A firearm is a portable gun - a barreled weapon that launches one or more projectiles, often driven by the action of an explosive force. The first primitive firearms originated in 13th-century China when the fire lance was combined with projectiles. The technology gradually spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, older firearms typically used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability, modern firearms can be described by their caliber or in the case of shotguns their gauge, by the type of action employed together with the usual means of deportment. The word firearms usually is used in a sense restricted to small arms, shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye co-ordination, using either iron sights or optical sights. The accurate range of pistols generally does not exceed 100 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, some purpose-built sniper rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards.
The smallest of all firearms is the handgun, there are three common types of handguns, single-shot pistols and semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have a number of firing chambers or charge holes in a revolving cylinder, semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, and a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round. Each press of the fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately. This is opposed to double-action revolvers which accomplish the end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century, virtually all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders, with the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had largely supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried regularly by military and civilians were semi-automatic, both designs are common among civilian gun owners, depending on the owners intention. A long gun is any firearm that is larger than a handgun and is designed to be held.
Early long arms, from the Renaissance up to the century, were generally smoothbore firearms that fired one or more ball shot. Most modern long guns are either rifles or shotguns, both are the successors of the musket, diverging from their parent weapon in distinct ways. A rifle is so named for the spiral fluting machined into the surface of its barrel. Shotguns are predominantly smoothbore firearms designed to fire a number of shot, shotguns are capable of firing single slugs, or specialty rounds such as bean bags, tear gas or breaching rounds
Muzzle energy is the kinetic energy of a bullet as it is expelled from the muzzle of a firearm. It is often used as an indication of the destructive potential of a given firearm or load. The heavier the bullet and especially the faster it moves, the higher its muzzle energy, the general formula for the kinetic energy is E k =12 m v 2 where v is the velocity of the bullet m is the mass of the bullet. A subsonic variant of ammunition that would otherwise be supersonic has its velocity limited to less than the speed of sound, for ammunition with this limitation the muzzle energy is variable only with respect to the bullet mass m. In the SI system the above Ek will be in unit joule if the mass, m, is in kilogram, in United States engineering units, particular care must be taken to ensure that consistent units are used. Mass, m, is given in grains and the speed, v, in feet per second but kinetic energy. Most sporting arms publications within the United States report muzzle energies in foot-pound force.163 ft/s2 rather than the standard of 32.1739 ft/s2 is used.
The formula therefore becomes E k =12 m v 2 × The bullet energy, remaining energy, down range energy, and impact energy of a projectile may be calculated using the above formulas. It must be stressed that muzzle energy is dependent upon the previously listed. Also note that the energy is only an upper limit for how much energy is transmitted to the target. While the above list mentions some averages, there is variation in commercial ammunition. A180 grain bullet fired from.357 magnum handgun can achieve an energy of 580 foot-pounds. A110 grain bullet fired from the gun might only achieve 400 foot-pounds of muzzle energy. Some.45 Colt ammunition can produce 1,200 foot-pounds of muzzle energy, some jurisdictions stipulate minimum muzzle energies for hunting. In Germany airsoft guns with an energy of no more than 0.5 J are exempt from the gun law. Free recoil Muzzle velocity Power factor Edward F. Obert, Thermodynamics, Mc Graw-Hill encyclopedia of Science and Technology, volume ebe-eye and ice-lev, 9th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill,2002
The.416 Barrett or 10. 6×83mm centerfire rifle cartridge is a proprietary bottlenecked centrefire rifle cartridge designed in 2005. It is an alternative to the.50 BMG in long-range high-power rifles and it was designed in response to a request for a medium/heavy rifle/cartridge combination that was issued from Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division in late 2004. The Barrett.416 cartridge was designed by Chris Barrett, son of Ronnie Barrett, the bullet was designed using some NACA low-supersonic-drag equations to design the shape. The cartridge was designed as an improvement to the.50 BMG cartridge and it is similar to a wildcatted.50 BMG case, shortened to 3.27 inches and necked down to accept a.416 caliber, 398-grain projectile, it is however of proprietary dimension. Because the two cartridges, the.50 BMG and.416 Barrett, have identical base dimensions, the Barrett Model 99 was initially the only commercially available rifle using the cartridge. In a second-season episode of Future Weapons the host engaged in a competition with another sniper.
