Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Suresnes is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in Hauts-de-Seine, 9.3 km from the centre of Paris and had a population of 45,039 in 2006. The nearest communes are Neuilly-sur-Seine, Rueil-Malmaison, Saint-Cloud and Boulogne-Billancourt, it is on the Île-de-France tramway Line 2 giving access to La Defense and its rail services. The Foch Hospital is located in the city. Fort Mont-Valérien is situated in the commune, as is Memorial. Suresnes has a beautiful view of the Eiffel Tower. In 1974 the Spanish Socialist Workers Party held its 26th Congress in Suresnes. Felipe González was elected replacing Rodolfo Llopis Ferrándiz. González was from the "reform" wing of the party, his victory signaled a defeat for the historic and veteran wing of the Party; the direction of the party shifted from the exiles to the young people in Spain who had not fought in the Spanish Civil War. Suresnes is served by Suresnes-Mont-Valérien station on the Transilien La Défense and Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail lines.
The Pont de Suresnes carries the Allée de Longchamp from the Bois de Boulogne over the Seine into the western suburbs of Paris. See Category:People from SuresnesThough she was not born in Suresnes, Noor Inayat Khan the'Indian Spy Princess', lived there with her family in a large estate known as'Fazal Manzil' from 1920 to 1940 during which time she studied at the Sorbonne. Noor Inayat Khan returned to France as an agent of the Special Operations Executive, spying for the Allied cause in occupied France, she was executed by the Germans and posthumously awarded the George Cross. Luc Lang, writer Alexis Salatko, writer Suresnes is twinned with: Fort Mont-Valérien Suresnes American Cemetery and Memorial Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department Official website INSEE Map and info Suresnes libraries
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
Sunbeam Motor Car Company
Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited was a British motor car manufacturer with its works at Moorfields in Blakenhall, a suburb of Wolverhampton in the county of Staffordshire, now West Midlands. Its Sunbeam name had been registered by John Marston in 1888 for his bicycle manufacturing business. Sunbeam motor car manufacture began in 1901; the motor business was sold to a newly incorporated Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited in 1905 to separate it from Marston's pedal bicycle business. In-house designer Coatalen's enthusiasm for motor racing accumulated expertise with engines. Sunbeam manufactured their own aero engines during the First World War and 647 aircraft to the designs of other manufacturers. Engines drew Sunbeam into Grand Prix racing and participation in the achievement of world land speed records. In spite of its well-regarded cars and aero engines, by 1934 a long period of slow sales had brought continuing losses. Sunbeam was unable to repay money borrowed for ten years in 1924 to fund its Grand Prix racing programme, a receiver was appointed.
There was a forced sale, Sunbeam was picked up by the Rootes brothers. Manufacture of Sunbeam's now old-fashioned cars did not resume under the new owners, but Sunbeam trolleybuses remained in production. Rootes had intended to sell luxury cars under the Sunbeam name, but four years after their purchase, in 1938, the two brothers instead chose to add the name Sunbeam to their Talbot branded range of Rootes designs calling them Sunbeam-Talbots. In 1954 they dropped the word Talbot. Sunbeam continued to appear as a marque name on new cars until 1976, it was used as a model name, firstly for the Chrysler Sunbeam from 1977 to 1979, following the takeover of Chrysler Europe by PSA Group, for the Talbot Sunbeam from 1979 through to its discontinuation in 1981. John Marston, the London-educated son of a sometime mayor of Ludlow and landowner, had been apprenticed to Edward Perry, tinplate-works master and twice mayor of Wolverhampton. In 1859 aged 23 Marston bought two other tinplate manufacturers in Bilston, four miles away, set himself up on his own account.
