Irish Crown Jewels
The Irish Crown Jewels were the heavily jewelled star and badge regalia of the Sovereign and Grand Master of the Order of St. Patrick. They were stolen from Dublin Castle in 1907 along with the collars of five knights of the Order, the theft was never solved and the jewels never recovered. The insignia were worn by the Sovereign at the investiture of new Knights as members of the Order, the original regalia of the Sovereign were only slightly more opulent than the insignia of an ordinary Knight Member of the Order. Notices issued after the described the jewels thus, A Diamond Star of the Grand Master of the Order of St. in rose diamonds engraved on back. Total size of oval 3 by 2 3⁄8 inches, height 5 5⁄8 inches. When not being worn or cleaned, the insignia of the Sovereign and those of deceased Knights were in the custody of the Ulster King of Arms, the senior Irish officer of arms, and kept in a bank vault. The designation Crown Jewels was first applied to the star and badge regalia of the Sovereign in a 1905 revision of the Orders statutes, the label Irish Crown Jewels was publicised by newspapers after their theft.
In 1903, the jewels were transferred to a safe, which was to be placed in the newly constructed strongroom in Dublin Castle beside the Ulster King of Arms office. The new safe was too large for the doorway to the strongroom, and Arthur Vicars, the Ulster King of Arms, instead stored it in his office. Seven latch keys to the door of the Office of Arms were held by Vicars and his staff, Vicars was known to regularly get drunk on overnight duty and he once awoke to find the jewels around his neck. It is not known whether or not this was a prank or a practice for the actual theft, the insignia were last worn by the Lord Lieutenant, Lord Aberdeen, on 15 March 1907, at a function to mark Saint Patricks Day on 17 March. They were last known to be in the safe on 11 June, the theft is reported to have angered the King, but the visit went ahead. However, the ceremony was cancelled. Also stolen were the collars of five Knight Members of the Order, four living, a police investigation was conducted by the Dublin Metropolitan Police.
Posters issued by the DMP depicted and described the missing jewels, detective Chief Inspector John Kane of Scotland Yard arrived on 12 July to assist. His report, never released, is said to have named the culprit, Vicars refused to resign his position, and similarly refused to appear at a Viceregal Commission into the theft held from 10 January 1908. Vicars argued for a public Royal Commission instead, which would have had power to subpoena witnesses and he publicly accused his second in command, Francis Shackleton, of the theft. Kane explicitly denied to the Commission that Shackleton, brother of the explorer Ernest Shackleton, was involved, Shackleton was exonerated in the Commissions report, and Vicars was found to have not exercise due vigilance or proper care as the custodian of the regalia
Government Buildings is a large Edwardian building enclosing a quadrangle on Merrion Street in Dublin, Ireland, in which several key offices of the Government of Ireland are located. It was originally shared between the Dublin Castle administration and the Royal College of Science for Ireland, the foundation stone for the building was laid by King Edward VII in 1904. It was built on the site of a row of Georgian houses that were being controversially demolished one by one as the new building was erected, the building itself was designed by Sir Aston Webb, a British architect who was to redesign the facade of Buckingham Palace. The final completed building was opened by King George V in 1911 and it may have been intended for use by the Royal College of Science, but it soon attracted the attention of the Lord Lieutenant of Irelands Dublin Castle administration. It was chosen to be the location for the first meeting of the new Parliament of Southern Ireland, created under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, in June 1921.
The planned State Opening of Parliament proved a fiasco, as four members of the House of Commons of Southern Ireland. The Houses were adjourned sine die, the Executive Council of the Irish Free State immediately commandeered part of the college as temporary office space. Two years the Free State decided to buy Leinster House outright from the RDS, Government usage of part of the Royal College of Science became permanent. From 1922 to 1991 the former College of Science building was divided between a number of bodies, the wing to the right of the main entrance was used by the Department of the President, in 1938 renamed Department of the Taoiseach. The Attorney General, the Department of Justice and Equality and other offices occupied that wing of the building, the south wing was occupied permanently by the Department of Finance. The centre block of the courtyard under the dome was used by the Royal College of Science. Over the decades, some moved out to purpose built offices, leaving the north wing for the Taoiseach, Government Secretariat.
