Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
A Tree of Palme
A Tree of Palme is a 2002 Japanese anime film and directed by Takashi Nakamura. It was an official selection of the 2002 Berlin Film Festival. A Tree of Palme is an interpretation of the Pinocchio tale, it concerns a small puppet, tasked by his creator to look over his ailing wife, Xian. After her death, Palme is visited by a mysterious woman. Shaken out of his sadness, Palme accepts her request to deliver something special to a far-off place known as Tama; this sets Palme off on a journey to discover his own emotions, what it means to be human. Parumu no Ki on IMDb A Tree of Palme at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Golden Warrior Gold Lightan
Golden Warrior Gold Lightan is a mecha anime television series that aired from 1981 to 1982 in Japan. The show was popular in Hong Kong and was aired there around the same time. There are 52 episodes; the story is about a young boy named Hiro Taikai who finds a gold lighter which turns out to be the giant Golden Warrior Gold Lightan, who has the mission to save the earth from an invasion by King Ibalda. Gold Lightan joined forces with his robot teammates to ruin the plots of King Ibalda and destroy invading alien robots by using his surpassing hand and leg strikes. Hiro founded a group called the "Bratty Rangers" with his friends; the robot is disguised as a tiny gold Zippo-style lighter in Hiro's pocket. When called upon, Gold Lightan transforms into a giant robot towering at 30 meters and weighing 200 tons. All robots in the show do not require pilots; the robot ends a battle with a trademark golden hand stab move which drives a hand strike cutting the enemy robots body, pulling out and smashing the heartbox energy device.
Presenter: Kenji Yoshida Planners: Ippei Kuri, Shigeru Yanagawa Producer: Tomoyuki Miyata Chief Director: Koichi Mashimo Character Design: Ippei Kuri Mecha Establishment: Masaharu Kawamori Music: Masayuki Jinbo, Masayuki Yamamoto Animation director: Takashi Nakamura Key Animation: Takashi Nakamura This is a list of episodes from the television show Golden Warrior Gold Lightan in order by production number. In 2005, Hong Kong Bandai reissued the semi-original robots as part of the Soul of Chogokin label; the individual robots were released with a hard plastic display case, robot footstand, red carpet storage box, interchangeable gold hands pieces, an enemy's heartbox energy device. This version feature the robots with high quality 18K gold plating; the toys can be purchased individually or as a set. There are 2 known sets in the reissues. One is the first generation grey box, available in Hong Japan, featuring 6 of the robots. In 2005, replicas were re-released by Hung Hing toys in Hong Kong and Macau featuring the robots built in cheaper die-cast metals.
The texture and few minor details were inconsistent between the products. Multiple variations of the toys were sold as well. One such version is the large toy Gold Lightan measuring at 11.5 inches in height when standing in robot form, although only 2,000 were manufactured. Additionally, at the base of the foot, of the toy, is a label counting the manufactured number out of 2,000. Other variations include team robots in different colors or grey low weight plastic/silver exclusive to Hong Kong and Macau. There are more variations and replicas of Gold Lightan than any others because it is the lead robot in the series. There are other design variations. For example, older models of I. C. Lightan uses AA batteries to light up its LED eye, while newer reissues of the toy uses flat button or coin batteries. None of these re-releases are identical to the original 1980s GB series Chogokin toy launch from 1979 to 1983, by Popy Pleasure; the originals are valued at a higher price, as they were constructed with different grades of diecast metals as well as high quality acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.
In 2006, Bandai released a new version of the Gold Lightan in their Soul of Chogokin line-up - GX 32 The Gold Lightan. Not only were they considered to be one of the most detailed and sophisticated Gold Lightan toys yet, they were plated with 18K gold, as their predecessors were. Aside from being able to transform into a lighter, just like the original toys, its joints were well structured; the package comes with a stand, interchangeable hands, a heartbox energy device. The toy was well received by fans in Japan and Hong Kong; this caused Bandai Hong Kong to make a singular stand showcase just for the Gold Lightan, itself. The titular robot is a playable character in the fighting game Tatsunoko vs. Capcom: Ultimate All-Stars; when he fights, he can only be single as opposed to character doubles, since he is so big and powerful. Tatsunoko Database Soul of Chogokin Gold Lightan at CollectionDX Lightan Toys
Fantastic Children is a Japanese animated television series created by Takashi Nakamura and produced by Nippon Animation. It first aired in Japan across TV Tokyo between October 4, 2004 and March 28, 2005, totaling 26 episodes. There was an extended ending special released only on DVD; the series was translated and dubbed by Animax into English for broadcast across its English-language networks in Southeast Asia and South Asia. It is licensed in North America by Bandai Entertainment, who produced a separate English dub for release in the region; the series opens with the introduction of a group of white-haired children, known as the "Befort Children", named after "Befort" a fictional village in Belgium where their existence was first recorded in 1489. This group of enigmatic children has been spotted at different times and places in Europe for over 500 years. Always with the appearance of 11-year-olds, they behave far more mature than they should be, never grow old, seem to have supernatural power.
