The Blind Boys of Alabama
The Blind Boys of Alabama is an American five-time Grammy Award-winning gospel group who first sang together in 1939. The Blind Boys have created an extensive discography. In 2016 the on-stage configuration of the group consisted of eight people: four blind singers—Jimmy Carter, Ben Moore, Eric "Ricky" McKinnie, Paul Beasley - guitarist and musical director Joey Williams, a keyboardist, a bass guitarist, a drummer; the Blind Boys of Alabama sing spiritually uplifting songs, as well as giving encouragement to those with disabilities. Blind group member Ricky McKinnie said "Our disability doesn't have to be a handicap. It's not about. It's about, and what we do is sing good gospel music." The Blind Boys of Alabama first sang together in the school chorus in 1939 at the Alabama Institute for the Negro Blind in Talladega, Alabama. All around nine years old at the time, the founding members were Clarence Fountain, George Scott, Velma Bozman Traylor, Johnny Fields, Olice Thomas, the only sighted member, J. T. Hutton.
The earliest version of the group was known as "The Happyland Jubilee Singers" and performed for World War II-era soldiers at training camps in the South. The group's first professional performance was on June 10, 1944. In 1945, the members began touring the gospel circuit. In 1948, a Newark, New Jersey promoter booked two sets of blind gospel singers - the Happy Land Jubilee Singers from Alabama and the Jackson Harmoneers from Mississippi - and advertised the program as "Battle of the Blind Boys." A friendly rivalry sprouted between continued henceforth. The two acts soon changed their names to the Five Blind Boys of Alabama and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi and toured together swapping members. In 1948, The Blind Boys of Alabama recorded their first single, "I Can See Everybody's Mother But Mine" on the Veejay label, it was a hit and led to a series of recordings on various record labels. During the 1950s black gospel music was popular, the Blind Boys were one of the better known groups.
Artists from pop and rock genres began to include aspects of black gospel music in their arrangements and black gospel artists began'crossing over' to pop and rock music. During the 1960s and 1970s, soul music gained favor as a new type of secular black music; as a traditional gospel group, the fortunes of The Blind Boys of Alabama waned during these decades. Soul music was spiritual and engaged pop music, its sales soon exceeded those of its gospel forerunners. Although soul music became a more financially successful route for many gospel artists, the Blind Boys of Alabama remained purely gospel singers. Fountain attributed their resistance to selling out to their lack of need, noting that they were happy and well-fed as they were and wanted to enjoy performing the music they sought to perform, as opposed to recording popular music for a paycheck. In spite of shifting societal trends, The Blind Boys continued to be active in the 1960s and 1970s, releasing thirteen more albums through several labels, including the Vee-Jay label from 1963 to 1965.
In the 1960s, the group's hard-driving gospel sound was imitated by others including Bobby "Blue" Bland and Marvin Gaye. In 1969, Fountain left the group for a decade to try to make it on his own, the group re-formed with all the original members in the late 1970s; the band joined the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s, performing at benefits for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Up until this point, the Blind Boys of Alabama had played for black church audiences; the group performed at the World's Fair in Knoxville in 1982 and again in 1983. At that time the Five Blind Boys of Alabama began appearing collectively as Oedipus in the musical theater production "The Gospel at Colonus." The play was acclaimed as a landmark in American Musical History, receiving two OBIE Awards and nominations for a Pulitzer Prize and a Tony Award. This production brought the Blind Boys to the attention of a mainstream audience, Victor Brown who owned a nightclub, a church, The Church House Inn in Providence, Rhode Island who assisted them in getting off the chitlin circuit and playing other venues in the USA and Europe.