In the mid-1980s, increasingly unhappy at the office space. A new engineering faculty was built on University College Dublins Belfield campus at tens of millions of pounds. Much of the interior of the original building was gutted to facilitate the creation of a state-of-the-art new government office. Haughey finally moved into the new building in 1991, critics of the expenditure, at a time when Ireland was in financial difficulties, nicknamed the building the Chaz Mahal. The entrance hall is dominated light streaming through Evie Hones critically acclaimed stained glass window, originally the Office of Public Works had planned a new cabinet suite of rooms also. However the Government opted to continue to use the Council Chamber which had been the room for all Irish governments since 1922
Irish Free State
The Irish Free State was an independent state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army, and British Crown forces, the Free State was established as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, Northern Ireland, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state. W. T. Cosgrave, who had led both of these governments since August 1922, became the first President of the Executive Council, the legislature consisted of Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann, known as the Senate. Members of the Dáil were required to take an Oath of Allegiance, the oath was a key issue for opponents of the Treaty, who refused to take the oath and therefore did not take their seats. Pro-Treaty members, who formed Cumann na nGaedheal in 1923, held a majority in the Dáil from 1922 to 1927.
In the first months of the Free State, the Irish Civil War was waged between the newly established National Army and the anti-Treaty IRA, who refused to recognise the state. The Civil War ended in victory for the government forces, with the anti-Treaty forces dumping its arms in May 1923, the anti-Treaty political party, Sinn Féin, refused to take its seats in the Dáil, leaving the relatively small Labour Party as the only opposition party. In 1926, when Sinn Féin president Éamon de Valera failed to have this policy reversed, he resigned from Sinn Féin, Fianna Fáil entered the Dáil following the 1927 general election, and entered government after the Irish general election,1932, when it became the largest party. De Valera abolished the Oath of Allegiance and embarked on a war with Britain. In 1937 he drafted a new constitution, which was passed by a referendum in July of that year, the Free State came to an end with the coming into force of the new constitution on 29 December 1937. Under the new constitution the Irish state was named Ireland, opposition increased to Irelands participation in World War I in Europe and the Middle East.
This came about when the Irish Parliamentary Party supported the Allied cause in World War I in response to the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill in 1914. Many people had begun to doubt whether the Bill, passed by Westminster in September 1914 but suspended for the duration of the war, Sinn Féin, the Irish Party and all other Nationalist elements joined forces in opposition to the idea during the Conscription Crisis of 1918. At the same time the Irish Parliamentary lost in support on account of the crisis, Irish republicans felt further emboldened by successful anti-monarchical revolutions in the Russian Empire, the German Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Sinn Féin party, founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905, had espoused non-violent separatism, under Éamon de Valeras leadership from 1917, it campaigned aggressively and militantly for an Irish republic. On 21 January 1919, Sinn Féin MPs, refusing to sit at Westminster, assembled in Dublin and it affirmed the formation of an Irish Republic and passed a Declaration of Independence, the irish people is resolved.
To promote the common weal, to re-establish justice, with equal rights and equal opportunity for every citizen
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
Russian Soviet Government Bureau
The Soviet Bureau primarily functioned as a trade and information agency of the Soviet government. Suspected of engaging in political subversion, the Soviet Bureau was raided by law enforcement authorities at the behest of the Lusk Committee of the New York State legislature in 1919, the Bureau was terminated early in 1921. Sometime in January 1919 a courier acting on behalf of the government of Soviet Russia contacted Ludwig C. A. K. Martens, an editor of Novyi Mir, the newspaper of the Russian Socialist Federation of the Socialist Party of America. Arrangements were made to organize an office staff, including a department headed by industrialist A. A. Heller, a department headed by former head of the Finnish Information Bureau, Santeri Nuorteva. On March 19,1919, Martens contacted the U. S. State Department in an effort to present the diplomatic credentials prepared for him by Peoples Commissar for Foreign Affairs Georgy Chicherin. The Russian Soviet Government Bureau was the organization established by Martens in lieu of a recognized diplomatic embassy.
