Khiva is a city of 90,000 people located in Xorazm Region, Uzbekistan. According to archaeological data, the city was established in the beginning of the Christian era, it is the Khanate of Khiva. Itchan Kala in Khiva was the first site in Uzbekistan to be inscribed in the World Heritage List; the astronomer and polymath, Al-Biruni was among several Muslim scholars born here. The origin of the name Khiva is unknown, but many contradictory stories have been told to explain it. A traditional story attributes the name to one of the sons of Prophet Noah: "It is said that Shem, after the flood, he found himself wandering in the desert alone. Having fallen asleep, he dreamt of 300 burning torches. On waking up, he was pleased with this omen, he founded the city with outlines in the form of a ship mapped out according to the placement of the torches, about which he had dreamt. Sim dug the'Kheyvak' well, the water from which had a surprising taste, it is possible to see this well in Ichan-Kala today."Another story relates that travellers passing through the city, upon drinking the excellent water, would exclaim "Khey vakh!" and hence the city became known as Kheyvakh, whence Khiva.
A third proposal is that the name comes from the word Khwarezm, altered by borrowing into Turkic as Khivarezem shortened to Khiva. In the early part of its history, the inhabitants of the area were from Iranian stock and spoke an Eastern Iranian language called Khwarezmian. Subsequently the Iranian ruling class was replaced by Turks in the 10th century A. D, the region turned into an area with a majority of Turkic speakers; the earliest records of the city of Khiva appear in Muslim travel accounts from the 10th century, although archaeological evidence indicates habitation in the 6th century. By the early 17th century, Khiva had become the capital of the Khanate of Khiva, ruled by a branch of the Astrakhans, a Genghisid dynasty. In 1873, Russian General Konstantin von Kaufman launched an attack on the city, which fell on 28 May 1873. Although the Russian Empire now controlled the Khanate, it nominally allowed Khiva to remain as a quasi-independent protectorate. Following the Bolshevik seizure of power after the October Revolution, a short lived Khorezm People's Soviet Republic was created out of the territory of the old Khanate of Khiva, before its incorporation into the USSR in 1924, with the city of Khiva becoming part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic.
Khiva is split into two parts. The outer town, called Dichan Kala, was protected by a wall with 11 gates; the inner town, or Itchan Kala, is encircled by brick walls, whose foundations are believed to have been laid in the 10th century. Present-day crenellated walls attain the height of 10 meters. Kalta Minor, the large blue tower in the central city square, was supposed to be a minaret, but the Khan died and the succeeding Khan did not complete it; the old town retains more than 50 historic monuments and 250 old houses dating from the 18th or the 19th centuries. Djuma Mosque, for instance, was established in the 10th century and rebuilt in 1788-89, although its celebrated hypostyle hall still retains 112 columns taken from ancient structures. Nishapur, Iran Al-Khwarizmi Trolleybuses in Urgench Campaigning on the Oxus, the Fall of Khiva, MacGahan. A Ride to Khiva, Frederick Burnaby. Russian Central Asia, Lansdell. A travers l'Asie Moser. Russia against India, Colquhoun. Khiva, in Russian, S. Goulichambaroff.
A Carpet Ride to C. A. Alexander. Journey to Khiva, Philip Glazebrook, A Writer's Search for Central Asia. Khiva travel guide from Wikivoyage Images and travel impressiones along the Silk Road - Khiva History of Khiva
Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods. It lies a few hundred meters from Naqsh-e Rajab, with a further four Sassanid rock reliefs, three celebrating kings and one a high priest. Naqsh-e Rustam is the necropolis of the Achaemenid dynasty, with four large tombs cut high into the cliff face; these have architectural decoration, but the facades include large panels over the doorways, each similar in content, with figures of the king being invested by a god, above a zone with rows of smaller figures bearing tribute, with soldiers and officials. The three classes of figures are differentiated in size; the entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus. Well below the Achaemenid tombs, near ground level, are rock reliefs with large figures of Sassanian kings, some meeting gods, others in combat.