Machowicz achieved a cold-bore first-shot kill at 2,500 yards using a.416 Barrett Model 99 rifle while his competition, using a.50 BMG, required three shots to achieve a kill. The.416 Barrett Model 99 rifle Mr. Machowicz used during this competition was equipped with a Barrett Optical Ranging System module attached to the telescopic sight. Improvement beyond this standard while using standard.416 Barrett brass seems possible. An example of such a special.416 Barrett very low drag extreme range bullet is the German CNC manufactured mono-metal 27.5 gram.416 Barrett MSG. The solid brass.416 Barrett MSG bullet has a length of 56 mm. 25.8 g solid brass projectile,960 m/s,8767.4 ft·lbf.50 BMG cartridge, List of firearms List of rifle cartridges Table of handgun and rifle cartridges 10 mm caliber.50 Caliber BMG Regulation Act of 2004 Barrett Firearms website TGR Co
.338 Remington Ultra Magnum
The.338 Remington Ultra Magnum is a.338 caliber rifle cartridge introduced by Remington Arms in 2002. It is a beltless, rebated rim cartridge based on the.300 Remington Ultra Magnum case shortened.090, the.338 Remington Ultra Magnum has a similar case capacity as the.338 Lapua Magnum and somewhat lower than that of the. 338-378 Weatherby Magnum. It is one of the most powerful. 338-caliber rounds in production, they can still tune their own loads for best precision in their specific rifles, as with any other cartridge. List of rifle cartridges Table of handgun and rifle cartridges.338 Edge.338 Remington Ultra Magnum reloading data at accuratepowder. com BROKEN.338 Remington Ultra Magnum case diagram
The.338 Federal is a rifle cartridge based on the.308 Winchester case necked up to.33 caliber. It was created by Federal Cartridge and Sako in 2006 and intended as a big game cartridge with reasonable recoil for lightweight rifles, the.338 Federal was designed by Federal Ammunition and it is a SAAMI standardized cartridge that was released in 2006. It compares favorably to the 7mm Remington Magnum, below is a ballistics table comparing the.338 Federal with other various calibers. Included in the table below is the older.358 Winchester, another based on the.308. Sako, Kimber Manufacturing, Tikka and Ruger offered bolt action rifles, petersons Rifle Shooter magazine reviewed the.338 Federal in a Kimber 84M in Truly Useful, The.338 Federal. Chub Eastman of Guns & Ammo has an article on reloading the.338 Federal.338 Federal and he wrote of using it to hunt antelope in New Mexico
.338 Lapua Magnum
The.338 Lapua Magnum is a rimless, centerfire rifle cartridge. It was developed during the 1980s as a high-powered, long-range cartridge for military snipers and it was used in the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. As a result of this, it more widely available. The loaded cartridge is 14.93 mm in diameter and 93.5 mm long and it can penetrate better-than-standard military body armour at ranges up to 1,000 metres and has a maximum effective range of about 1,750 metres. British military issue overpressure.338 Lapua Magnum cartridges with a 91.4 mm overall length, in addition to its military role, it is increasingly used by hunters and civilian long-range shooting enthusiasts. In Namibia the.338 Lapua Magnum is legal for hunting Africas Big five game if the loads have ≥5,400 J muzzle energy, the.416 Rigby is an English big game cartridge that was designed to accommodate 325 MPa pressures. One of the disadvantages of these old cartridge cases, which were intended for firing cordite charges instead of modern smokeless powder, is the thickness of the sidewall just forward of the web, during ignition, the cartridges base, forward to the bolt face, is not supported.