With this exposure, the Blind Boys began working in several genres and alongside more popular artists. The Blind Boys released an album, Deep River in 1992, nominated for a Grammy Award; the album was produced by Booker T. Jones, featured a version of Bob Dylan's "I Believe In You." The Blind Boys continued experimenting with contemporary popular music with 1995's live album I Brought Him With Me and 1997's funk-leaning Holding On," both released on the House of Blues label. In 1994, the National Endowment for the Arts awarded a National Heritage Fellowship to Clarence Fountain and the Five Blind Boys of Alabama; the group's founding member Clarence Fountain died on June 2018 at the age of 88 from diabetes. Fountain had ceased performing on stage in 2007 but continued to record with the group in studio sessions. 1994 - National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts 2002 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for Spirit of the Century 2003 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for Higher Ground 2003 – Gospel Music Hall of Fame induction 2003 – Dove Award from the Gospel Music Association in Traditional Gospel Album of the Year for Higher Ground 2004 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for Go Tell It On the Mountain 2005 – Grammy in Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album for There Will Be a Light 2005 – Helen Keller Personal Achievement Award from the American Foundation for the Blind 2005 – Fi
Eunice Kathleen Waymon, known professionally as Nina Simone, was an American singer, musician and civil rights activist. Her music spanned a broad range of musical styles including classical, blues, folk, R&B, pop; the sixth of eight children born to a poor family in Tryon, North Carolina, Simone aspired to be a concert pianist. With the help of a few supporters in her hometown, she enrolled in the Juilliard School of Music in New York City, she applied for a scholarship to study at the prestigious Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, where she was denied admission despite a well-received audition, which she attributed to racial discrimination. In 2003, just days before her death, the Curtis Institute of Music gave her an honorary degree. To make a living, Simone started playing piano at a nightclub in Atlantic City, she changed her name to "Nina Simone" to disguise herself from family members, having chosen to play "the devil's music" or so-called "cocktail piano". She was told in the nightclub that she would have to sing to her own accompaniment, which launched her career as a jazz vocalist.
She went on to record more than 40 albums between 1958 and 1974. She made her debut with the album Little Girl Blue, she had a hit in the United States in 1958 with "I Loves You, Porgy". Her musical style fused gospel and pop with classical music, in particular Johann Sebastian Bach, accompanied expressive, jazz-like singing in her contralto voice. Simone was born Eunice Kathleen Waymon on February 21, 1933, in North Carolina; the sixth of eight children in a poor family, she began playing piano at the age of four. Demonstrating a talent with the instrument, she performed at her local church, her concert debut, a classical recital, was given when she was 12. Simone said that during this performance, her parents, who had taken seats in the front row, were forced to move to the back of the hall to make way for white people, she said that she refused to play until her parents were moved back to the front, that the incident contributed to her involvement in the civil rights movement. Simone's mother, Mary Kate Waymon, was a housemaid.
Her father, Rev. John Devan Waymon, was a handyman who at one time owned a dry-cleaning business, but suffered bouts of ill health. Simone's music teacher helped establish a special fund to pay for her education. Subsequently, a local fund was set up to assist her continued education. With the help of this scholarship money, she was able to attend Allen High School for Girls in Asheville, North Carolina. After her graduation, Simone spent the summer of 1950 at the Juilliard School as a student of Carl Friedberg, preparing for an audition at the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, her application, was denied. As her family had relocated to Philadelphia in the expectation of her entry to Curtis, the blow to her aspirations was heavy, she suspected that her application had been denied because of racial prejudice. Discouraged, she took private piano lessons with Vladimir Sokoloff, a professor at Curtis, but never re-applied to the institution, she took a job as a photographer's assistant, but found work as an accompanist at Arlene Smith's vocal studio and taught piano from her home in Philadelphia.
To fund her private lessons, Simone performed at the Midtown Bar & Grill on Pacific Avenue in Atlantic City, whose owner insisted that she sing as well as play the piano, which increased her income to $90 a week. In 1954, she adopted the stage name "Nina Simone". "Nina", derived from niña, was a nickname given to her by a boyfriend named Chico, "Simone" was taken from the French actress Simone Signoret, whom she had seen in the 1952 movie Casque d'Or. Knowing her mother would not approve of playing the "Devil's Music", she used her new stage name to remain undetected. Simone's mixture of jazz and classical music in her performances at the bar earned her a small but loyal fan base. In 1958, she befriended and married Don Ross, a beatnik who worked as a fairground barker, but regretted their marriage. Playing in small clubs in the same year, she recorded George Gershwin's "I Loves You, Porgy", which she learned from a Billie Holiday album and performed as a favor to a friend, it became her only Billboard top 20 success in the United States, her debut album Little Girl Blue soon followed on Bethlehem Records.
