Braslaw or Braslaŭ is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus, an administrative center of the Braslaw District. The town was first mentioned in 1065 as a castle in the border of the Polatsk Principality with the Lithuanian tribes. Archaeologists excavated a Viking settlement in the village of Maskachichy not far from the town, they think. In the 14th century, Braslaw was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, in fact, became an important fortification near the disturbing line with the Livonian Order in the 14 – 15th centuries. In 1500, Alexander Jagiellon privileged the townsfolk with a limited self-administration right and the coat of arms. In 1506, the castle was presented to the widowed queen Yelena Ivanovna, the daughter of Ivan III of Russia and wife of Alexander Jagiellon, who founded here an Orthodox Christian nunnery; the town was much developed thanks to its praepostor Lev Sapeha and the king Stanisław August Poniatowski. In 1795 - 1919, Braslaw was part of Russia, it became an uyezd center in Vilna Governorate in 1795 in Kovno Governorate in 1843 except brief French occupation in 1812.
It was occupied by German Empire for 10 months in 1918. According to the Treaty of Riga, it became Polish, it was poviat center in Wilno Voivodeship. In 1939, it was appended to the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. Around 3,000 Jews lived in Braslav at the eve of World War II, more than the half of the inhabitants, it was occupied by Nazi Germany between 27 June 1941 and 6 June 1944. In April 1942, a ghetto was established; the liquidation of the ghetto began on June 3, 1942. Many Jews tried to escape but around 2,000 Jews were arrested and shot in ditches, prepared. In late 1942, the Jews from the nearby village of Opsa were gathered in Braslav, they were killed in March 1943. It was a raion center firstly in Vileyka Voblast in Polatsk Voblast between 1944 and 1954 and in Molodechno Voblast between 1954 and 1960 before passing to Vitebsk one. Since the 1920s, Braslaw was developed as a cheap summer resort. In 1995, it accommodated the main office of the National Park of the Braslaw Lakes. In 1948, Braslaw had a population in excess of 2000 people.
In 2009, the total population of Braslaw was 9,516 people. Official website Photos on Radzima.org Braslav at KehilaLinks Braslaw, Belarus at JewishGen
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish is written with a vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, "Ashkenazi Jews, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not
Districts of Belarus
Districts of Belarus are second-level administrative territorial entities of Belarus. In Belarus, raions are administrative territorial entities subordinated to oblasts. Media related to Districts of Belarus at Wikimedia Commons
Irving Berlin was an American composer and lyricist considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history. His music forms a great part of the Great American Songbook. Born in Imperial Russia, Berlin arrived in the United States at the age of five, he published his first song, "Marie from Sunny Italy", in 1907, receiving 33 cents for the publishing rights, had his first major international hit, "Alexander's Ragtime Band" in 1911. He was an owner of the Music Box Theatre on Broadway, it is believed that Berlin could not read sheet music, was such a limited piano player that he could only play in the key of F-sharp unless using his custom piano equipped with a transposing lever."Alexander's Ragtime Band" sparked an international dance craze in places as far away as Berlin's native Russia, which "flung itself into the ragtime beat with an abandon bordering on mania." Over the years he was known for writing music and lyrics in the American vernacular: uncomplicated and direct, with his stated aim being to "reach the heart of the average American," whom he saw as the "real soul of the country."
In doing so, said Walter Cronkite, at Berlin's 100th birthday tribute, he "helped write the story of this country, capturing the best of who we are and the dreams that shape our lives."He wrote hundreds of songs, many becoming major hits, which made him famous before he turned thirty. During his 60-year career he wrote an estimated 1,500 songs, including the scores for 20 original Broadway shows and 15 original Hollywood films, with his songs nominated eight times for Academy Awards. Many songs became popular themes and anthems, including "Alexander's Ragtime Band", "Easter Parade", "Puttin' on the Ritz", "Cheek to Cheek", "White Christmas", "Happy Holiday", "Anything You Can Do", "There's No Business Like Show Business", his Broadway musical and 1943 film This is the Army, with Ronald Reagan, had Kate Smith singing Berlin's "God Bless America", first performed in 1938. Berlin's songs have reached the top of the charts 25 times and have been extensively re-recorded by numerous singers including The Andrews Sisters, Eddie Fisher, Al Jolson, Fred Astaire, Ethel Merman, Louis Armstrong, Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Elvis Presley, Judy Garland, Barbra Streisand, Linda Ronstadt, Rosemary Clooney, Diana Ross, Bing Crosby, Sarah Vaughan, Ruth Etting, Fanny Brice, Marilyn Miller, Rudy Vallée, Nat King Cole, Billie Holiday, Doris Day, Jerry Garcia, Willie Nelson, Bob Dylan, Leonard Cohen, Ella Fitzgerald, Michael Buble, Lady Gaga, Christina Aguilera.