The most famous shows the Sassanian king Shapur I on horseback, with the Roman Emperor Valerian bowing to him in submission, Philip the Arab holding Shapur's horse, while the dead Emperor Gordian III, killed in battle, lies beneath it. This commemorates the Battle of Edessa in 260 AD, when Valerian became the only Roman Emperor, captured as a prisoner of war, a lasting humiliation for the Romans; the placing of these reliefs suggests the Sassanid intention to link themselves with the glories of the earlier Achaemenid Empire. The oldest relief at Naqsh-e Rustam dates back to c. 1000 BC. Though it is damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man with unusual head-gear, is thought to be Elamite in origin; the depiction is part of a larger mural, most of, removed at the command of Bahram II. The man with the unusual cap gives the site its name, Naqsh-e Rustam, because the relief was locally believed to be a depiction of the mythical hero Rustam. Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground.
The tombs are sometimes known after the shape of the facades of the tombs. The entrance to each tomb is at the center of each cross, which opens onto a small chamber, where the king lay in a sarcophagus; the horizontal beam of each of the tomb's facades is believed to be a replica of a Persepolitan entrance. One of the tombs is explicitly identified, by an accompanying inscription, as the tomb of Darius I; the other three tombs are believed to be those of Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Darius II respectively. The order of the tombs in Naqsh-e Rustam follows: Darius II, Artaxerxes I, Darius I, Xerxes I; the matching of the other kings to tombs is somewhat speculative. A fifth unfinished one might be that of Artaxerxes III, who reigned at the longest two years, but is more that of Darius III, the last king of the Achaemenid Dynasts; the tombs were looted following the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great. An inscription by Darius I, from c.490 BCE referred to as the "DNa inscription" in scholarly works, appears in the top left corner of the facade of his tomb.
It mentions the conquests of his various achievements during his life. Its exact date is not known. Like several other inscriptions by Darius, the territories controlled by the Achaemenid Empire are listed, in particular the areas of the Indus and Gandhara in India, referring to the Achaemenid occupation of the Indus Valley. Ka'ba-ye Zartosht is a 5th-century B. C Achaemenid square tower; the structure is a copy of a sister building at Pasargadae, the "Prison of Solomon". It was built either by Darius I when he moved to Persepolis, by Artaxerxes II or Artaxerxes III; the building at Pasargadae is a few decades older. There are four inscriptions in three languages from the Sasanian period on the lower exterior walls, they are considered among the most important inscriptions from this period. Several theories exist regarding the purpose of the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht structure. Seven over-life sized rock reliefs at Naqsh-e Rustam depict monarchs of the Sassanid period, their approximate dates range from 225 to 310 AD, they show subjects including investiture scenes and battles.
The founder of the Sassanid Empire is seen being handed the ring of kingship by Ohrmazd. In the inscription, which bears the oldest attested use of the term Iran, Ardashir admits to betraying his pledge to Artabanus V, but legitimizes his action on the grounds that Ohrmazd had wanted him to do so; the word ērān is first attested in the inscriptions that accompany the investiture relief of Ardashir I at Naqsh-e Rustam. In this bilingual inscription, the king calls himself "Ardashir, king of kings of the Iranians"; this is the most famous of the Sassanid rock reliefs, depicts the victory of Shapur I over two Roman emperors and Philip the Arab. Behind the king stands Kirtir, the mūbadān mūbad, the most powerful of the Zoroastrian Magi dur
Derbent romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. It is the southernmost city in Russia, it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. Population: 119,200 . Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times among the Persian, Mongol, Timurid and Iranian kingdoms. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan. Derbent is derived from modern Persian: translit. Darband, lit.'Barred gate', referring to the adjacent pass. It is identified with the legendary Gates of Alexander; the Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians.
The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr: "šahrestan kūmīs panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. māniš *pārsīgān ānōh būd. padxwadayīh yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr an ālag.". "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband. Bāb al-Abwāb, lit.'Gate of Gates', or al-Bāb. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region; this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. A traditionally and Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania, a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital.
The modern name is a Persian word meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, Derbent was already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban; the 20-meter-high walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who directed the construction of Derbent's fortress. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward; some say that the level of the Caspian was higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. The chronicler Movses Kagankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea."
Derbent became harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus; the first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627, his successor, Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent during the Sassanian era, many remain current.