The case is back against the bolt face, which results in the stretching of the case. When the sidewall resists the outward expansion against the chamber, the pressure stretches the case, thereby increasing its length, RAI found that the BELL cases did not fulfill the requirements. Pressed by military deadlines RAI looked for another producer and contacted Lapua of Finland in 1984. RAI was forced to out of the program due to financial difficulties. Subsequently, Lapua of Finland put this cartridge into limited production, the. 338/416 rifle program was canceled when the contractors were unable to make the cartridge meet the projects velocity target of 914 m/s for a 16.2 g bullet, due to weak brass cases. Lapua opted to redesign the. 338/416 cartridge, in the new case design, particular attention was directed toward thickening and metallurgically strengthening the cases web and sidewall immediately forward of the web. In modern solid head cases, the hardness of the brass is the factor that determines a cases pressure limit before undergoing plastic deformation.
Lapua tackled this problem by creating a hardness distribution ranging from the head and web to the mouth as well as a strengthened case web and sidewall immediately forward of the web. This resulted in a very pressure resistant case, allowing it to operate at high pressure, Lapua designed a 16. 2-gram.338 calibre Lock Base B408 full metal jacket bullet, modeled after its.30 calibre Lock Base bullet configuration. The result was the.338 Lapua Magnum cartridge which was registered with C. I. P. in 1989, with the procurement by the Dutch Army, the cartridge became NATO codified. The.338 Lapua Magnum fills the gap between weapons chambered for standard military rounds such as the 7. 62×51mm NATO and large, weighty rifles firing the.50 BMG cartridge
.408 Cheyenne Tactical
The.408 Cheyenne Tactical is a specialized rimless, centerfire cartridge for military long-range sniper rifles that was developed by Dr. John D. Taylor and machinist William O. Wordman. The round was designed with a military need for a cartridge for anti-personnel, anti-sniper. It is offered as a competitor to the most common military NATO long-range service cartridges such as.338 Lapua Magnum and the.50 BMG. The.408 Cheyenne Tactical is based on the.400 Taylor Magnum, the.505 Gibbs is an old English big game cartridge that was designed to accommodate 39,160 psi pressure. One of the disadvantages to these old cartridge cases intended for firing cordite charges instead of modern smokeless powder is the thickness of the sidewall just forward to the web, during ignition, the cartridges base, forward to the bolt face, is not supported. The case is back against the bolt face which results in the stretching of the case. When the sidewall resists the outward expansion against the chamber, the pressure stretches the case thereby increasing its length resulting in the sidewall becoming thinner at that stretch point.
In modern solidhead cases, the hardness of the brass is the factor that determines a cases pressure limit before undergoing plastic deformation. Lapua Ltd. solved this problem when used the.416 Rigby as the parental case to the.338 Lapua Magnum. They created a distribution ranging from the head and web to the mouth as well as a strengthened case web. This method results in a very pressure resistant case, the.408 CheyTac became officially registered by the Commission Internationale Permanente pour lEpreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives on 15 May 2013 ending its status as a wildcat cartridge. The.408 Cheyenne Tactical has 10.32 ml cartridge case capacity, americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈22.13 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 330.2 mm,8 grooves, Ø lands =10.16 mm, Ø grooves =10.36 mm, land width =2.57 mm and the primer type is large rifle. Rulings the.408 Cheyenne Tactical can handle up to 440.00 MPa Pmax piezo pressure, regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C. I. P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.