The story starts to unfold in 2012 by introducing Helga, an introverted 11-year-old orphan who drew pictures of a land with a crescent moon that she believed was her home. Her playmate and only friend in the orphanage, wants to help Helga find it. So together they escape from the orphanage and set out on a journey in which they meet Tohma, an energetic boy in his home, Papin Island. There Tohma tries to befriend them but becomes hostile to her, he is mesmerized by Helga's bravery in rescuing Chitto from a group of poisonous insects. Tohma, through his desire to help the two runaway orphans, ventures out on a quest that will cross paths with the mission of the Befort Children, who have spent centuries wandering Europe in search of a person named Tina; as they go further they come to realize a truth far more great and entwined with many other mysterious characters. Tohma is the series protagonist, he is an enthusiastic and energetic young boy who lives with his parents on the shores of Papin Island.
Voiced by: Junko Minagawa Helga is a quiet and introverted young girl, whom Tohma helps save from an oppressive orphanage. She is in search of a place, the source of her paintings. Voiced by: Shiho Kawaragi Chitto is a good-hearted young boy, an earnest and steadfast friend to Helga, her best friend at the orphanage. Voiced by: Kei Kobayashi The GED Organization is led by Gherta Hawksbee. Gherta uses Conrad Röntgen's findings to reconstruct the Autozone, a machine which brings people back from the Zone, the land of the dead, using Orsel, the life force in all living things; because of the high levels of Orsel required to bring someone back, however, a person can become unstable and the Orsel can turn into a sort of weapon. The GED is manipulated by Dumas so that he can send Tina's spirit back to her old body, though this plan does not work. Executive producer: Kōichi Motohashi Original creator, character designs and director: Takashi Nakamura Planning: Takuo Minegeshi, Michio Katō Planning coordination: Shin Unozawa, Kenichi Iyadomi, Shirō Sasaki Production manager: Shigeo Endō Script: Hideki Mitsui, Takashi Nakamura Art director: Nizo Yamamoto Art assistance: Osamu Masuyama, Akemi Imano Chief animation director: Miyuki Nakamura Storyboards: Katsumi Terahigashi, Hiroshi Fukutomi, Masaki Sugiyama Episode directors: Hiroshi Kaburagi, Kenichi Nishida, Kenichi Shimizu, Yoshimi Tsuda Animation directors: Kōichi Maruyama, Tetsurō Aoki, Hitoshi Haga, Yasuko Sakuma, Norihiro Naganuma Director of photography: Seiichi Morishita Color designs: Mayumi Satō Color designations: Yumi Asano, Makiko Nishidate Music: Kōji Ueno Sound director: Hiroyuki Hayase Music producer: Yūko Sakurai Music coordination: TV Tokyo Music Producer: Kenichi Satō Production: Hakuhodo DY Media Partners, Nippon Animation, FC Project The series' soundtrack was composed by Kōji Ueno.
A CD containing a total of 27 tracks was released on March 14, 2006, under the title Fantastic Children: A Gift from Greecia. It included both the opening theme of the show, "Voyage", the ending theme, "Mizu no Madoromi". Fantastic Children: Tokei Jikake no Tabibito-tachi, illustrated by Masakazu Miyano, was serialized in the monthly Comic Flapper, it was collected in two volumes. ISBN 4-8401-0983-4 ISBN 4-8401-1302-5 The Fantastic Children video game was released for the Game Boy Advance on May 19, 2005 by Bandai. Developed by Inti Creates, the game follows Tohma through his adventures from Papen Island with Helga and the Befort Children. Fantastic Children Official Japanese site Fantastic Children Official game site Fantastic Children at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Fantastic Children on IMDb Fantastic Children at TV.com
Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (film)
Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind is a 1984 Japanese animated epic science fantasy adventure film adapted and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, based on his 1982 manga of the same name. It was animated by Topcraft for Tokuma Shoten and Hakuhodo, distributed by the Toei Company. Joe Hisaishi, in his first collaboration with Miyazaki, composed the film's score; the film stars the voices of Sumi Shimamoto, Goro Naya, Yoji Matsuda, Yoshiko Sakakibara and Iemasa Kayumi. Taking place in a future post-apocalyptic world, the film tells the story of Nausicaä, the young princess of the Valley of the Wind, she becomes embroiled in a struggle with Tolmekia, a kingdom that tries to use an ancient weapon to eradicate a jungle of mutant giant insects. Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind was released in Japan on 11 March 1984. A heavily-altered version of the film created by Manson International, Warriors of the Wind, was released in the United States and other markets throughout the mid-to-late 1980s, was replaced in circulation by an uncut, redubbed version produced by Walt Disney Pictures.