Simone lost more than $1 million in royalties and never benefited financially from the album's sales because she had sold her rights outright for $3,000. After the success of Little Girl Blue, Simone signed a contract with Colpix Records and recorded a multitude of studio and live albums. Colpix relinquished all creative control to her, including the choice of material that would be recorded, in exchange for her signing the contract with them. After the release of her live album Nina Simone at Town Hall, Simone became a favorite performer in Greenwich Village. By this time, Simone performed pop music only to make money to continue her classical music studies, was indifferent about having a recording contract, she kept this attitude toward the record industry for most of her career. Simone married a New York police detective, Andrew Stroud, in 1961, he became her manager and the father of her daughter Lisa, but he abused Simone psychologically and physically. In 1964, Simone changed record distributors from Colpix, an American company, to the Dutch Philips Records, wh
Aretha Louise Franklin was an American singer, songwriter and civil rights activist. Franklin began her career as a child singing gospel at New Bethel Baptist Church in Detroit, where her father C. L. Franklin was minister. At the age of 18, she embarked on a secular career recording for Columbia Records. However, she achieved only modest success, she found acclaim and commercial success after signing with Atlantic Records in 1966. Hit songs such as "Respect", "Chain of Fools", "Think", " A Natural Woman", "I Never Loved a Man", "I Say a Little Prayer", propelled her past her musical peers. By the end of the 1960s, Aretha Franklin had come to be known as "The Queen of Soul", she continued to record acclaimed albums such as I Never Loved a Man the Way I Love You, Lady Soul, Spirit in the Dark, Young and Black, Amazing Grace, Sparkle before experiencing problems with her record company. Franklin signed with Arista Records, she appeared in the 1980 film The Blues Brothers before releasing the successful albums Jump to It, Who's Zoomin' Who?, Aretha on the Arista label.
In 1998, Franklin returned to the top 40 with the Lauryn Hill-produced song "A Rose Is Still a Rose" issuing the album of the same name, which went gold. That same year, Franklin earned international acclaim for her performance of "Nessun dorma" at the Grammy Awards, filling in at the last minute for Luciano Pavarotti, who had canceled after the show had begun. In a noted performance, she paid tribute to 2015 honoree Carole King by singing " A Natural Woman" at the Kennedy Center Honors. Franklin recorded 112 charted singles on Billboard, including 77 Hot 100 entries, 17 top-ten pop singles, 100 R&B entries, 20 number-one R&B singles, becoming the most charted female artist in history. Franklin's other well-known hits include "Rock Steady", "Call Me", "Ain't No Way", "Don't Play That Song", "Spanish Harlem", "Day Dreaming", "Until You Come Back to Me", "Something He Can Feel", "Jump to It", "Freeway of Love", "Who's Zoomin' Who", "I Knew You Were Waiting", she won 18 Grammy Awards, including the first eight awards given for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, she is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 75 million records worldwide.
Throughout her career, Franklin received numerous honors. She was awarded the National Medal of Arts, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 1987, she became the first female performer to be inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame, she was inducted to the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005 and to the Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 2012. In 2010 Rolling Stone magazine ranked her number one on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time" and number nine on their list of "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Aretha Louise Franklin was born on March 25, 1942, to Barbara and Clarence LaVaughn "C. L." Franklin. She was delivered at her family's home located at 406 Lucy Avenue, Tennessee, her father was a Baptist minister and circuit preacher from Shelby, while her mother was an accomplished piano player and vocalist. Both Mr. and Mrs. Franklin had children from prior relationships in addition to the four children they had together; when Aretha was two, the family relocated to New York. By the time Aretha turned five, C. L. Franklin had permanently relocated the family to Detroit, where he took over the pastorship of the New Bethel Baptist Church.