This means that.408 Cheyenne Tactical chambered arms in C. I. P, regulated countries are currently proof tested at 550.00 MPa PE piezo pressure. The.408 CheyTac serves as the parent for several other second-generation wildcat cartridges, by blowing out.408 CheyTac factory cases the wildcatter generally hopes to gain extra muzzle velocity by increasing the case capacity of the factory parent cartridge case by a few percent. Practically there can be some muzzle velocity gained by this method, an example of a blown out.408 CheyTac variant is the.408 Baer. Besides changing the shape and internal volume of the parent cartridge case, because the.408 CheyTac offers a large and sturdy, pressure resistant cartridge case it has become quite popular among wildcatters
The.223 Remington is a rifle cartridge. The name is pronounced either two-twenty-three or two-two-three Remington. It is commercially loaded with 0.224 inch diameter jacketed bullets, with weights ranging from 40 to 85 grains, a 90 gr Sierra Matchking bullet is available for reloaders. The.223 Rem was first offered to the sporting market in December 1963 in the Remington 760 rifle. In 1964 the.223 Rem cartridge was adopted for use in the Colt M16 rifle which became a standard rifle of the U. S. Army. The military version of the uses a 55 gr full metal jacket boattail design and was designated M193. In 1980 NATO modified the.223 Remington into a new design which is designated 5. 56×45mm NATO type SS109, the cartridge and rifle were developed as one unit by Fairchild Industries, Remington Arms, and several engineers working toward a goal developed by U. S. Early development work begins in 1957, a project to create a Small Caliber High Velocity firearm is created. Eugene Stoner of Armalite is invited to scale down the AR-10 design, Winchester is invited to participate.
It was known as the.224 Springfield, concurrently with the SCHV project Springfield armory is developing a 7.62 mm rifle. Harvey is ordered to cease all work on the SCHV to avoid any competition of resources, eugene Stoner of Armalite had been advised to produce a scaled down version of the 7.62 mm AR-10 design. In May 1957 Stoner gives a live demonstration of the prototype of the AR-15 for General Wyman. As a result, CONARC orders rifles to test and Sierra Bullets Frank Snow begin work on the.222 Remington cartridge. Using a ballistic calculator they determine that a 55 grain bullet would have to be fired at 3, robert Hutton starts development of a powder load to reach the 3,300 fps goal. He uses DuPont IMR4198, IMR3031 and an Olin Powder to work up loads, testing is done with a Remington 722 rifle with a 22 Apex Barrel. During a public demonstration the round penetrates the US steel helmet as required. But testing shows chamber pressures to be excessively high, Stoner contacts both Winchester and Remington about increasing the case capacity.
Remington creates a larger cartridge which is called the.222 Special which is loaded with DuPont IMR4475 powder,1958, During parallel testing of the T44E4 and the AR-15 the T44E4 experiences 16 failures per 1,000 rounds fired compared to 6.1 for the AR-15
.300 Winchester Magnum
The.300 Winchester Magnum is a belted, bottlenecked magnum rifle cartridge that was introduced by Winchester Repeating Arms Company in 1963. The.300 Winchester Magnum is a cartridge designed to fit in a standard rifle actions. It is based on the.375 H&H Magnum, which has blown out, shortened. The.300 Winchester is extremely versatile and has been adopted by a range of users including hunters, target shooters, military units. It is a selection for hunting moose, elk. Military and law enforcement departments adopted the cartridge for long range sniping, as a testament to its accuracy, since its introduction it has gone on to win several 1, 000-yard competitions. Prior to the design of the.300 Winchester Magnum there were several cartridges that provided what could be best described as a level of energy. The heritage of.30 caliber magnums can be traced back to the.30 Newton in 1913, beginning with the.270 Weatherby Magnum in 1943, Roy Weatherby introduced a line of cartridges based on a standard length magnum case.
This was accomplished by taking the.30 Super Belted Rimless H&H case and having it blown out and shortened so that it could be cycled through a standard length bolt-action rifle. Then in 1944 he designed the.300 Weatherby Magnum, which essentially was a version of the.30 Super Belted Rimless H&H. The Weatherby’s standard length magnum case was soon noticed, in 1958 Winchester introduced three cartridges – the.264 Winchester Magnum.338 Winchester Magnum and the.458 Winchester Magnum, all based on the shortened and blown out.375 H&H Magnum case. The popular.30 caliber’s omission from that lineup was not missed, the.300 Winchester Magnum was introduced in 1963 by Winchester for use in the Model 70 rifle. The introduction of the.300 Winchester Magnum was not unforeseen, its introduction was anticlimactic. Winchester developed the.300 Winchester Magnum by taking the.338 Winchester Magnum, which was introduced in 1958 and this caused the cartridge to have a neck shorter than the diameter of the bullet.