On Perry's death Marston bought his Jeddo Works in Paul Street Wolverhampton, left Bilston and continued Perry's business. An avid cyclist he established his Sunbeamland Cycle Factory in 1897 in his Paul Street premises manufacturing and assembling pedal bicycles he branded Sunbeam, his Sunbeam trademark was registered in 1893. In 1895 a company, John Marston Limited, was incorporated and took ownership of John Marston's business; the Sunbeam trademark was registered for motor-cars in 1900. Rugby-educated Thomas Cureton 1863–1921 began as his apprentice became Marston's right-hand man in the cycle works and the cautious advocate of a motor-car venture, their board of directors did not favour it but Marston and Cureton continued their project. Between 1899 and 1901 Sunbeam produced a number of experimental cars driven about Wolverhampton but none was offered for sale. In late 1900 they announced the purchase in Blakenhall of "a large area of land in Upper Villiers Street for the erection of works for the manufacture of cars" alongside the premises of Marston's Villiers Engineering business.
The first announcement of their new autocar was in 22 September 1900 issue of The Autocar but no full description was provided to the public until February 1901. It would be supplied with a 2-seater body on a channel steel frame powered by a 4-horsepower horizontal engine with electric ignition intended to run at 700 rpm and have two forward speeds and reverse using belt drive to differential gears on the live axle. Dimensions: weight 10 cwt, overall measurements 84 inches by 57 inches; the first production car branded Sunbeam was not Marston and Cureton's but a car designed and developed by a young architect, Maxwell Mabberly-Smith, powered by a single-cylinder 2¾ horsepower De Dion engine. Described as a "sociable" it carried two passengers sitting close together facing the roadside from above a central belt-drive. To begin with they faced opposite roadsides; this layout provided propinquity while maintaining propriety. Their driver at his tiller sat behind them his body facing the opposite roadside.
Wheels were arranged in a diamond formation. They used a frame like a motorised quadracycle version of Starley's Coventry Rotary and were to be referred to by The Automotor Journal as "the curiously light vehicles with which their name has for some time been associated"; the Sunbeam Mabley was a limited success, several hundred sold in 1901 and 1902 at £130. More stock was still in the Sunbeam catalogue in early 1904 with the following specification: single cylinder 74 x 76 mm. 327 cc engine designed to run at 1,800 rpm, 2-speed gearbox, central wheels driven by belt chain drives from the differential. Weight 4½ cwt. Price £120 At the annual Stanley Cycle Show in November 1902 Sunbeam approved by the magazine's correspondent, displayed beside more Mableys a 12-horsepower four-cylinder car with the engine beneath a bonnet at the front, camshaft within the "crank chamber", a four-speed gearbox and all four artillery wheels of the same size fitted with pneumatic tyres. Price 500 guineas or £525.
Listed in February 1904 its specification was: four cylinders 80 × 120 mm. 1527 cc engine designed to run at 1,000 rpm, four-speed gearbox, rear wheels driven by chain drives from the differential. Weight 16 cwt. Price £512. In February 1904 the 12-horsepower car was given a six-cylinder 16-horsepower stablemate. Like the 12 the new engine was designed to give its full power at what were then considered low engine speeds. Particular note was made that special attention had once more been paid to further controlling the airflow beneath the car's apron and the chassis to reduce t
The layout of a car is defined by the location of the engine and drive wheels. Layouts can be divided into three categories: front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, the location of each is dependent on the application for which the car will be used; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven wheels at the front of the vehicle. This is the most common layout for cars since the late 20th century; some early front-wheel drive cars from the 1930s had the engine located in the middle of the car. A rear-engine, front-wheel-drive layout is one in which the engine is between or behind the rear wheels, drives the front wheels via a driveshaft, the complete reverse of a conventional front-engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle layout; this layout has only been used on concept cars. The front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century, remains the most common layout for rear-wheel drive cars. The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout is one where the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment. In contrast to the rear-engined RR layout, the center of mass of the engine is in front of the rear axle; this layout is chosen for its low moment of inertia and favorable weight distribution. The rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle. In contrast to the MR layout, the center of mass of the engine is between the rear axle and the rear bumper. Although common in transit buses and coaches due to the elimination of the drive shaft with low-floor bus, this layout has become rare in passenger cars; the Porsche 911 is notable for its continuous use of the RR layout since 1963. Car drivetrains where power can be sent to all four wheels are referred to as either four-wheel drive or all-wheel drive.