Though it was made before Studio Ghibli was founded, it is considered a Ghibli work, was released as part of the Studio Ghibli Collection DVD and Blu-ray range. The film received critical acclaim, praising the story, themes and animation, it is ranked as one of the greatest animated films made. One thousand years have passed since the Seven Days of Fire, an apocalyptic war that destroyed civilization and created the vast Toxic Jungle, a poisonous forest swarming with giant mutant insects. In the kingdom of the Valley of the Wind, a prophecy predicts a saviour "clothed in blue robes, descending onto a golden field". Nausicaä, the princess of the Valley of the Wind, explores the jungle and communicates with its creatures, including the gigantic, trilobite-like armored Ohm, she hopes to find a way for it and humans to co-exist. Late in the night, a massive cargo aircraft from the kingdom of Tolmekia crashes in the Valley despite Nausicaä's attempt to save it, its sole survivor, Princess Lastelle of Pejite, dies.
The cargo is an embryo of a Giant Warrior, one of the lethal, gargantuan humanoid bioweapons that caused the Seven Days of Fire. Tolmekia, a military state, seized the embryo and Lastelle from Pejite, but their plane was attacked by insects and crashed. One of the insects emerges wounded from the wreckage and poises to attack, but Nausicaä uses a bullroarer to calm it and guides it away from the village. Soon after, Tolmekian troops, led by Princess Kushana, invade the Valley, execute Nausicaä's father and capture the embryo. Enraged, Nausicaä kills several Tolmekian soldiers and is about to be overwhelmed when the Valley's swordsmaster, Lord Yupa, soothes the belligerents. Kushana plans to use it to burn the Toxic Jungle. Yupa discovers a secret garden of jungle plants reared by Nausicaä. Kushana leaves for the Tolmekian capital with Nausicaä and five hostages from the Valley, but a Pejite interceptor shoots down the Tolmekian airships carrying them. Nausicaä, Kushana and the hostages crash-land in the jungle, disturbing several Ohms, which Nausicaä soothes.
She leaves to rescue the Pejite pilot Asbel, brother of Princess Lastelle, but both crash through a stratum of quicksand into a non-toxic area below the Toxic Jungle. Nausicaä realizes that the jungle plants purify the polluted topsoil, producing clean water and soil underground. Nausicaä and Asbel find it ravaged by insects. A band of survivors explains that they lured the insects to eradicate the Tolmekians, are doing the same to the Valley, they capture Nausicaä to prevent her from warning the Valley, but with the help of Asbel, his mother, a number of sympathizers, Nausicaä escapes on her glider. Flying home, she finds two Pejite soldiers baiting thousands of Ohms into the Valley using a wounded baby Ohm; the people of the Valley take shelter while the Tolmekians deploy tanks and the Giant Warrior, but tank-fire does not deter the Ohms, the Giant Warrior, hatched prematurely, disintegrates. Nausicaä gains its trust, she and the Ohm are run over. The Ohms use their golden tentacles to resuscitate her.
Nausicaä, her dress drenched blue with Ohm blood, walks atop golden Ohm tentacles as through golden fields, fulfilling the savior prophecy. The Ohms and Tolmekians leave the Valley, the Pejites remain with the Valley people, helping them rebuild. Deep underneath the Toxic Jungle, a non-toxic tree sprouts. Hayao Miyazaki made his credited directorial debut in 1979 with The Castle of Cagliostro, a film, a distinct departure from the antics of the Lupin III franchise, but still went on to receive the Ofuji Noburo Award at the 1979 Mainichi Film Concours. Although Cagliostro was not a box office success, Toshio Suzuki, editor of the magazine Animage, was impressed by the film and encouraged Miyazaki to produce works for Animage's publisher, Tokuma Shoten. Miyazaki's film ideas were rejected, Tokuma asked him to do a manga: this led to the creation of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. Miyazaki began writing and drawing the manga in 1979, it became Animage's most popular feature. Hideo Ogata and Yasuyoshi Tokuma, the founders of Animage and Tokuma Shoten encouraged Miyazaki to work on a film adaptation.
Miyazaki refused, but agreed on the condition that he could direct. In the early stages, Isao Takahata, credited as executive producer, reluctantly joined the