There has been speculation that if the cartridge was released earlier. Since its introduction the cartridge has remained extremely popular, the.300 Winchester Magnums high availability in popular rifles such as Winchesters Model 70 and Remington Model 700 made the cartridge a popular choice among the shooting public. Although the.300 H&H Magnum. 30-338 Winchester Magnum and the.308 Norma Magnum had a start on the.300 Winchester Magnum these cartridges soon faded into obsolescence. Only the.300 Winchester Magnum was to survive as a readily available cartridge, other cartridges, while available, are more expensive
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight. It is inversely proportional to the negative acceleration — a high number indicates a low negative acceleration and this is roughly the same as saying that the projectile in question possesses low drag, although some meaning is lost in the generalization. BC is a function of mass and drag coefficient, here are several methods to compute i or Cd, i =2 n ⋅4 n −1 n Where, i = Coefficient of form. N = number of calibers of the projectiles ogive, where n is unknown, n =4 Where, n = number of calibers of the projectiles ogive. L = length of the head in number of calibers, or A drag coefficient can be calculated mathematically, C d =8 ρ ⋅ v 2 ⋅ π ⋅ d 2 Where, Cd = drag coefficient. ρ = density of the projectile, V = projectile velocity at range. π ≈3.14159 d = measured cross section of projectile in m or in or From standard physics as applied to “G” models, i = C G C p Where, CG = drag coefficient of 1.00 from any “G” model, reference drawing, projectile.
Cp = drag coefficient of the actual test projectile at range, when needed, these terms and denotations shall be followed in bold font to denote the accepted Wikipedia standard. All Ordnance size and velocities are nominal or averaged as is historically and mathematically customary, in 1537, Niccolò Tartaglia did some test firing to determine the maximum angle and range for a shot. His conclusion was near 45 degrees and he noted that the shot trajectory was continuously curved. In 1636, Galileo Galilei published results in Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences and he found that a falling body had a constant acceleration. This allowed Galileo to show that a trajectory was a curve. Circa 1665, Sir Isaac Newton derived the law of air resistance, newtons experiments on drag were through air and fluids. He showed that drag on shot increases proportionately with the density of the air, cross sectional area, newton’s experiments were only at low velocities to about 260 m/s. This challenge supposes that air resistance increases exponentially to the velocity of a projectile, keill gave no solution for his challenge.
Johann Bernoulli took up this challenge and soon thereafter solved the problem and air resistance varied as “any power” of velocity and this is the precursor to the concept of the “standard projectile”. In 1742, Benjamin Robins invented the ballistic pendulum and this was a simple mechanical device that could measure a projectiles velocity. Robins reported muzzle velocities ranging from 1,400 ft/s to 1,700 ft/s, in 1844, the Electro-ballistic chronograph was invented and by 1867 the electro-ballistic chronograph was accurate to with in one ten millionth of a second
The.50 Browning Machine Gun is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s. Entering service officially in 1921, the round is based on a greatly scaled-up. 30-06 cartridge, under STANAG4383, it is a standard cartridge for NATO forces as well as many non-NATO countries. The cartridge itself has made in many variants, multiple generations of regular ball, armor-piercing, incendiary. The rounds intended for machine guns are linked using metallic links, the.50 BMG cartridge is used in long-range target and sniper rifles, as well as other. 50-caliber machine guns. A wide variety of ammunition is available, and the availability of match grade ammunition has increased the usefulness of.50 caliber rifles by allowing more fire than lower quality rounds. Armor-piercing incendiary tracer rounds were especially effective against aircraft, and the AP rounds and API rounds were excellent for destroying concrete bunkers, the API and APIT rounds left a flash and smoke on contact, useful in detecting strikes on enemy targets.