The front-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the front of the vehicle and drives all four roadwheels. This layout is chosen for better control on many surfaces, is an important part of rally racing as well as off-road driving. Most four-wheel-drive layouts are front-engined and are derivatives of earlier front-engine, rear-wheel-drive designs; the mid-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine in the middle of the vehicle, between both axles and drives all four road wheels. Although the term "mid-engine" can mean the engine is placed anywhere in the car such that the centre of gravity of the engine lies between the front and rear axles, it is used for sports cars and racing cars where the engine is behind the passenger compartment; the motive output is sent down a shaft to a differential in the centre of the car, which in the case of an M4 layout, distributes power to both front and rear axles. The rear-engine, four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle, drives all four wheels.
This layout is chosen to improve the traction or the handling of existing vehicle designs using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout. For example, the Porsche 911 added all-wheel drive to the existing line-up of rear-wheel drive models in 1989. Automobile handling Car classification Drivetrain layout
Antonio Franco Lago, known as Anthony Lago or Tony Lago, was an Italian engineer and motor-industry entrepreneur. In 1936 he bought Automobiles Talbot S. A. from his employers, the collapsed Anglo-French S. T. D. Motors combine, founded the motor-racing marque Talbot-Lago; the French government awarded him the Legion d'Honneur for the glory. Lago was born in Venice in 1893, but the family moved to Bergamo, where his father was manager of the municipal theatre, he grew up in the company of actors and government officials, developing relationships with leaders such as Pope John XXIII and Benito Mussolini. He graduated in engineering from the Politecnico di Milano. In 1915 he joined the Italian Air Force, where he achieved the rank of major during the First World War. A founder member of the Italian National Fascist Party, he became outspokenly critical of fascism, which led to a violent dispute with Benito Mussolini, necessitating his subsequent fleeing to France. In an era of volatile politics he always carried a hand grenade.
In 1919 three members of the fascist youth entered a trattoria looking for him, but as they shot the two owners he threw the grenade and ran out the back door. One of the fascists was killed and Lago fled to Paris never returning to Italy. Lago worked for Pratt and Whitney in Southern California before settling in England in the 1920s, where he changed his name to Anthony, he represented Isotta Fraschini at showrooms in North Audley Street and was technical director of L. A. P. Engineering, he became a director of Self-Changing Gears Ltd owned by Walter Gordon Wilson and John Davenport Siddeley which manufactured Wilson pre-selector gearboxes, persuaded S. T. D. Motors and others of the gearbox's merits, he acquired the rights to export Wilson gearboxes from England. In 1933 Lago moved to France to manage the failing French subsidiary of S. T. D. Motors, Automobiles Talbot S. A.. Starved of capital it now had antiquated plant and aging products. During the 1920s Louis Coatalen had overspent Sunbeam's funds on Grand Prix racing.
Not only had this hampered plant and product development but it was Sunbeam's heavy borrowing brought S. T. D. Motors to its knees when it fell due for repayment in mid 1934. S T D Motors was forced to sell profitable Clément-Talbot or Talbot London, Sunbeam which now had little value —both bought by the Rootes brothers— and Automobiles Talbot S. A., unsaleable being hopelessly indebted to its French bankers. A complete collapse of the French company proved unavoidable. Lago was a "ruthless businessman with great charm". In 1933 he had persuaded the other directors of S T D Motors that with him as director Automobiles Talbot France could be back on its feet in 18 months, they paid his salary whilst he transformed the company and they agreed to share any profits from the sale. His three pronged rescue plan for Talbot involved reducing expenses, he insisted that the racing cars should be related to Talbot production models. When, at the end of 1934, Automobiles Talbot S. A. was forced into receivership Lago managed to convert his rights to export Wilson gearboxes into an option to purchase the factory and its plant and machinery at Suresnes.
