from Buyeo; the earliest mention of Jumong is in the 4th-century Gwanggaeto Stele. Jumong is the modern Korean transcription of 鄒牟 Chumo, or 仲牟 Jungmo; the Stele states that Jumong was the first king and ancestor of Goguryeo and that he was the son of the prince of Buyeo and daughter of Habaek, the god of the Amnok River or, according to an alternate interpretation, the sun god Haebak.
The Samguk sagi and Samgungnyusa paint names Jumong's mother as Yuhwa. Jumong's biological father was said to be a man named Haemosu, described as a "strong man" and "a heavenly prince." The river god chased Yuhwa away to the Ubal River due to her pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of Geumwa. Jumong was well known for his exceptional archery skills. Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, Jumong was forced to leave Eastern Buyeo; the Stele and Korean sources disagree as to which Buyeo Jumong came from. The Stele says he came from Buyeo and the Samgungnyusa and Samguk sagi say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Jumong made it to Jolbon, where he married Soseono, daughter of its ruler, he subsequently became king himself, founding Goguryeo with a small group of his followers from his native country. A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk sagi says that Soseono was the daughter of Yeon Tabal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon and married to Jumong. However, the same source states that the king of Jolbon gave his daughter to Jumong, who had escaped with his followers from Eastern Buyeo, in marriage.
She gave her husband, financial support in founding the new statelet, Goguryeo. After Yuri, son of Jumong and his first wife, Lady Ye, came from Dongbuyeo and succeeded Jumong, she left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms, one of, Baekje. Jumong's given surname was "Hae", the name of the Buyeo rulers. According to the Samgungnyusa, Jumong changed his surname to "Go" in conscious reflection of his divine parentage. Jumong is recorded to have conquered the tribal states of Biryu in 36 BCE, Haeng-in in 33 BCE, Northern Okjeo in 28 BCE. Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. In the time of Taejodae in 53 CE, five local tribes were reorganized into five centrally ruled districts. Foreign relations and the military were controlled by the king. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology.
Asuka is a village located in Takaichi District, Nara Prefecture, Japan. As of April 1, 2017, the village has an estimated population of 5,681, with 2,170 households, a population density of 240 persons per km²; the total area is 24.08 km². Asuka is the land. There are strict rules governing construction in this historic town. Asuka can be reached from Asuka Station on Kintetsu Yoshino Line train line. Although it's outside Asuka, Kashiharajingū-mae Station in neighboring Kashihara has service on the Kintetsu Kashihara Line, Minami Osaka Line and Yoshino Lines. By car, Asuka is on Route 169. For the ancient Asuka, see Asuka period and Asuka, Yamato. In 1956, the village of Asuka was founded as a result of a merger of three villages, Sakaai and Asuka. In 1966, Asuka was proclaimed a "historic town", as defined by the national Special Arrangement for Preservation of Historic Sites Law as well as Kyoto and Kamakura; the law restricts constructions and other civil engineering operations in the designated areas due preservation of the historic sites.
In 1967, a part of Asuka, around 391ha in area, was designated as a historic site for preservation. Along with this decision, the government planned to build Asuka National Historic Park, for which construction was launched in 1966 and finished in 1994. In 1972, a site with colorfully painted murals from the late Asuka period was found in the Takamatsuzuka Tomb. Since the Special Arrangement for Preservation of Historic Sites Law restricts any visual changes in the areas which it concerns, it has directly affected the daily life of residents. To preserve the site, they have had to give up some elements of modern life; as compensation, the Asuka Law, which aims to preserve the site and give economic support for Asuka residents, was settled in 1980. In various parts of the Asuka region are unusual carved granite stones the largest of, Masuda no iwafune; this is a large stone structure 11 meters in length, 8 meters in width, 4.7 meters In height. The upper surface is flat, with two square holes; this is located on top of a hill just a few hundred meters west of Okadera Station.
How or why this colossal stone and others was carved remains a mystery. They appear to be a different style than Buddhist sculptures. There are several nearby kofuns or tombs including the Ishibutai Kofun, built from massive boulders including one that weighs an estimated 75 tons; this may have been the tomb of Soga no Umako. Nara Prefecture Kashihara Sakurai Takatori Yoshino Temples Asuka-dera Oka-dera, aka Ryūgai-ji - Kansai Kannon Pilgrimage No.7 Tachibana-dera Kameishi Ishibutai Kofun Kitora Kofun Takamatsuzuka Kofun Amakashinooka Buyeo County, South Korea Capital of Japan Prince Shōtoku List of megalithic sites Media related to Asuka, Nara at Wikimedia Commons Village of Asuka
Fujiwara-kyō was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years, between 694 and 710. It was located in Yamato Province. However, the name Fujiwara-kyō was never used in the Nihon Shoki. During those times it was recorded as Aramashi-kyō; as of 2006, ongoing excavations have revealed construction on the site of Fujiwara-kyō as early as 682, near the end of the reign of Emperor Tenmu. With a brief halt upon Emperor Tenmu's death, construction resumed under Empress Jitō, who moved the capital in 694. Fujiwara-kyō remained the capital for the reigns of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genmei, but in 710 the Imperial court moved to the Heijō Palace in Nara, beginning the Nara period. Fujiwara was Japan's first capital built in a grid pattern on the Chinese model; the palace occupied a plot measuring about 1 km², was surrounded by walls 5 m high. Each of the four walls had three gates; the Daigokuden and other palace buildings were the first palace structures in Japan to have a tile roof in the Chinese style.