The Bureau maintained offices at the World Tower Building, located at 110 West 40th Street in Manhattan, a staff of 35 was hired, including a former editor of Novyi Mir and partisan of the Communist Labor Party, Gregory Weinstein, as office manager. The nature and activity of the Soviet Bureau ventured into uncharted water, as historian Theodore Draper noted and it was set up as a diplomatic mission, without diplomatic recognition. It was made up mostly of Americans, and the others, couriers constituted the only method of communication, but they were so slow and uncertain that it took two months for Martens to get in touch with the Soviet government. A secret mission to Russia in March 1919 conducted by Wilson administration envoy William C, with its chances of gaining official recognition clearly dashed from the outset, the Soviet Bureau concentrated its efforts on building commercial contacts with American businesses. While the effort to obtain massive assets came to naught, contacts with American companies eager to do business with Soviet Russia came fast and furious.
By the end of the first month, Martens right-hand man and this tempo was accelerated in April 1919, when the RSGB mailed letters of inquiry to 5,000 American firms and circulated press kits to 200 trade-oriented newspapers. By the end of 1919, the Russian Soviet Government Bureau had signed contracts totaling nearly $25 million and this proved to be the first of a growing flood of commerce, with Soviet contracts with American companies topping the $300 million mark by May 1920. The Russian Soviet Government Bureau became a top target of the so-called Lusk Committee established by the New York state legislature to investigate radical activities in the state of New York. Martens and his staff accepted a number of invitations to speak at meetings in New York City and elsewhere. Martens retained close contact and warm relations with the Socialist Party of America and they felt that commercial and trade relations were foolish objectives
The Irish Republic was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from Britain in January 1919. Its origins date back to the Easter Rising of 1916, when Irish republicans seized key locations in Dublin, the insurrection was crushed, but the survivors united under a reformed Sinn Féin party to campaign for a republic. The party won a majority of largely uncontested seats in the 1918 general election. Republicans established a government, a system and a police force. At the same time, the Irish Volunteers, who came under the control of the Dáil and became known as the Irish Republican Army, the War of Independence ended with the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed on 6 December 1921 and narrowly approved by Dáil Éireann on 7 January 1922. In English, the state was to be known as the Irish Republic. Two different Irish language titles were used, Poblacht na hÉireann and Saorstát Éireann, the word poblacht was a new word, coined by the writers of the Easter Proclamation in 1916. Saorstát was a word, based on the Irish words saor.
Its literal translation was free state, the term Poblacht na hÉireann is the one used in the Proclamation of 1916, but the Declaration of Independence and other documents adopted in 1919 used Saorstát Éireann. Since then, the word saorstát has fallen out of use as a translation of republic, after the Irish state had changed its name to Ireland, in 1949 the description of the state was declared Republic of Ireland, while in Irish it was translated as Poblacht na hÉireann. In The Aftermath, Winston Churchill gives an account of the first meeting of Éamon de Valera with David Lloyd George on 14 July 1921, Lloyd George was a native speaker of Welsh and a noted Welsh linguist and as such was interested in the literal meaning of Saorstát. De Valera replied that it meant Free State, Lloyd George asked. what is your Irish word for Republic. After some delay and no reply, Lloyd George commented, Must we not admit that the Celts never were Republicans and have no word for such an idea. In 1916, nationalist rebels participating in the Easter Rising issued the Proclamation of the Republic, the Easter Rising was short-lived, largely limited to Dublin and, at the time it occurred, enjoyed little support from the Irish general public.