In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, ʿAbbās the Great. According to the account in the "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”, relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia
A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, whether or not it takes place in a special building. Informal and open-air places of worship are called musalla, while mosques used for communal prayer on Fridays are known as jāmiʿ. Mosque buildings contain an ornamental niche set into the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca, ablution facilities and minarets from which calls to prayer are issued; the pulpit, from which the Friday sermon is delivered, was in earlier times characteristic of the central city mosque, but has since become common in smaller mosques. Mosques have segregated spaces for men and women; this basic pattern of organization has assumed different forms depending on the region and denomination. Mosques serve as locations for prayer, Ramadan vigils, funeral services, Sufi ceremonies and business agreements, alms collection and distribution, as well as homeless shelters. Mosques were important centers of elementary education and advanced training in religious sciences.
In modern times, they have preserved their role as places of religious instruction and debate, but higher learning now takes place in specialized institutions. Special importance is accorded to the Great Mosque of Mecca, Prophet's Mosque in Medina and the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. In the past, many mosques in the Muslim world were built over burial places of Sufi saints and other venerated figures, which has turned them into popular pilgrimage destinations; the first mosque was built by Muhammad in Medina. With the spread of Islam, mosques multiplied across the Islamic world. Sometimes churches and other temples were converted into mosques, which influenced Islamic architectural styles. While most pre-modern mosques were funded by charitable endowments, modern states in the Muslim world have attempted to bring mosques under government control. Increasing government regulation of large mosques has been countered by a rise of funded mosques of various affiliations and ideologies, many of which serve as bases for different Islamic revivalist currents and social activism.
Mosques have played a number of political roles. The rates of mosque attendance vary depending on the region; the word'mosque' entered the English language from the French word mosquée derived from Italian moschea, from either Middle Armenian մզկիթ, Medieval Greek: μασγίδιον, or Spanish mezquita, from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد, translit. Masjid, either from Nabataean masgĕdhā́ or from Arabic Arabic: سَـجَـدَ, translit. Sajada ultimately from Aramaic sĕghēdh; the first mosque in the world is considered to be the area around the Ka‘bah in Mecca, now known as Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarâm. A Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba was the First Mosque on Earth, the Second Mosque was the Temple in Jerusalem. Since as early as 638 AD, the Sacred Mosque has been expanded on several occasions to accommodate the increasing number of Muslims who either live in the area or make the annual pilgrimage known as Ḥajj to the city. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622, though the Mosque of the Companions in the Eritrean city of Massawa may have been constructed at around the same time.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to establish another mosque in Medina, now known as the Masjid an-Nabawi, or the Prophet's Mosque. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city; the Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the features still common in today's mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab and the tiered pulpit called the minbar. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a large courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, as Islam spread outside the Arabian Peninsula with early caliphates; the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while still operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam, Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Hussein ibn Ali.
The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious and social center for Fustat during its prime. Like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools and tombs; the Great Mosque of Kairouan in present-day Tunisia was the first mosque built in northwest Africa, with its present form serving as a model for other Islamic places of worship in the Maghreb. It includes naves akin to a basilica; those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mo
Kashan is a city in Isfahan province, Iran. At the 2017 census, its population was 396,987 in 90,828 families; the etymology of the city name comes from the Kasian, the original inhabitants of the city, whose remains are found at Tapeh Sialk dating back 9,000 years. Between the 12th and the 14th centuries Kashan was an important centre for the production of high quality pottery and tiles. In modern Persian, the word for a tile comes from the name of the town. Kashan is divided into two parts and desert. In the west side, Kashan is cited in the neighbourhood of two of highest peaks of Karkas chain, Mount Gargash to the southwest of Kashan and Mount Ardehaal in the west of Kashan known as "Damavand of Kashan" and the highest peak of Ardehaal mountains. In the east side of the city Kashan opens up to the central desert of Iran which the city is famous for. Kashan is known for Maranjab Desert and Caravanserai located near the namak lake. Today Maranjab and the surrounding Shifting Sands is a popular destination at the weekends.