The Franklins had a troubled marriage due to Mr. Franklin's infidelities, they separated in 1948. At that time, Barbara Franklin returned to Buffalo with Vaughn. After the separation, Aretha recalled seeing her mother in Buffalo during the summer, Barbara Franklin visited her children in Detroit. Aretha's mother died of a heart attack on March 1952, before Aretha's tenth birthday. Several women, including Aretha's grandmother and Mahalia Jackson, took turns helping with the children at the Franklin home. During this time, Aretha learned, she attended public school in Detroit, going through her freshman year at Northern High School, but dropping out during her sophomore year. Aretha's father's driven sermons resulted in his being known as the man with the "million-dollar voice", he earned thousands of dollars for sermons in various churches across the country. His celebrity status led to his home being visited by various celebrities. Among the visitors were gospel musicians Clara Ward, James Cleveland, early Caravans members Albertina Walker and Inez Andrews.
Martin Luther King Jr. Jackie Wilson and Sam Cooke all became friends of C. L. Franklin, as well. Ward was romantically involved with Aretha's father from around 1949 to Ward's death in 1973, though Aretha "preferred to view them as friends". Ward served as a role model to the young Aretha. Just after her mother's death, Franklin began singing solos at New Bethel, debuting with the hymn "Jesus, Be a Fence Around Me"; when Franklin was 12, her father began managing her. He helped her sign her first recording deal with J. V. B. Records. Recording equipment was installed inside New Bethel Baptist Church and nine tracks were recorded. Franklin was featured on vocals and piano. In 1956, J. V. B. Released Franklin's first single, "Never Grow Old", backed with "You Grow Closer". "Precious Lord" backed with "Precious Lord (P
Gladys Maria Knight, known as the "Empress of Soul", is an American singer, actress and author. A seven-time Grammy Award-winner, Knight is known for the hits she recorded during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s with her group Gladys Knight & the Pips, which included her brother Merald "Bubba" Knight and cousins Edward Patten and William Guest. Knight has recorded two number-one Billboard Hot 100 singles, eleven number-one R&B singles, six number-one R&B albums, she has won seven Grammy Awards and is an inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame along with The Pips. She recorded the theme song for the 1989 James Bond film Licence to Kill. Knight is listed as one of Rolling Stone magazine's 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Knight was born in Atlanta, the daughter of Merald Woodlow Knight Sr. a postal worker, Sarah Elizabeth. She has a sister, one living brother, Merald Jr. and one deceased brother, David. She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's The Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of seven in 1952.
That same year, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips. By the end of the decade, the act had begun to tour, had replaced Brenda Knight and Eleanor Guest with Gladys Knight's cousin Edward Patten and friend Langston George. In 1961, Knight and her group recorded the single, "Every Beat of My Heart", written for Knight by R&B producer Johnny Otis, it was released on the tiny Atlanta Huntom label, picked up by Vee Jay Records. At the same time, they were signed with Bobby Robinson's label, Fury Records. Both labels issued different versions of the song, with the Vee Jay/Huntom version becoming a hit and outselling the Fury remake. After the success of their follow-up, "Letter Full of Tears", Fury released their first full-length album, they stayed with Fury through 1962 until signing with Larry Maxwell's Maxx label in 1964, releasing several modest hits produced by Van McCoy, including the original version of "Giving Up" and "Lovers Always Forgive".