The rounds dimensions and ballistic traits are totally different, decades later, the.50 BMG was chambered in high-powered rifles as well. An upgraded variant of the M2 Browning HB machine gun used during World War II is still in use today. Since the mid-1950s, some armored personnel carriers and utility vehicles have made to withstand 12.7 mm machine gun fire. A skilled sniper can effectively neutralize an infantry unit by eliminating several targets without revealing his precise location, the long range between firing position and target allows time for the sniper to avoid enemy retribution by either changing positions repeatedly, or by safely retreating. A common method for understanding the power of a cartridge is by comparing muzzle energies. The.50 BMG round can produce between 10,000 and 15,000 foot pounds, depending on its powder and bullet type, the.50 BMG cartridge has a capacity of 290 grains H2O. The round is a version of the. 30-06 Springfield but uses a case wall with a long taper to facilitate feeding.
The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 1 in 15 in, with 8 lands, the primer type specified for this ammunition is Boxer primer that has a single centralized ignition point. However, some other countries produce the ammunition with Berdan primers that have two flash holes, the proof/test pressure is listed as 65,000 psi.50 BMG cartridges are produced commercially with a plethora of different bullets and to a number of different specifications. Cartridge, Caliber.50, Tracer, M1 Tracer for observing fire, target designation and this bullet has a red tip. Cartridge, Caliber.50, Incendiary, M1 This cartridge is used against unarmored, the incendiary bullet has a light blue tip. Cartridge, Caliber.50, Ball, M2 This cartridge is used against personnel and this bullet has an unpainted tip
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, for the troy grain, equal to exactly 7001647989100000000♠64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat, expressions such as thirty-two grains of wheat, taken from the middle of the ear appear to have been ritualistic formulas, essentially the premodern equivalent of legal boilerplate. Another book states that Captain Henry Kater, of the British Standards Commission, the grain was the legal foundation of traditional English weight systems, and is the only unit that is equal throughout the troy and apothecaries systems of mass. The unit was based on the weight of a grain of barley. The fundamental unit of the pre-1527 English weight system known as Tower weights, was a different sort of known as the wheat grain. The Tower wheat grain was defined as exactly 45⁄64 of a troy grain.79891 milligrams, 7000100000000000000♠1 gram is approximately 7001154323600000000♠15.43236 grains.
The unit formerly used by jewellers to measure pearls, diamonds, or other stones, called the jewellers grain or pearl grain, is equal to 1⁄4 of a carat. The grain was the name of a traditional French unit equal to 6995531150000000000♠53.115 mg. In both British Imperial and U. S. customary units, there are precisely 7,000 grains per avoirdupois pound, the grain is commonly used to measure the mass of bullets and propellants. The term refers to a particle of gunpowder, the size of which varies according to requirements. In archery, the grain is the unit used to weigh arrows. In dentistry, gold foil, used as a material to restore teeth, is measured in grains, in North America, the hardness of water is often measured in grains per US gallon of calcium carbonate equivalents. Otherwise, water hardness is measured in the metric unit parts per million, one grain per US gallon is approximately 6995171000000000000♠17.1 ppm. Soft water contains 1–4 gpg of calcium carbonate equivalents, while hard water contains 11–20 gpg, though no longer recommended, grains are still used occasionally in medicine as part of the apothecaries system, especially in prescriptions for older medicines such as aspirin or phenobarbital.
For example, the dosage of a standard 6996325000000000000♠325 mg tablet of aspirin is sometimes given as 7000500000000000000♠5 grains, in that example the grain is approximated to 6995650000000000000♠65 mg, though the grain can be approximated to 6995600000000000000♠60 mg, depending on the medication and manufacturer. The apothecaries system has its own system of notation, in which the symbol or abbreviation is followed by the quantity in lower case Roman numerals. For amounts less than one, the quantity is written as a fraction, or for one half, therefore, a prescription for tablets containing 325 mg of aspirin and 30 mg of codeine can be written ASA gr