At a cost of £63,000 he and his investors acquired the business of Automobiles Talbot S. A. in mid-1936 and S T D Motors was liquidated. Walter Becchia, now best known for designing the Citroen 2CV's flat twin engine during the Second World War's German Occupation, moved from Fiat to S T D Motors' Sunbeam racing in 1923. In June 1934 he produced the first Talbot-Lago T150 model. Antonio Lago organised its promotion. In June three cars, painted in the French Tricolour of red and blue, were entered in a Concours d'Elegance in the Bois de Boulogne and driven by well-known female racing drivers wearing tailored outfits that matched the cars; the following weekend the same cars and ladies were presented to the French motoring industry at the Prince of Wales hotel, followed by another concours sponsored by a Paris newspaper. Sales were slow due to French recession and lack of racing success so Lago found a new publicity niche, covering 100 miles in one hour at the Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry. Capitalising on the company's success in sportscar racing, Lago announced plans to build a 3-litre V16-engined car for the 1938 Grand Prix season.
He showed the blueprints to the Comité de la Souscription Nationale pour le Fonds de Course and received a 600,000-franc subsidy, but the V16 never appeared, it was believed that he used the money to build a factory for Pratt & Whitney aircraft engines. Despite going into receivership four times, Lago kept the business running until 1958, when he sold it to Simca. Antonio Lago was awarded the Legion d’Honneur by the French government "for the glory he brought to France on the race course", he died in Paris in December 1960. He is buried in the cemetery of the village where he lived. Clément-Talbot Darracq Sunbeam-Talbot Sunbeam-Talbot-Darracq Talbot Talbot-Lago Alain Spitz, Talbot; the Talbot-Darracq to Talbot-Lago, published EPA, 1983. STD Register
The Citroën 2CV is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — corrugated for added strength without added weight; the 2CV featured low cost, simplicity of overall maintenance, an serviced air-cooled engine, low fuel consumption, an long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialised the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988, more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes.
Citroën offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami. In total, Citroën manufactured 9 million 2CVs and variants. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other"; the motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism to succeed as a car", a car of "remorseless rationality". In 1934, family-owned Michelin, as the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroën company; the new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos. France at that time had a large rural population. In fuel economy, the car would use no more than 3 l/100 km. One design parameter required that customers be able to drive eggs across a freshly ploughed field without breakage. In 1936, Pierre-Jules Boulanger, vice-president of Citroën and chief of engineering and design, sent the brief to his design team at the engineering department.
The TPV was to be developed in secrecy at Michelin facilities at Clermont-Ferrand and at Citroën in Paris, by the design team who had created the Traction Avant. Boulanger monitored all decisions relating to the TPV, proposing reduced target weights, he created a department to weigh and redesign each component, to lighten the TPV without compromising function. Boulanger placed engineer André Lefèbvre in charge of the TPV project. Lefèbvre raced Grand Prix cars; the first prototypes were bare chassis with rudimentary controls and roof. By the end of 1937 20 TPV experimental prototypes had been tested; the prototypes had only one headlight, all, required by French law at the time. On 29 December 1937, Pierre Michelin was killed in a car crash. By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, after 47 technically different and incrementally improved experimental prototypes had been built and tested; these prototypes used aluminium and magnesium parts and had water-cooled flat twin engines with front-wheel drive. The seats were hammocks hung from the roof by wires.
The suspension system, designed by Alphonse Forceau, used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for each side, an overload bar for each side. The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable; the overload bar came into play when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to support the extra load of a fourth passenger and fifty kilograms of luggage. In mid-1939 a pilot run of 250 cars was produced and on 28 August 1939 the car received approval for the French market. Brochures were printed and preparations made to present the car, renamed the Citroën 2CV, at the forthcoming Paris Motor Show in October 1939. One innovation included from the beginning of production was Michelin's new radial tyre, first commercialised with the introduction of the 2CV; this radial design is an integral part of the design of the 2CV chassis. On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland.
An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open. The launch of the 2CV was abandoned. During the German occupation of France in World War II Boulanger refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the Gestapo listed him as an "enemy of the Reich", under constant threat of arrest and deportation to Germany. Michelin and Citroën managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military application as in the case of the future Volksw