Gladys Knight & the Pips joined the Motown Records roster in 1966, although regarded as a second-string act, scored several major hit singles, including "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "Take Me in Your Arms and Love Me", "Friendship Train", "If I Were Your Woman", "I Don't Want To Do Wrong", the Grammy Award-winning "Neither One of Us", "Daddy Could Swear". In their early Motown career, Gladys Knight and the Pips toured as the opening act for Diana Ross and The Supremes. Gladys Knight stated in her memoirs that Ross kicked her off the tour because the audience's reception to Knight's soulful performance overshadowed her. Berry Gordy told Knight that she was giving his act a hard time; the act left Motown for a better deal with Buddah Records in 1973, achieved full-fledged success that year with hits such as the Grammy-winning "Midnight Train to Georgia", "I've Got to Use My Imagination," "The Way We Were/Try To Remember" and "Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me". In the summer of 1974, Knight and the Pips recorded the soundtrack to the successful film Claudine with producer Curtis Mayfield.
The act was successful in Europe, the United Kingdom. However, a number of the Buddah singles became hits in the UK long after their success in the US. For example, "Midnight Train to Georgia" hit the UK pop charts Top 5 in the summer of 1976, a full three years after its success in the U. S. During this period of greater recognition, Knight made her motion picture acting debut in the film, Pipe Dreams, a romantic drama set in Alaska; the film failed at the box-office, but Knight did receive a Golden Globe Best New Actress nomination. Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, when they were forced to record separately due to legal issues, resulting in Knight's first solo LP recordings—Miss Gladys Knight on Buddah and Gladys Knight on Columbia Records. Having divorced James Newman II in 1973, Knight married Barry Hankerson Detroit mayor Coleman Young's executive aide. Knight and Hankerson remained married for four years, during which time they had Shanga Ali. Upon their divorce and Knight were embroiled in a heated custody battle over Shanga Ali.
In the early 1980s, Johnny Mathis invited Knight to record two duets—"When A Child Is Born" and "The Lord's Prayer". Signing with Columbia Records in 1980 and restored to its familiar quartet form, Gladys Knight & the Pips began releasing new material; the act enlisted former Motown producers Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson for their first two albums: About Love and Touch. During this period, Knight kicked a gambling addiction to the game baccarat. In 1983 Gladys Knight and the Pips scored again with the hit "Save The Overtime For Me"; the song, under the artistic direction of Leon Sylvers III, was done in a soulful boogie style. The single was released from their LP "Visions" and reached number sixty-six on the Hot 100, but was more successful on the R&B where it hit number one for a single week in mid 1983; the single was the first time the group hit number one on the R&B chart since 1974. In 1987 Knight decided to pursue a solo career and
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Mary Violet Leontyne Price is an American soprano. Born and raised in Laurel, she rose to international acclaim in the 1950s and 1960s, was the first African American to become a prima donna at the Metropolitan Opera. One critic characterized Price's voice as "vibrant", "soaring" and "a Price beyond pearls", as well as "genuinely buttery produced but under control", with phrases that "took on a seductive sinuousness." Time magazine called her voice "Rich and shining, it was in its prime capable of effortlessly soaring from a smoky mezzo to the pure soprano gold of a spun high C."A lirico spinto soprano, she was considered well suited to the roles of Giuseppe Verdi and Giacomo Puccini, as well as several in operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. After her retirement from the opera stage in 1985, she continued to appear in recitals and orchestral concerts until 1997. Among her many honors are the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Spingarn Medal, the Kennedy Center Honors, the National Medal of Arts, numerous honorary degrees, 19 Grammy Awards for operatic and song recitals and full operas, a special Lifetime Achievement Award in 1989, more than any other classical singer.
In October 2008, she was one of the recipients of the first Opera Honors given by the National Endowment for the Arts. Leontyne Price was born in Mississippi, her father James worked in a lumber mill and her mother Katie was a midwife who sang in the church choir. They had waited 13 years for a child, Leontyne became the focus of intense pride and love. Given a toy piano at the age of three, she began piano lessons with a local teacher; when she was in kindergarten, her parents traded in the family phonograph as the down payment on an upright piano. At 14, she was taken on a school trip to hear Marian Anderson sing in Jackson, an experience she said was inspirational. In her teen years, Leontyne accompanied the "second choir" at St. Paul's Methodist Church and played for the chorus at the black high school, earned extra money by singing for funerals and civic functions. Meanwhile, she visited the home of Alexander and Elizabeth Chisholm, where Leontyne's aunt worked as a laundress. A wealthy white family connected to the largest lumber company in Laurel, the Chisholms encouraged Leontyne's piano playing and singing, sometimes hired her to entertain guests.