The leaders of the Easter Rising had proclaimed a republic, Arthur Griffiths Sinn Féin organisation, which had favoured the establishment of a form of dual monarchy between Ireland and Britain, had not taken part in the Rising. In 1917, Griffiths Sinn Féin and republicans under Éamon de Valera and this agreement was subject to the condition that if the people chose monarchy, no member of the British royal family would be invited to serve as monarch. It said it would boycott the British Parliament and instead establish a new Irish assembly in Dublin. Sinn Féin candidates won a majority of the seats,73 out of 105,25 of them uncontested
Battle of Dublin
The Battle of Dublin was a week of street battles in Dublin from 28 June to 5 July 1922 that marked the beginning of the Irish Civil War. On 14 April 1922, about 200 Anti-Treaty IRA militants led by Rory OConnor occupied the Four Courts in Dublin, at the time the British Army still had thousands of soldiers concentrated in Dublin, awaiting evacuation. Such pressure fell heaviest on Michael Collins, President of the Provisional Government Cabinet, Collins colleagues in the Provisional Government Cabinet, including Arthur Griffith, agreed that Collins must mount decisive military action against them. In the month of June 1922, the Provisional Government engaged in negotiations with the British Cabinet over a draft Constitution which sought to avert the impending civil war. They particularly sought to remove the requirement of an oath to the British Crown by all members of the Dublin government, the conservative British Cabinet refused to cooperate. The pro-treaty element of Sinn Féin won the elections on 16 June, following the assassination of Sir Henry Wilson in London on 22 June 1922, and the arrest by Four Courts troops of Free State Army General / Deputy Chief of Staff J. J.
OConnell, British pressure on the Provisional Government intensified, the British now threatened to invade and re-occupy all of Ireland. Those determined to make the Free State into a viable, self-governing Irish state now had few alternatives, on 27 June, the Provisional Government Cabinet agreed on an ultimatum to the Four Courts garrison to evacuate or face immediate military action. Churchill offered a loan of British artillery for use by the National Army along with 200 from their store of 10,000 shells at Kilmainham and it is possible that some British specialist troops were covertly loaned. Two 18 pounder field guns were placed on Bridge Street and Winetavern Street, after an ultimatum was delivered to the anti-Treaty garrison on the night of 27 June / early hours of 28 June, the National Army commenced the bombardment of Four Courts. No authoritative record exists as to the order to commence bombardment, when it was issued, by whom, historians have tended to attribute the order to Collins but some biographers dispute this.
Anti-Treaty survivors alleged that they were preparing for an 8am evacuation, inside the building were twelve members of the Irish Republican Army Executive, including Chief-of-Staff Joe McKelvey, Director of Engineering Rory OConnor, and Quarter Master General Liam Mellows. The members of the IRA Army Executive were the leaders of the garrison. After the first days bombardment proved ineffective, the British gave the Free State two more 18 pounder cannon, and offered 60 pounder howitzers and even to bomb the Four Courts from the air. Collins turned down the latter two offers because of the risk of causing heavy civilian casualties, on the 29th, Free State troops stormed the eastern wing of the Four Courts, losing 3 killed and 14 wounded and taking 33 prisoners. The republicans armoured car, the Mutineer was disabled and abandoned by its crew, early the next day, Paddy OBrien was injured by shrapnel and Ernie OMalley took over military command in the Four Courts. By this time, the shelling had caused the Four Courts to catch fire, in addition, orders arrived from Oscar Traynor, the anti-treaty IRA commander in Dublin, for the Four Courts garrison to surrender, as he could not reach their position to help them.
At 3, 30pm on 30 June, OMalley surrendered the Four Courts to Brigadier General Paddy Daly, forty advancing Free State troops were badly injured
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt.
/d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish.
Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais, and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group, the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on November 7,1917 as a sovereign state, the first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922 the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, the economy of Russia became heavily industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR. It was, by 1961, the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care, the effects of market policies led to the failure of many enterprises and total instability by 1990.
On June 12,1990, the Congress of Peoples Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, on June 12,1991, Boris Yeltsin was elected the first President. On December 8,1991, heads of Russia, the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its founder states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States. On December 12, the agreement was ratified by the Russian Parliament, therefore Russian SFSR denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and de facto declared Russias independence from the USSR. On December 25,1991, following the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev as president of the Soviet Union, on December 26,1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of Nationalities, which by that time was the only functioning house of the Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, the new Russian constitution, adopted on December 12,1993 after a constitutional crisis, abolished the Soviet system of government in its entirety.