On August 9, 2007 Iran placed the Historical Axis of Fin, Kashan on its Tentative List for possible future nomination as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The exact definition of what locations within Kashan proper might be nominated was not made clear. In 2012 Iran nominated the Fin Garden separately for inscription by UNESCO as a part of its Persian Gardens World Heritage Site. Despite this the "Historical-Cultural Axis of Fin, Kashan" remains in full on Iran's Tentative List Archeological discoveries in the Sialk Hillocks which lie 4 km west of Kashan reveal that this region was one of the primary centers of civilization in pre-historic ages. Hence, Kashan dates back to the Elamite period of Iran; the Sialk ziggurat still stands today in the suburbs of Kashan after 7,000 years. The artifacts uncovered at Sialk Mahan Pasha reside in the Louvre in Paris and the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, Iran's National Museum. By some accounts, although not all, Kashan was the origin of the three wise men who followed the star that guided them to Bethlehem to witness the nativity of Jesus, as recounted in the Bible.
Whatever the historical validity of this story, the attribution of Kashan as their original home testifies to the city's prestige at the time the story was set down. Abu-Lu'lu'ah/Pirouz Nahāvandi, the Persian soldier, enslaved by the Islamic conquerors and assassinated the caliph Umar al-Khattab in AH 23 fled to Kashan after the assassination, his tomb is one of Kashan's conspicuous landmarks. Sultan Malik Shah I of the Seljuk dynasty ordered the building of a fortress in the middle of Kashan in the 11th century; the fortress walls, called Ghal'eh Jalali still stand today in central Kashan. Kashan was a leisure vacation spot for Safavi Kings. Bagh-e Fin is one of the most famous gardens of Iran; this beautiful garden with its pool and orchards was designed for Shah Abbas I as a classical Persian vision of paradise. The original Safavid buildings have been replaced and rebuilt by the Qajar dynasty although the layout of trees and marble basins is close to the original; the garden itself however, was first founded 7000 years ago alongside the Cheshmeh-ye-Soleiman.
The garden is notorious as the site of the murder of Mirza Taghi Khan known as Amir Kabir, chancellor of Nasser-al-Din Shah, Iran's king in 1852. The earthquake of 1778 leveled the city of Kashan and all the edifices of Shah Abbas Safavi, leaving 8000 casualties, but the city started afresh and has today become a focal tourist attraction via the numerous large houses from the 18th and 19th centuries, illustrating the finest examples of Qajari aesthetics. Kashan's architectural sights include: 40 Dokhtaran Fortress Abbāsi House Attarha House Al-e Yaseen House Agha Bozorg Mosque Āmeri House Bazaar of Kashan Boroujerdi House Fin Garden Fin Bathroom Ghal'eh jalali Jalali Castle Jameh Mosque of Kashan Manouchehris House Menar tower Meydan Mosque Piruz Nahavandi Shrine Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse Tabātabāei House Tabriziha Mosque Tepe Sialk Timcheh Amin-o-dowleh Although there are many sites in Kashan of potential interest to tourists, the city remains undeveloped in this sector, with fewer than a thousand foreign tourists per year.
Notable towns around Kashan are Abyaneh, which attract tourists all year around. The nearby town of Niasar features a man-made fireplace of historical interest. Kashan is internationally famous for manufacturing carpets and other textiles. Today, Kashan houses most of Iran's mechanized carpet-weaving factories, has an active marble and copper mining industry. Kashan and suburbs have a population of 400,000. There are more than 10,000 students studying in various fields at universities of Kashan. Colleges and universities in Kashan include: Kashan University of Medical Sciences Islamic Azad University of Kashan University of Kashan Road 71 Freeway 7, located near the cityKashan is connected via freeways to Isfahan and Natanz to the South, Qom, an hour drive away to the north. Kashan railway station is along the main north-south railways of Iran. Kashan Airport reopened on 2 June 2016 after twenty years hiatus with an ATA Airlines flight from Mashhad International Airport; the airport aims to launch flights to Kish Island and Qehshm Island in Iran and Najaf in Iraq Sarwar Kashani, Syed Sarwar Kashani David Alliance, Ba
A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, self-supporting structures. Towers are distinguished from "buildings" in that they are not built to be habitable but to serve other functions; the principal function is the use of their height to enable various functions to be achieved including: visibility of other features attached to the tower such clock towers. Towers can be stand alone structures or be supported by adjacent buildings or can be a feature on top of a large structure or building. Old English torr is from Latin turris via Old French tor; the Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the Illyrian toponym Βου-δοργίς. With the Lydian toponyms Τύρρα, Τύρσα, it has been connected with the ethnonym Τυρρήνιοι as well as with Tusci, the Greek and Latin names for the Etruscans Towers have been used by mankind since prehistoric times.