The area had been the domain of the Nakatomi clan, who oversaw the observation of Shintō rituals and ceremonies on behalf of the Imperial court. The city burnt down in 711, one year after the move to Nara, was not rebuilt. Archaeological excavations began in 1934, some portions of the palace were reconstructed. Close to 10,000 wooden tablets, known as mokkan, have been inscribed with Chinese characters; this waka, written by the Empress Jitō, describing Fujiwara in the summer, is part of the famous poem anthology, the Hyakunin Isshu: Which translates as Spring has passed, it seems, now summer has arrived. Fujiwara clan Frederic, Louis. "Japan Encyclopedia." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Exhibition Room of Fujiwara Imperial Site Media related to Fujiwara-kyō at Wikimedia Commons
Detachment of wall paintings
The detachment of wall paintings involves the removal of a wall painting from the structure of which it formed part. Once a common practice, with the move towards preservation in situ, detachment is now restricted to cases where the only alternative is total loss. According to the International Council on Monuments and Sites, "detachment and transfer are dangerous and irreversible operations that affect the physical composition, material structure and aesthetic characteristics of wall paintings; these operations are, only justifiable in extreme cases when all options of in situ treatment are not viable." Vitruvius records how in Sparta, in 59 BC, "paintings have been taken out of certain walls by cutting through the bricks, enclosed in wooden frames, brought to the Comitium". A century apprised of paintings of Atalanta and Helen without drapery and "enflamed with lust", Caligula attempted to carry them off, but was prevented by the makeup of the plaster. Maiuri cites examples of wall paintings in wooden frames excavated at Pompeii, a precursor to what was to follow in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The practice of detachment, in abeyance or undocumented for a millennium, was revived in Renaissance Italy, with several instances recorded by Vasari. In their study, Mora and Philippot cite four reasons for the "over-use" of detachment: the 19th-century division of the arts that privileged a "painting" divorced from its architectural and historical context. Commercial gain and exploitation as consumer goods by collectors and restorers provides another possible incentive; this process enables nowadays' companies to offer their customers an authentic fresco, created in their laboratory according to the ancient technique and transferred onto a canvas to be shipped to the place of installation. As the values of a society change, so to does its attitude towards works of the past. There are three main methods referred to by their Italian terms, namely stacco a massello, involving detachment and removal of painting and some or all of the mural support. "tearing", lifting of only the paint layer, attached to a facing with adhesive.
In each case the resulting material must be applied to a new support. Minimum intervention and reversibility are core conservation ethics that favour preservation in situ. Detachment breaks the intrinsic link between architecture. Conservation-restoration Transfer of panel paintings
White Tiger (China)
The White Tiger is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations. It is sometimes called the White Tiger of the West, is known as Bái Hǔ in Chinese, Byakko in Japanese, Baekho in Korean and Bạch Hổ in Vietnam, it represents the west in terms of the autumn season. As the other three symbols, there are seven astrological mansions, or positions, of the moon within White Tiger; the names and determinative stars are: In Chinese culture, the tiger is the king of the beasts and has been presented with a 王 on his forehead for centuries. According to legend, the tiger's tail would turn white. In this way, the white tiger became a kind of mythological creature, it was said that the white tiger would only appear when the emperor ruled with absolute virtue, or if there was peace throughout the world. Because the color white of the Wu Xing theory represents the west, the white tiger became a mythological guardian of the west. In Beyblade series, Ray kon's bitbeast Driger is based on this. In the novel Tales of the Tang dynasty, the reincarnation of the White Tiger's star is said to be General Luo Cheng, who served the Wagang Army and Li Shimin, the reincarnation of the Azure Dragon's star is said to be the rebellious General Shan Xiongxin, who served Wang Shichong.
They two are sworn brothers of Cheng Yaojin. Their souls after death are said to possess the body of the new heroes of the Tang and Goguryeo dynasties, Xue Rengui and Yeon Gaesomun In Gosei Sentai Dairanger, Kibaranger has a Byakko motif, his costume has a white tiger theme, his sword is called Byakkoshinken, his mecha is a white tiger. In B-Daman Fireblast, Bakuga Shira owns a B-daman with the White Tiger of West B-Animal. In Digimon, Baihumon is based on the white tiger. In Puzzle & Dragons, the White Tiger is incarnated as a little girl named Haku, she is part of the Chinese Pantheon. In Yu Yu Hakusho, Byakko is portrayed as a member of The Four Beasts. In Kylie Chan's Xuan Wu series, he is depicted as a womanising tiger, otherwise loving and loyal. In the Fushigi Yuugi series, the story Fushigi Yugi Byakko Senki is dedicated to Suzuno Osugi's quest to become the Priestess of Byakko. In Overwatch’s Chinese New Year 2018 event, Genji has a skin inspired by the White Tiger. In the video game Final Fantasy XIV: Stormblood, Byakko appears as the final boss on the Four Lords trial series.