During World War II, Leontyne worked part-time in the Chisholm household as a maid and baby-sitter, was allowed to play the piano and to listen to music on the radio and record player. Mrs. Chisholm accompanied Leontyne in recitals and church appearances in and near Laurel, helped defray some of her college expenses. Aiming at first for a teaching career, Price enrolled in the music education program at the all-black Wilberforce College in Wilberforce, Ohio. Success in the glee club led to solos, her teachers began to encourage her to pursue studies in voice. With the help of the Chisholms and the famous bass Paul Robeson, who put on a benefit concert for her, she enrolled at the Juilliard School in New York City, she won a scholarship and was admitted to the studio of Florence Page Kimball, who would remain her principal teacher and advisor throughout the 1960s. Price is a member of Delta Sigma Theta. In the summer of 1951, she studied in the opera program at the Berkshire Music Center and sang the leading role in a production of Strauss' Ariadne auf Naxos, her first leading role.
In early 1952 she was Mistress Ford in Juilliard student production of Verdi's Falstaff. Shortly thereafter, Virgil Thomson hired her for the revival of his all-black opera, Four Saints in Three Acts. After a two-week Broadway run, Saints went to Paris. Meanwhile, she had been cast as Bess in the Blevins Davis/Robert Breen revival of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, returned from France in time to sing the opening night at the State Fair of Texas on June 9, 1952; the tour went on to Chicago and Washington, D. C. and Europe, sponsored by the U. S. State Department. On the eve of the European tour, Price married the noted bass-baritone William Warfield, the lead Porgy in the Davis-Breen production; the wedding was held at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, with many of the cast in attendance. In a memoir, My Music and My Life, Warfield says, they were separated in 1967, divorced in 1973. They had no children. At first, though excited about opera, Price discounted her chances and planned instead on a recital career.
She used as a model the careers of Marian Anderson, tenor Roland Hayes and other successful black concert singers. Amid performances of Porgy, she sang the premiere of Hermit Songs, a song cycle by Samuel Barber, at the Library of Congress, she premiered new works by Lou Harrison and John La Montaine. However, she had proved in "Porgy" that she had the voice and the personality for the operatic stage, the Met itself recognized this by inviting her to sing "Summertime" at a "Met Jamboree" fund-raiser on April 6, 1953 at the Ritz Theater on Broadway. Price was therefore the first African American; that distinction went to Marian Anderson, who, on January 7, 1955, sang Ulrica in Verdi's Un ballo in maschera. In November 1954, Price made her recital debut at New York's Town Hall with a program that featured the New York premiere of Samuel Barber's cycle Hermit Songs, with the composer at the piano, set out on her first recital tour in th
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance. State funerals include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition. State funerals are held in order to involve the general public in a national day of mourning after the family of the deceased gives consent. A state funeral will generate mass publicity from both national and global media outlets. Ahmed Ben Bella Agostino Neto Sir Seretse Khama Sir Ketumile Masire Marc-Vivien Foe Laurent-Desire Kabila Gamal Abdel Nasser Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran who dies in exile in Egypt Anwar Sadat Meles Zenawi Edith Lucie Bongo Omar Bongo Mzee Jomo Kenyatta Michael Kijana Wamalwa Lucy Kibaki Bingu wa Mutharika Samora Machel Afonso Dhlakama Andimba Toivo ya Toivo Chris Hani Nelson Mandela Govan Mbeki Raymond Mhlaba Walter Sisulu Albertina Sisulu Senzo Meyiwa Joost van der Westhuizen Winnie Mandela Julius Nyerere Godfrey Binaisa Mutesa II of Buganda Milton Obote Levy Mwanawasa Frederick Chiluba Betty Kaunda Michael Sata Oliver Mtukudzi In 1952 Eva Perón died at age 33.
She held the title of Spiritual Leader of the Nation of Argentina, granted by the Congress of Argentina. Nearly three million people covered the funeral of Evita in the streets of Buenos Aires. A radio broadcast interrupted the broadcasting schedule, with the announcer reading, "The Press Secretary's Office of the Presidency of the Nation fulfills its sad duty to inform the people of the Republic that at 20:25 hours Mrs. Eva Perón, Spiritual Leader of the Nation, died." Eva Perón was granted a full Roman Catholic requiem mass. On Saturday 9 August, the body was transferred to the Congress Building for an additional day to be publicly viewed; the next day, after a final Sunday mass, the coffin was laid atop on a gun carriage pulled by CGT officials. Following next was Juan Perón, his cabinet, Eva's family and friends, the delegates and representatives of the Partido Peronista Femenino workers and students of the Eva Perón Foundation, her coffin was showered with carnations, chrysanthemums and roses thrown from the nearby balconies as the procession passed through the streets.
Juan Perón died at age 78 on 1 July 1974, after his health progressively deteriorated. His wife and vicepresident, Isabel Martínez de Perón, gave the announcement: "with great sorrow I must convey to the people of Argentina the death of this true apostle of peace and nonviolence." After several days of national mourning, in which the body laid in state at the Argentine National Congress for hundreds of thousands of people, the remains were moved to a crypt in the Quinta de Olivos Presidential. On 17 November 1974 the remains of Evita. While the body was in Congress, over 135,000 people filed past the coffin, while a million Argentines had to bid their farewell to their leader from the outside. Two thousand foreign journalists reported the details of the funeral. Raul Alfonsín died at age 82 on 31 March 2009 after a long battle against lung cancer and. in his last days, broncoaspirativa pneumonia. Argentina's government declared three days of national mourning for the death and his remains were veiled from the early hours of April 1, 2009 in the Blue Room of the National Congress, attended by authorities and politicians of different parties an estimated 80,000 people had to wait in line for five to six hours.
Among the political authorities who attended the event were former presidents Carlos Menem, Eduardo Duhalde, Fernando De la Rua and Nestor Kirchner, President Cristina Fernandez was unable to attend because they were in the G-20 London but sent its condolences. The next day they were taken to a military gun carriage escorted by the Mounted Grenadiers Regiment at Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires; the remains of former President rested temporarily in the vault of the fallen in the Revolution of the Park until 16 May were transferred to a single monument in the cemetery in a place built of gray and beige marble, where there is a cross on top and a bright stained glass by entering a glimmer. Argentina's former President and Secretary General of UNASUR, Néstor Kirchner, died of heart failure on the morning of 27 October 2010 at the Jose Formenti hospital in El Calafate, Santa Cruz Province at the age of 60. Although there was some effort made to revive him, it did not do so His wife, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, was present with him when he died.
He was expected to run for president in 2011. A state funeral was held on November 3, 2010 in Bridgetown for former Barbados Prime Minister David Thompson. State funerals were held for the President-elect of Brazil, Tancredo Neves, who died before taking office; the former Vice President of Brazil, José Alencar, was buried with a head of state's honor, after his passing due to cancer. Other than heads of state, personalities such as the Formula 1 racing champion Ayrton Senna, dead in 1994 after a crash during a race, the architect Oscar Niemeyer, who died in 2012 at the age of 104, among others. In Canada, state funerals are public events held to commemorate the memory of present and former governors general and former prime ministers, sitting members of the Ministry and other prominent Canadians at the discretion of the Prime Minister. With ceremonial and religious elements incorporated, state funerals are offered and executed by the Government of Canada which provides a dignified manner for the Canadian people to mourn a national public figure.
In 2006, the House of Commons voted unanimously, on a motion introduced by the NDP, to hold a state funeral when the last Canadian veteran of the First World War died