The oldest known may be the circular stone tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho. Some of the earliest towers were ziggurats, which existed in Sumerian architecture since the 4th millennium BC; the most famous ziggurats include the Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, built the 3rd millennium BC, the Etemenanki, one of the most famous examples of Babylonian architecture. The latter was built in Babylon during the 2nd millennium BC and was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world; some of the earliest surviving examples are the broch structures in northern Scotland, which are conical towerhouses. These and other examples from Phoenician and Roman cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification and sentinel roles. For example, the name of the Moroccan city of Mogador, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for watchtower; the Romans utilised octagonal towers as elements of Diocletian's Palace in Croatia, which monument dates to 300 AD, while the Servian Walls and the Aurelian Walls featured square ones.
The Chinese used towers as integrated elements of the Great Wall of China in 210 BC during the Qin Dynasty. Towers were an important element of castles. Other well known towers include the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy built from 1173 until 1372 and the Two Towers in Bologna, Italy built from 1109 until 1119; the Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in Tibet built 14th to 15th century. Up to a certain height, a tower can be made with the supporting structure with parallel sides. However, above a certain height, the compressive load of the material is exceeded and the tower will fail; this can be avoided. A second limit is that of buckling—the structure requires sufficient stiffness to avoid breaking under the loads it faces those due to winds. Many tall towers have their support structures at the periphery of the building, which increases the overall stiffness. A third limit is dynamic; these are dealt with through a combination of simple strength and stiffness, as well as in some cases tuned mass dampers to damp out movements.
Varying or tapering the outer aspect of the tower with height avoids vibrations due to vortex shedding occurring along the entire building simultaneously. Although not called towers many modern skyscraper are called towers. In the United Kingdom, tall domestic buildings are referred to as tower blocks. In the United States, the original World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, a name shared with the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur; the tower throughout history has provided its users with an advantage in surveying defensive positions and obtaining a better view of the surrounding areas, including battlefields. They were rolled near a target. Today, strategic-use towers are still used at prisons, military camps, defensive perimeters. By using gravity to move objects or substances downward, a tower can be used to store items or liquids like a storage silo or a water tower, or aim an object into the earth such as a drilling tower. Ski-jump ramps use the same idea, in the absence of a natural mountain slope or hill, can be human-made.
In history, simple towers like lighthouses, bell towers, clock towers, signal towers and minarets were used to communicate information over greater distances. In more recent years, radio masts and cell phone towers facilitate communication by expanding the range of the transmitter; the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada was built as a communications tower, with the capability to act as both a transmitter and repeater. Its design incorporated features to make it a tourist attraction, including the world's highest observation deck at 147 storeys. Towers can be used to support bridges, can reach heights that rival some of the tallest buildings above-water, their use is most prevalent in cable-stayed bridges. The use of the pylon, a simple tower structure, has helped to build railroad bridges, mass-transit systems, harbors. Control towers are used to give visibility to help direct aviation traffic. To access tall or high objects: launch tower, service tower, service structure, tower c
The "Azerbaijani style" or "Azeri style" is a style of Iranian architecture developed in Iran's historic Azerbaijan region. Landmarks of this style of architecture span from the late 13th century to the appearance of the Safavid Dynasty in the 16th century CE. Chronologically the Azeri style is the fifth of the six historic styles of Iranian architecture, between the Razi style and the Isfahani style. Examples of this style are Dome of Soltaniyeh, Arg e Tabriz, Jameh Mosque of Varamin, Goharshad Mosque, Bibi Khanum mosque in Samarqand, tomb of Abdas-Samad, Gur-e Amir, Jameh mosque of Yazd and Jameh Mosque of Urmia. Iranian architecture Azerbaijani architecture Multiple Authors. "ARCHITECTURE". Encyclopaedia Iranica Online Edition. Retrieved 15 April 2012. Kröger, Jens. "STUCCO DECORATION IN IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 15 April 2012