He appears as a white tiger that transforms into a giant humanoid tiger with his right arm retainer the form of his tiger self. Byakkotai
The Azure Dragon known as Bluegreen Dragon, Green Dragon, or called the Blue Dragon, is one of the Dragon Gods who represent the mount or chthonic forces of the Five Forms of the Highest Deity. He is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations, which are the astral representations of the Wufang Shangdi; the Bluegreen Dragon represents the east and the spring season. It is known as Seiryu in Japanese, Cheong-nyong in Korean and Thanh Long in Vietnamese; the Dragon is referred to in media, feng shui, other cultures, in various venues as the Green Dragon and the Avalon Dragon. His cardinal direction's epithet is "Bluegreen Dragon of the East"; as the other three Symbols, there are seven "mansions", or positions, of the moon within Azure Dragon. The names and determinative stars are: In the Romance of the Tales of the Tang, the White Tiger's star is reincarnated as General Luo Cheng, who serves Li Shimin; the Azure Dragon's Star is reincarnated as General Shan Xiongxin. The two generals are sworn brothers of Cheng Zhijie and Yuchi Gong.
After death, their souls are said to possess heroes of the Tang dynasty and Goguryeo, such as Xue Rengui and Yeon Gaesomun. The Azure Dragon appears as a door god at Taoist temples, he was represented on the tomb of Wang Hui at Xikang in Lushan. A rubbing of this was collected by David Crockett Graham and is in the Field Museum of Natural History; the dragon featured on the Chinese national flag in 1862-1912, on the Twelve Symbols national emblem from 1913-1928. In Japan, the Blue-green Dragon is one of the four guardian spirits of cities and is said to protect the city of Kyoto on the east; the west is protected by the White Tiger, the north is protected by the Black Tortoise, the south is protected by the Vermilion Bird, the center is protected by the Yellow Dragon. In Kyoto there are temples dedicated to each of these guardian spirits; the Azure Dragon is represented in the Kiyomizu Temple in eastern Kyoto. Before the entrance of the temple there is a statue of the dragon, said to drink from the waterfall within the temple complex at nighttime.
Therefore, each year a ceremony is held to worship the dragon of the east. In 1983, the Kitora Tomb was found in the village of Asuka. All four guardians were painted on the walls and a system of the constellations was painted on the ceiling; this is one of the few ancient records of the four guardians. In Korea, the murals of the Goguryeo tombs found at Uhyon-ni in South Pyongan province features the Azure Dragon and the other mythological creatures of the four symbols. Chinese dragon In the mobile game Puzzle & Dragons, the Azure Dragon is known as "Incarnation of Seiryuu, Karin" with a woman who appears with a blue dragon tail. In the first 3 Beyblade series from Japan, the Azure Dragon is known as Dragoon, belongs to the protagonist Takao Kinomiya. In B-Daman Fireblast, Riki Ryugasaki owns Rising Dracyan, whose B-Animal is the Azure Dragon of the East. In the Digimon series, Azulongmon is designed after the Azure Dragon. In the Fushigi Yugi series Yui Hongo was transported to Universe of Four Gods where she became the Priestess of Seiryu.
In the video game Final Fantasy Type-0 the Azure Dragon is the name of one of the four Crystals of Orience, representing the Kingdom of Concordia. In the video game World of Warcraft: Mists of Pandaria the character of Yulon, the Jade Serpent, is inspired by the Azure Dragon. In the video game RuneScape there is an island chain influenced by Buddhism, complete with followers of Seiryu, who will be featured as a boss in an upcoming update. In the video game Monster Hunter 4 Ultimate the monster Azure Rathalos, a variation of the regular Rathalos, is inspired by the Azure Dragon. In the video game series Yakuza the character Kazuma Kiryu has an Azure Dragon as a tattoo on his back. In the anime Akatsuki No Yona, the character Shin-ah is the dragon warrior seiryuu. In the video game Sega Golden Gun, the Azure Dragon, represented by Gao Qiu, is a boss, its weak point is Gao Qiu himself. In the video game Age of Mythology: Tale of the Dragon, Azure Dragons, available to Ao Kuang, are firebreathing myth units that can travel on both land and water.
In the series Blue Dragon, the character Shu has a shadow monster that represents similar to the Azure Dragon. In the Persona series, Seiryu is a persona. In the video game Overwatch 2018 Chinese New Year event, the character, has a cosmetic skin that represents the Azure Dragon. In the Pokémon series, there are several. In the video game Final Fantasy XIV: Stormblood, Seiryu appears as the final boss on the Four Lords trial series, he is depicted as a snake. Tom, K. S.. Echoes from Old China: Life and Lore of the Middle Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824812859. Media related to Azure Dragon at Wikimedia Commons