The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; the Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division. The Star was created in 1892 by striking Toronto News printers and writers, led by future Mayor of Toronto and social reformer Horatio Clarence Hocken, who became the newspaper's founder, along with another future mayor, Jimmy Simpson; the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, at its formation, The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during which time it was rumoured that William Findlay "Billy" Maclean, the World's proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken; the paper did poorly in its first few years.
Hocken sold out within the year, several owners followed in succession until railway entrepreneur Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896. Its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Thomas Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night; this would continue until Joseph E. "Holy Joe" Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper. The supporters included William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin and Timothy Eaton. Atkinson was the Star's editor from 1899 until his death in 1948; the newspaper's early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw it become one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. Atkinson had a social conscience, he championed many causes that would come to be associated with the modern welfare state: old age pensions, unemployment insurance, health care. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson asa "radical" in the best sense of that term....
The Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, the prime minister, was a major influence on the development of Canadian social policy. Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star; the Star was criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era. For decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published the Star Weekly. Shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E. Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the paper's liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning large parts of profit-making businesses, that required the Star to be sold. Atkinson's will had directed that profits from the paper's operations were "for the promotion and maintenance of social and economic reforms which are charitable in nature, for the benefit of the people of the province of Ontario" and it stipulated that the paper could be sold only to people who shared his social views.
The five trustees of the charitable organization circumvented the Act by buying the paper themselves and swearing before the Supreme Court of Ontario to continue what became known as the "Atkinson Principles": A strong and independent Canada Social justice Individual and civil liberties Community and civic engagement The rights of working people The necessary role of governmentDescendants of the original owners, known as "the five families", still control the voting shares of Torstar, the Atkinson Principles continue to guide the paper to this day. In February 2006, Star media columnist Antonia Zerbisias wrote on her blog: Besides, we are the Star which means we all have the Atkinson Principles—and its multi-culti values—tattooed on our butts. Fine with me. At least we are upfront about our values, they always work in favour of building a better Canada. From 1922 to 1933, the Star was a radio broadcaster on its station CFCA, broadcasting on a wavelength of 400 metres, whose coverage was complementary to the paper's reporting.
The station was closed following the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission and the introduction of a government policy that, in essence, restricted private stations to an effective radiated power of 100 watts. The Star would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBC's CRCT station, an arrangement that lasted until 1946. In 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay; the original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place. The new building housed the paper's presses. In 1992, the printing plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 & 400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, "The" was dropped from the papers. During the 2003 Northeast blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Ontario; until the mid-2000s, the front page of the Toronto Star had no advertising aside from lottery jackpot estimates from the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.
On May 28, 2007, the Star unveiled a redesigned paper that features larger type, narrower pages and shorter articles, renamed
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
A private investigator, a private detective, or inquiry agent, is a person who can be hired by individuals or groups to undertake investigatory law services. Private investigators work for attorneys in civil and criminal cases. In 1833, Eugène François Vidocq, a French soldier and privateer, founded the first known private detective agency, "Le Bureau des Renseignements Universels pour le commerce et l'Industrie" and hired ex-convicts. Official law enforcement tried many times to shut it down. In 1842, police arrested him in suspicion of unlawful imprisonment and taking money on false pretences after he had solved an embezzlement case. Vidocq suspected that it had been a set-up, he was sentenced to five years and fined 3,000-francs. Vidocq is credited with having introduced record-keeping and ballistics to criminal investigation, he made. He created indelible ink and unalterable bond paper with his printing company, his form of anthropometrics is still used by French police. He is credited for philanthropic pursuits – he claimed he never informed on anyone who had stolen for real need.
After Vidocq, the industry was born. Much of what private investigators did in the early days was to act as the police in matters for which their clients felt the police were not equipped or willing to do. A larger role for this new private investigative industry was to assist companies in labor disputes; some early private investigators provided armed guards to act as a private militia. In the United Kingdom, Charles Frederick Field set up an enquiry office upon his retirement from the Metropolitan Police in 1852. Field became a friend of Charles Dickens, the latter wrote articles about him. In 1862, one of his employees, the Hungarian Ignatius Paul Pollaky, left him and set up a rival agency. Although little-remembered today, Pollaky's fame at the time was such that he was mentioned in various books of the 1870s and immortalized as "Paddington" Pollaky for his "keen penetration" in the 1881 comic opera, Patience. In the United States, Allan Pinkerton established the Pinkerton National Detective Agency – a private detective agency – in 1850.
Pinkerton became famous when he foiled a plot to assassinate President-elect Abraham Lincoln in 1861. Pinkerton's agents performed services which ranged from undercover investigations and detection of crimes, to plant protection and armed security, it is sometimes claimed with exaggeration, that at the height of its existence, the Pinkerton National Detective Agency employed more agents than the United States Army. Allan Pinkerton hired Kate Warne in 1856 as a private detective, making her the first female private detective in America. During the union unrest in the US in the late 19th century, companies sometimes hired operatives and armed guards from the Pinkertons. In the aftermath of the Homestead Riot of 1892, several states passed so-called "anti-Pinkerton" laws restricting the importation of private security guards during union strikes; the federal Anti-Pinkerton Act of 1893 continues to prohibit an "individual employed by the Pinkerton Detective Agency, or similar organization" from being employed by "the Government of the United States or the government of the District of Columbia."Pinkerton agents were hired to track western outlaws Jesse James, the Reno brothers, the Wild Bunch, including Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Many private detectives/investigators with special academic and practical experience work with defense attorneys on capital punishment and other criminal defense cases. Many others are insurance investigators. Before the advent of no-fault divorce, many private investigators sought evidence of adultery or other conduct within marriage to establish grounds for a divorce. Despite the lack of legal necessity for such evidence in many jurisdictions, according to press reports, collecting evidence of spouses' and partners' adultery or other "bad behaviour" is still one of their most profitable undertakings, as the stakes being fought over now are child custody, alimony, or marital property disputes. Private investigators can perform due diligence for an investor considering investing with an investment group, fund manager, or other high-risk business or investment venture; this could help the prospective investor avoid being the victim of Ponzi scheme. A licensed and experienced investigator could reveal the investment is risky and/or the investor has a suspicious background.
This is called investigative due diligence, is becoming more prevalent in the 21st century with the public reports of large-scale Ponzi schemes and fraudulent investment vehicles such as Madoff, Petters and the hundreds of others reported by the Securities and Exchange Commission along with other law enforcement agencies. Private investigators engage in a variety of work not associated with the industry in the mind of the public. For example, many are involved in process serving, the personal delivery of summons and other legal documents to parties in a legal case; the tracing of absconding debtors can form a large part of a PI's work load. Many agencies specialize in a particular field of expertise. For example, some PI agencies deal only in tracing. A handful of firms specialize in technical surveillance counter-measures, sometimes called electronic counter measures, the locating and dealing with unwanted forms of electronic surveillance; this niche service is conducted by those with backgrounds
The Ottawa Citizen is an English-language daily newspaper owned by Postmedia Network in Ottawa, Canada. Like most Canadian daily newspapers, the Ottawa Citizen has seen a decline in circulation, its total circulation dropped by 26 percent to 91,796 copies daily from 2009 to 2015. Daily average Established as The Bytown Packet in 1845 by William Harris, it was renamed the Citizen in 1851; the newspaper's original motto, returned to the editorial page, was Fair play and Day-Light. The paper has been through a number of owners. In 1846, Harris sold the paper to Henry J. Friel. Robert Bell bought the paper in 1849. In 1877, Charles Herbert Mackintosh, the editor under Robert Bell, became publisher. In 1879, it became one of several papers owned by the Southam family, it remained under Southam until the chain was purchased by Conrad Black's Hollinger Inc.. In 2000, Black sold most of his Canadian holdings, including the flagship National Post to CanWest Global; the editorial view of the Citizen has varied with its ownership, taking a reform, anti-Tory position under Harris and a conservative position under Bell.
As part of Southam, it moved to the left, supporting the Liberals in opposition to the Progressive Conservative Party's support of free trade in the late 1980s. Under Black, it became a supporter of the Reform Party, it endorsed the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election. In 2002, its publisher Russell Mills was dismissed following the publication of a story critical of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and an editorial calling for Chrétien's resignation, it published its last Sunday edition on July 15, 2012. The move cut 20 newsroom jobs, was part of a series of changes made by PostMedia; the logo used to depict the top of the Peace Tower of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa. In 2014 it was rebranded, with a new logo showing the paper's name over an outline of the Peace Tower on a green background. News World City Sports Arts Business Food Driving Technology Homes & Condos List of newspapers in Canada Adam, Mohammed.. "When we began 1845: For 160 years, the Citizen has been the'heartbeat of the community".
Ottawa Citizen. Bruce, Charles. News and the Southams. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1968. Kesterton, W. H. A History of Journalism in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University Press, 1984. ISBN 978-0-88629-022-1. Rutherford, Paul. A Victorian authority: the daily press in late nineteenth-century Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982. ISBN 978-0-8020-5588-0. DDC 71.1. LCC PN4907. Official website Official mobile version Canadian Newspaper Association The Ottawa Citizen Birth Marriage, Anniversary and Memoriam Notices 1879-1885 Google News Archive microfilm archive 1853–1987
Alliance Films was a Canadian motion picture distribution and production company, which had served Canada, the United Kingdom, Spain. Because Entertainment One acquired Alliance Films in early 2013, it was dissolved into that company, it was one of the major motion picture companies to distribute independent films outside the United States and other countries. The company was formed in 1984 by Stephen Roth, Denis Héroux, John Kemeny, Robert Lantos, Andras Hamori and Susan Cavan as Alliance Entertainment, it acquired a Montreal-based Francophone distribution company, Vivafilm, in 1990. In 1998, it merged with Atlantis Communications. Formally known as Motion Picture Distribution LP, it was re branded and relaunched in 2007 due to the collapse of its preceding company, Alliance Atlantis, sold off piece by piece to CanWest Global, GS Capital Partners, along with several other smaller companies. Société générale de financement du Québec, an investment agency of the provincial government, owns 51% of the voting shares of the company and 38.5% of the equity.
GS Capital owns the remainder of the company. Alliance Films was headquartered in Quebec, in the Quartier International. In the mid-2000s, Alliance Films began to produce films in moderation. In addition to producing films as The Rocket with Cinémaginaire, National Lampoon's Senior Trip with New Line Cinema and Munich with Universal Pictures, DreamWorks SKG and Amblin Entertainment of and before the days of Alliance Atlantis they were responsible for co-producing the 2008 teen slasher Prom Night with Screen Gems and Original Film, they produced and distributed the war drama Passchendaele, co-produced the comedy Stone of Destiny with Infinity Features Entertainment and The Mob Film Company. They are responsible for co-producing the 2011 horror film Insidious with FilmDistrict and Wanderlust with Universal Pictures and Apatow Productions. In 2010, Alliance Films expanded its home video operations with an aggressive push into the TV-on-DVD market, it began releasing various television series on DVD, the majority are Canadian productions or Canadian co-productions.
To date they continue to release more. On June 24, 2011, Alliance Films bought Maple Pictures from Lionsgate for a sum of 38.5 million dollars before Alliance was folded into Entertainment One in early 2013. In partnership with Cineplex Entertainment, Alliance Films operates Alliance Cinemas, owner of two Toronto-area theatres. During the MPD era, all materials relating to Alliance Atlantis–distributed films contained a disclaimer stating that Alliance Atlantis was "an indirect limited partner of Motion Picture Distribution LP, not a general partner". However, in fact, the company controlled the general partner of the partnership, hence controlled the distribution unit itself. Since early 2010 Alliance Films has been partnering with Jason Blum and his BlumHouse Productions to produce low budget horror films; this began with Insidious, released in 2011. The next to be released was Sinister in 2012 and Dark Skies in 2013. Since the 2013 acquisition and absorption, it is unclear if eOne will be a partner on subsequent BlumHouse films and their sequels.
On January 3, 2012, it was announced that Goldman Sachs Group is looking to sell its majority stake in Alliance Films. On May 28, 2012, Entertainment One confirmed their bid to purchase Alliance Films from Goldman Sachs Group, similar to the purchase of Maple Pictures a year prior; the acquisition was completed on January 9, 2013. EOne announced that it would phase out the Alliance brand in favor of operating under the eOne banner. Alliance Films has distributed all or some of the following companies' films before the eOne acquisition. All listings are from the start of their deal with Alliance up to their current state with eOne: Apparition Artisan Entertainment CBS Films FilmDistrict Focus Features Freestyle Releasing Lionsgate Films Open Road Films Miramax New Line Cinema Orion Pictures Overture Films Relativity Media Rogue Pictures The Weinstein Company Dimension Films For more, see Entertainment One, and Alliance Films' video releases from 2007–2013 were distributed by Paramount Home Media Distribution, until the acquisition by Entertainment One.
Alliance Vivafilm: Francophone film business that produces and distributes feature films in Quebec Alliance Home Entertainment: Home entertainment division that releases feature films & TV series on DVDAlliance Films operates the following international subsidiaries: Momentum Pictures in UK Aurum Producciones in Spain The following is a list of TV series that have been released on DVD by Alliance Films: Adventure Inc. Amazon Andromeda The Adventures of Sinbad Beast Wars: Transformers ReBoot Adventures of the Black Stallion BeastMaster Bordertown The Crow: Stairway to Heaven Dead Man's Gun Degrassi: The Next Generation Earth: Final Conflict Emily of New Moon First Wave F/X: The Series Les Invincibles The Hitchhiker The Hunger Lexx Mutant X Mysterious Island Maurice Sendak's Little Bear NightMan Ned's Declassified School Survival Guide Once a Thief The Outer Limits Psi