Composer Douglas Moore sets Berlin apart from all other contemporary songwriters, includes him instead with Stephen Foster, Walt Whitman, Carl Sandburg, as a "great American minstrel"—someone who has "caught and immortalized in his songs what we say, what we think about, what we believe." Composer George Gershwin called him "the greatest songwriter that has lived", composer Jerome Kern concluded that "Irving Berlin has no place in American music—he is American music." Berlin was born on May 1888, in the Russian Empire. Although Berlin's family came from the shtetel of Tolochin, documents say that he was born in Tyumen, Siberia, he was one of eight children of Lena Lipkin Beilin. His father, a cantor in a synagogue, uprooted the family to America, as did many other Jewish families in the late 19th century. On September 14, 1893, the family arrived in New York City. After their arrival at Ellis Island, the name "Beilin" was changed to "Baline". According to biographer Laurence Bergreen, as an adult Berlin admitted to no memories of his first five years in Russia except for one: "he was lying on a blanket by the side of a road, watching his house burn to the ground.
By daylight the house was in ashes." As an adult, Berlin said he was unaware of being raised in abject poverty since he knew no other life. Berlins were part of hundreds of thousands of other Jewish families that emigrated to the United States in the late 1800s - early 1900s, escaping discrimination and brutal pogroms. Mayer, the Warner brothers; when they reached Ellis Island, Israel Beilin was put in a pen with his brother and five sisters until immigration officials declared them fit to be allowed into the city. After their arrival in New York City, the Baline family lived in a basement flat on Monroe Street, moved to a three-room tenement at 330 Cherry Street, his father, unable to find comparable work as a cantor in New York, took a job at a kosher meat market and gave Hebrew lessons on the side, to support his family. He died a few years when Irving was thirteen years old. Now, with only a few years of schooling, eight-year-old Irving began helping to support his family, he became a newspaper boy.
One day while delivering newspapers, according to Berlin's biographer and friend, Alexander Woollcott, he stopped to look at a ship departing for China and became so entranced that he didn't see a swinging crane, which knocked him into the river. When he was fished out after going down for the third time, he was still holding in his clenched fist the five pennies he earned that day, his mother took a job as a midwife, three of his sisters worked wrapping cigars, common for immigrant girls. His older brother worked in a sweatshop assembling shirts; each evening, when the family came home from their day's work, Bergreen writes, "they would deposit the coins they had earned that day into Lena's outspread apron." Music historian Philip Furia writes
Dzisna, is a city in the Vitebsk Voblast of Belarus. It is located near the confluence of Dysna, it has 2,700 inhabitants which has declined as in the 20th century it had close to 10,000 inhabitants. In the 16th century, King of Poland and Lithuanian Grand Duke Sigismund II Augustus granted Dzisna city rights. From 1569 to 1793 it was part of the Połock Voivodeship of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, it was a royal city of Lithuania. After the Second Partition of Poland it was annexed by the Russian Empire. Poland gained control over Dzisna after World War I. From 1926 to 1939 it was part of the Wilno Voivodeship. During World War II Dzisna was incorporated into the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1941, Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944 and, for the second time, by the Soviets between 1944 and 1945. After 1945, it remained part of the Soviet Union
Myory is a town in the Vitebsk Region of Belarus, an administrative center of Myory Raion. The town was first mentioned in 1514. From July 1941 till July 1944, Germans occupied the area. A ghetto was set up in the town. However, about 70 or 80 people managed to escape and a part of them joined the guerrilla group. In July 1942, Jews were ordered to gather in the square and they were taken in the direction of Krukówka village; the Germans shot their bodies were buried at the place of their execution. The final liquidation of the ghetto in Miory took place in December 1942. A monument was built at the site of the massacre