Initially, the state did not have a name and wasnt recognized by neighboring countries for five months. Meanwhile, anti-Bolsheviks coined the mocking label Sovdepia for the nascent state of the Soviets of Workers, on January 25,1918 the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets renamed the unrecognized state the Soviet Russian Republic. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on March 3,1918, on July 10,1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire seceded, internationally, in 1920, the RSFSR was recognized as an independent state only by Estonia, Finland and Lithuania in the Treaty of Tartu and by the short-lived Irish Republic. On December 30,1922, with the creation of the Soviet Union, the final Soviet name for the republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was adopted in the Soviet Constitution of 1936. By that time, Soviet Russia had gained roughly the same borders of the old Tsardom of Russia before the Great Northern War of 1700
It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and this immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the worlds first self-proclaimed socialist state. The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces, Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917. The following day, the Winter Palace, was captured, the long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. The Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary party, the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the body rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, as the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 25th, in Russian, however, переворот has a similar meaning to revolution and means upheaval or overturn, so coup is not necessarily the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use and it is known as the November Revolution having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The Great October Socialist Revolution was the name for the October Revolution in the Soviet Union after the 10th anniversary of the Revolution in 1927. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicolas II of Russia, the provisional government was weak and riven by internal dissension. It continued to wage World War I, which became increasingly unpopular, a nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, and difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased, gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914.
In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, at the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913, russias national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles, the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. In these months alone, more than a million took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution, by October 1917, there had been over 4,000 peasant uprisings against landowners. When the Provisional Government sent punitive detachments, it only enraged the peasants
Michael Collins (Irish leader)
Michael Collins was a soldier and politician who was a leading figure in the struggle for Irish independence in the early 20th century. Subsequently, he was both Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the National Army, Collins was shot and killed in an ambush in August 1922 during the Irish Civil War. Born in Woodfield, Sams Cross, near Clonakilty, County Cork, Collins was the third son, most biographies give his date of birth as 16 October 1890, but his tombstone cites 12 October 1890. Referred to in a British secret service report as brainy, the Collins family were part of an ancient clan and they had republican connections that can be traced back to the 1798 rebellion. Collins father, Michael John, was a farmer by profession, a mathematician in his spare time, he had been a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood movement. The elder Collins was 60 years old when he married Mary Anne OBrien, 23 and they brought up eight children on a 90-acre farm called Woodfield, which the Collins had held as tenants for several generations.
On his death bed, his father predicted that his daughter Helena would become a nun and she did, known as Sister Mary Celestine, based in Whitby. He turned to the family and told them to care of Michael. Hell do great work for Ireland, Michael was six years old when his father died. Collins was a bright and precocious child with a fiery temper and he named a local blacksmith, James Santry, and his headmaster at Lisavaird National School, Denis Lyons, as the first nationalists to personally inspire his pride of Irishness. Lyons was a member of the IRB, while Santrys family had participated in, and forged arms for, there are a number of anecdotal explanations for the origin of his nickname, The Big Fellow. The most authoritative comes from his family, stating that he was called this as a child and it had been a term of endearment for their youngest brother, who was always keen to take on tasks beyond his years. It was certainly established by his teens, long before he emerged as a political or military leader.
At the age of thirteen he boarded at Clonakilty National School, during the week he stayed with his sister Margaret Collins-ODriscoll and her husband Patrick ODriscoll, while at weekends he returned to the family farm. Patrick ODriscoll founded the newspaper The West Cork People and Collins helped out with general reporting jobs, in 1910 he became a messenger at a London firm of stockbrokers and Company. While living in London he studied law at Kings College London and he joined the London GAA and, through this, the IRB. Sam Maguire, a republican from Dunmanway, County Cork, introduced the 19-year-old Collins to the IRB, an organiser of considerable intelligence, Collins had become highly respected in the IRB. This led to his appointment as financial advisor to Count Plunkett, father of one of the Easter Risings organisers, Collins took part in preparing arms and drilling troops for the insurrection
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci