|WikiProject Slovenia||(Rated Stub-class, Mid-importance)|
1. Slovenia – Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the south and southeast, and it covers 20,273 square kilometers and has a population of 2.06 million. It is a republic and a member of the United Nations, European Union. The capital and largest city is Ljubljana, additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia. The country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a river network, a rich aquifer system. Over half of the territory is covered by forest, the human settlement of Slovenia is dispersed and uneven. Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of South Slavic, Germanic, Romance, although the population is not homogeneous, the majority is Slovene. Slovene is the language throughout the country. Slovenia is a largely secularized country, but its culture and identity have been influenced by Catholicism as well as Lutheranism. The economy of Slovenia is small, open, and export-oriented and has strongly influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis, started in the late 2000s. The main economic field is services, followed by industry and construction, Historically, the current territory of Slovenia was part of many different state formations, including the Roman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy. In October 1918, the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes, Croats, in December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II, Slovenia was occupied and annexed by Germany, Italy, and Hungary, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, in June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, and there is evidence of habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ±700 BP, in the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon such as pierced bones, bone points, and needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe, in the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas in Novo Mesto, in the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BCSlovenia – A pierced cave bear bone, possibly flute, from Divje Babe
2. Geology of Slovenia – Slovenia is situated in Central Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. The Alps — including the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps, Slovenias Adriatic coastline stretches approximately43 km from Italy to Croatia. Its part south of Sava river belongs to Balkan peninsula – Balkans, the term Karst originated in southwestern Slovenias Karst Plateau, a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean. On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, however, the majority of Slovenian terrain is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of the surface 200 meters or more above sea level. Slovenias location is where southeastern and Central Europe meet, where the Eastern Alps border the Adriatic Sea between Austria and Croatia, the 15th meridian east almost corresponds to the middle line of the country in the direction west-east. The maximum north-south distance is 1°28 or 163 km, the maximum east-west distance is 3°13 or 248 km. The geometric centre of Slovenia is located at 46°07′11. 8″N 14°48′55. 2″E, since 2016, the geodetic system of Slovenia with the elevation benchmark of 0 m has its origin at the Koper tide gauge station. Until then, it referred to the Sartorio mole in Trieste.157 m 46.6 km Maritime claims, The entire Slovenian coastline is located on the Gulf of Trieste. White Carniola, otherwise part of Lower Carniola, is considered a separate region, as is the Central Sava Valley. Slovenian Littoral has no natural island, but there is a plan on building an artificial one, humid subtropical climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and in the valleys to the east. Precipitation is high away from the coast, with the spring being particularly prone to rainfall, Slovenias Alps have frequent snowfalls during the winter. A short coastal strip on the Adriatic Sea, a mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountain. There is only one island in Slovenia, Bled Island in Lake Bled in the countrys northwestGeology of Slovenia – Aerial view of Lake Bled
3. Beer in Slovenia – Beer in Slovenia is dominated by the pale lager market. Most commonly known brands of Slovenian beer are Laško and Union, there were several minor breweries in Slovenia before 19th century. The first lager brewery, the Laško Brewery, was established in 1825 in Laško, today, two major beers dominate the market and both breweries are currently owned by Laško Brewery after buying Union brewery with the Interbrew. Both breweries offer a variety of beers, but the most popular are plain lagers, Union beer, the main beer is lager, drunk in over 95% of the cases. Since both are lagers, the beers are similar, Laško is a bit more bitter. Union is the beer of the city, Ljubljana and Laško is mostly drunk elsewhere. Estimates give Laško beer a 60% market shareBeer in Slovenia – Africa
4. Billysi – Billysi is a pop rock music group from Slovenia. Before September 2007 they used a version of the name. The members write and produce all of their music, the band was founded in 2001 by Sergej Pobegajlo, an established songwriter, and member of Billysi. He has composed and worked with notable musicians while living in Hollywood. The base for the band became Ljubljana, where he found the talents for the band, the first cast included Steffano Vrabec, the famous Italian drummer and Urška Majdič, who is still the front-woman and co-composer for the band. After a few changes in the cast they found the current guitarist, Billysi used to be known as Billy’s Private Parking. Since then it has established a name of a rock band on live concerts. It has won awards, including national Diamanti award for Best in Rock. It is one of the most recognizable rock groups in Slovenia, after their first record, Modra pravljica, they were present on numerous national music charts with three of their songs. BPP entered a pop-festival Melodije morja in sonca with a hard-rock song Še verjamem with which they got to the final of the contest. BPP presented the song Preženi oblake on a famous Slovene festival Hit Festival in November 2004 and came out second, Urška Majdič received a special award for the lyrics. They decided to take a chance on EMA - the Slovenias Eurovision song contest and this time they were even bolder - they wrote and recorded a rock song titled Ljubljana in only a day and got to the finals. Their second album, Insomnia, was released in May 2005, Insomnia, 1st place - Val 202 Urška wrote and performed a song with cooperation of Blue Production Team for a TV commercial for the Slovenian mobile operator Si. mobil. It was a song in English If I. which became a hit in Slovenia. Urška, whose nickname in this project was Uršyna, got the SOF - OFF advertising reward for best song on the SOF festival in Portorož, Billysi remade the song in a rock version for their live performances. Billysi released their third album Magia with Dallas Records in November 2007, the album got thumbs up reviews by top Slovene music magazines. Magia is more pop-rock oriented, with two songs in English, Billysi released a single Hello Hello from Magia. They premiered this song in a live TV show on National TV TVS1 and it is the first video in the world filmed by mobile-phones during a live show on a national TVBillysi – Billysi in 2015
5. Kurentovanje – Kurentovanje is one of Slovenias most popular and ethnologically significant carnival events. This 10-day rite of spring and fertility is celebrated on Shrove Sunday in Ptuj, the oldest documented city in the region and its main figure, known as Kurent or Korent, was seen as an extravagant god of unrestrained pleasure and hedonism in early Slavic customs. In this way, the presence of kurenti announces the end of winter, being a kurent was at first a privilege offered only to unmarried men, but today, married men, children and women are also invited to wear the outfit. In 2010, the 50th anniversary of the first organized instance of this festival was celebrated, as the host of the festival, the town of Ptuj was admitted into the European Federation of Carnival Cities in 1991. On Shrove Sunday,27 February 1960, the first modern version of the festival, called Kurentovanje, was organized in Ptuj, Carnival participants lined up in a procession. The procession leaders were spearmen followed by ploughmen, rusa, fairies, cockerels, the performance and customs of each traditional costume were explained to the gathered crowd via loudspeakers. The event met with success and aroused general interest which encouraged the organizers to continue. One year later, the Markovci costumes were joined by ploughmen from Lancova Vas, log-haulers from Cirkovci, for the first time, carnival groups presented themselves in the afternoon. In 1962 the event reached beyond local boundaries by inviting laufarji from Cerkno, the number of participants and spectators grew over the years, with thousands visiting the Carnival events to marvel at the spectacular costumes and take part in the fun. For many years, the part of the event had been the presentation of individual traditional carnival groups. This took place either on the Saturday or Sunday morning prior to the afternoon procession, from 1999 on, the Prince of the Carnival event was introduced with the enthronement of the Prince that takes place on 11 November. This has become an important cultural and entertaining event in itself, during the past few years, the carnival has begun precisely at midnight on 2 February—Candlemas. Budina, one of the rural suburbs of Ptuj, stages the event. From this moment on Kurents are allowed to make their habitual rounds, each day features performances by individuals in costumes and many other types of entertainment which take place on the square in front of the town hall and in the carnival tent. Activities culminate with Saturdays procession of traditional costumes, the childrens carnival parade, the burial of Carnival. However, because there are fewer days between Candlemas and Shrove Tuesday, other activities are of shorter duration as well. Consequently, this influences the entire program and development of the event each year. The idea of a carnival event in Ptuj came about in the 1950sKurentovanje – Kurents in Ptuj
6. Culture of Slovenia – Among the modes of expression of the culture of Slovenia, a nation state in Central Europe, are music and dance, literature, visual arts, film and theatre. A number of festivals take place, showcasing music and literature, pino Mlakar and Pia Mlakar were the most notable ballet dancers and members of the Ljubljana Opera and Ballet Company from 1946-1960. Pino Mlakar was also a professor at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film. In the 1930s in Ljubljana was founded a Mary Wigman dance school by her student Meta Vidmar, a number of music, theater, film, book, and childrens festivals takes place in Slovenia each year. In 2012, Maribor was the European Capital of Culture, Music festivals include the Ljubljana Summer Festival and Lent Festival. Historically, among the most popular music festivals was the Slovenska popevka festival, between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock festival was notable for bringing rock music across Iron curtain from the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. In Titoist Yugoslavia, Jazz festival Ljubljana right after the World War II begun the long tradition of Jazz festivals in Slovenia, the most knows stand up comedy festival is the Punch Festival in Ljubljana. The childrens festival celebrating the Pipi Longstocking character is Pikin festival in Velenje, the book festivals include domestic Slovene book fair and foreign books Frankfurt po Frankfurtu Feastival. Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja, who played her roles as Ita Rina in the early European films, many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič. He also performed in television and radio drama, altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles. Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga, women film directors include Polona Sepe, Hanna A. W. Slak, and Maja Weiss. Most notable documentaries made by Slovenian directors include the films by Tomo Križnar on the Nuba people. Slovene film critics include Silvan Furlan, the founder of the Slovenian Cinematheque, Zdenko Vrdlovec, Marcel Štefančič Jr. literature written in Slovene language was founded in the 16th century by Primož Trubar and other Protestant Reformers. Poetry in Slovene language achieved its highest level with the Romantic poet France Prešeren, short stories became a popular genre after the 1990s. There are several Slovene literary magazines that publish prose, poetry, essays, during the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. By the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize, the first Slovenian hymnal, Eni Psalmi, was published in 1567. This period saw the rise of musicians like Jacobus Gallus and Jurij Slatkonja, in the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Škerl, Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić, jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokars LArmonia, an operaCulture of Slovenia – Folk musician Lojze Slak
7. Brotherhood and Unity Highway – It was the one and only modern highway in the country, connecting four constituent states. Construction began on the initiative of President Josip Broz Tito, who called the project the Road of brotherhood, a first section between Zagreb and Belgrade, built with the effort of the Yugoslav Peoples Army and volunteer Youth Labour Brigades, opened in 1950. The section between Ljubljana and Zagreb was built by 54,000 volunteers in less than eight months in 1958 and its importance caused it to be colloquially named autoput or autocesta. This use has largely faded out, after the successor states built further motorways. Originally an ordinary road, the used to be congested with cars and trucks, especially in summertime. Wrecked cars usually remained in place for periods of time. The road has been continuously upgraded, as of 2015, the only remaining non-motorway sections are a total of 70 km in southern Serbia around Vranje and the Grdelica Gorge, and 33 km in Macedonia south of Demir Kapija. Problematika razvoja autocesta u Hrvatskoj i Jugoslaviji na pragu 90, media related to Brotherhood and Unity Highway at Wikimedia CommonsBrotherhood and Unity Highway – Highway "Brotherhood and Unity" at Dolenje Kronovo, Slovenia, shown on the left in its original form, in March 2005, and on the right in March 2008 with viaduct of the new A2 motorway in the background
8. Predjama Castle – Predjama Castle is a Renaissance castle built within a cave mouth in south-central Slovenia, in the historical region of Inner Carniola. It is located in the village of Predjama, approximately 11 kilometres from the town of Postojna and 9 kilometres from Postojna Cave, the castle was first mentioned in the year 1274 with the German name Luegg, when the Patriarch of Aquileia built the castle in Gothic style. The castle was built under a natural rocky arch high in the wall to make access to it difficult. It was later acquired and expanded by the Luegg noble family, the castle became known as the seat of the knight Erazem Lueger, lord of the castle in the 15th century and a renowned robber baron. He was the son of the Imperial Governor of Trieste, Nikolaj Lueger, fleeing the vengeance of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick III, Erazem reached in the family fortress of Predjama. From there, he allied himself with King Matthias Corvinus and began to attack Habsburg estates, the emperor commissioned the governor of Trieste, Andrej Ravbar, with the capture or killing of Erazem. Erazem was killed after a long siege. Erazem was betrayed by one of his men and was killed by a shot from a cannon, after the siege and destruction of the original castle, its ruins were acquired by the Oberburg family. In 1511, the castle, built by the Purgstall family in the first decade of the 16th century, was destroyed in an earthquake. In the year 1567, Archduke Charles of Austria leased the castle to baron Philipp von Cobenzl, in 1570, the current castle was built in the Renaissance style, pressed next to a vertical cliff under the original Medieval fortification. The castle has remained in form, virtually unchanged, to the present day. In the 18th century, it one of the favourite summer residences of the Cobenzl family. Both the Austrian statesman Philipp von Cobenzl and the diplomat Count Ludwig von Cobenzl spent time in the castle. A vertical natural shaft leads out of the castle, which Erazem ordered to be enlarged. This shaft allowed Erazem to secretly supply the castle with food in the time of the siege, Predjama Castle was used as the castle featured in the 1986 movie Armour of God by Golden Harvest starring Jackie Chan, Alan Tam, Rosamund Kwan and Lola Forner. It was also investigated for paranormal activity in a 2008 episode of Ghost Hunters International on the Sci Fi Channel and it was also the filming location of Laibachs Sympathy For The Devil covers music video. The multiplayer map Castle from the 2014 Counter-Strike, Global Offensive DLC, Operation Breakout, is based on Predjama CastlePredjama Castle – Predjama Castle
9. Inex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308 – Inex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308 was a McDonnell Douglas MD-81 aircraft operating a Yugoslavian charter flight to the French island of Corsica. On December 1,1981, the flight crashed on Corsicas Mont San-Pietro, the crash was the deadliest and first major aviation accident involving a McDonnell Douglas MD-80, as well as the second-deadliest air disaster in France behind Turkish Airlines Flight 981. Flight 1308 took off from Brnik Airport on a flight from Slovenia to Corsicas capital city of Ajaccio with 173 Slovenian tourists and 7 crew members. At some point, the co-pilot let his son enter the cockpit. While in its pattern, the flight was instructed to descend through the minimum holding altitude of 6,800 feet. As it descended, its Ground Proximity Warning System gave off several audio warnings, one of the aircrafts wings collided with the summit of Mont San-Pietro and broke off. The aircraft then went into a dive and violently crashed on the other side of the mountain. The time of the accident was 8,53 a. m. local time, the crew, apparently surprised at the instruction to descend, repeated several times that they were still in the holding pattern, which the control acknowledged. The crew was unfamiliar with the airport and its vicinity, as this was the first flight of Inex-Adria Aviopromet to Corsica, the investigation determined that the imprecise language used by the crew of the MD-81 and the air traffic controller played a significant role in the accident. Air traffic control in Ajaccio was cleared of all charges, the air traffic controller in charge of Flight 1308 was transferred to another airport in France. At the time of the accident, the Ajaccio airport had no radar, as a direct result of the accident, the equipment was upgraded and the approach pattern changed. Some debris and human bodies were removed from the site after the accident in 1981. In 2007, POP TV did a report on the accident. They visited the site in Corsica and found many of the airplanes parts still scattered on Mont San-Pietro, in rugged. Subsequently, the Government of Slovenia, Adria Airways and Kompas organized and funded a clean-up operation. A Slovenian team of about 60 soldiers, mountain rescuers, civil protection and rescue service members, medical personnel, the removed debris included one aircraft engine and large wing parts. Some of the parts were so large they needed to be cut before transporting them from the mountain by a helicopter. Several human remains were found, and were either sent for further identification testsInex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308 – YU-ANA, the aircraft involved in the accident, seen at Manchester Airport in September 1981.
10. Transport in Slovenia – Their course was established already in Antiquity. A particular geographic advantage in recent times has been the location of the intersection of the Pan-European transport corridors V and X in the country and this gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring. The existing Slovenian rails, which were built in the 19th century, are out-of-date. The maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network has been neglected due to the lack of financial assets, nevertheless, it has been gaining momentum with the completion of the motorway cross. The Slovenian Railways company operates 1,229 km of 1,435 mm standard gauge tracks,331 km as double track, the network comprises main lines and regional lines. Electrification is provided by a 3 kV DC system, except at the junctions with railways of foreign countries, due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia despite growing slightly in absolute terms. The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a drop in the 1990s. The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several E-railways intersect in Slovenia, all international transit trains in Slovenia drive through the Ljubljana Railway Hub, and all international passenger trains stop there. With the share of over 80%, the freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia. Personal cars are more popular than public road passenger transport. Motorways and expressways, operated by the Motorway Company in the Republic of Slovenia, are the roads of the highest category. On motorways and express ways, cars must have a toll sticker, Slovenia has a very high motorway density compared to the European Union average. Till February 2012, a network consisting of 528 km of motorways, expressways and its essential section, the Slovenian Motorway Cross, which is part of the Trans-European Road network, was completed in October 2011. The newly built road system slowly, but steadily transforms Slovenia into a conurbation and connects it as a unitary social, economic and cultural space. In contrast, other roads, managed by the Slovenian Infrastructure Agency, have been rapidly deteriorating due to neglection. About half of them are in a bad condition, the urban and suburban network served by buses is relatively dense. The first highway in Slovenia, the A1, was opened in 1972, constructed under the liberal minded government of Stane Kavčič their development plan envisioned a modern highway network spanning Slovenia and connecting the republic to Italy and Austria. After the liberal fraction of the Communist Party of Slovenia was deposed, in the 1990s the new country started the National Programme of Highway Construction, effectively re-using the old communist plansTransport in Slovenia – The Port of Koper
11. Rudolf Maister – Rudolf Maister was a Slovene military officer, poet and political activist. The soldiers who fought under Maisters command in northern Slovenia became known as Maisters fighters, Maister was also an accomplished poet and self-taught painter. Maister was born in the Upper Carniolan commercial town of Kamnik, a career soldier, during World War I, he served in the Austro-Hungarian Army. In 1917, he was sent to Graz promoted to the rank of a major, in 1918, near the end of the war when it was obvious that Austria-Hungary was losing, the city council of Maribor proclaimed the annexation of Maribor to Austria. Maister organized Slovene volunteer forces of 4000 soldiers and 200 officers and in the night of 23 November 1918 seized control of the city of Maribor and this date has been recognized as a state holiday in Slovenia since 2005. The Slovene National Council for Lower Styria awarded him the rank of general on November 1, on 27 January 1919, Germans awaiting the American peace delegation at the citys marketplace were fired on by Slovenian troops under the command of Maister. Nine Germans were killed and more than eighteen were seriously wounded, the responsibility for the shooting has not been conclusively established. German sources accused Maisters troops of shooting without cause, while Slovenian witnesses, such as Maks Pohar, the Austrian Germans allegedly attacked the police inspector, Ivan Senekovič, and then pressed towards the Slovenian soldiers in front of the city hall. A Slovenian version of this event involves a German firing a revolver in the direction of the Slovenian soldiers, the event became known as Marburgs Bloody Sunday. In November 1919, Maisters forces joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, Maister joined them later and took part of the capture of Klagenfurt. After the Carinthian Plebiscite, in majority of the local Slovenian population decided to remain part of Austria. He spent most of his life in an estate near Planina in Inner Carniola. Maister also wrote poetry, which he published in two collected volumes, in 1904 and in 1929, most of his poetry follows the Post-Romantic aesthetics, and is influenced by 19th century Slovene lyrical and patriotic poetry of Simon Jenko, Simon Gregorčič and Anton Aškerc. Bruno Hartman, Rudolf Maister, general in pesnik Media related to Rudolf Maister at Wikimedia CommonsRudolf Maister – Rudolf Maister in 1919
12. Music of Slovenia – The music of Slovenia is closely related to Austrian music because of its common history and Alpine and littoral culture. Croatian and Northern Italian music from the close to Slovenian border also bear some resemblance to Slovenian music. In the minds of many foreigners, Slovenian folk music means a form of polka that is popular today, especially among expatriates. However, there are styles of Slovenian folk music beyond polka. Kolo, lender, štajeriš, mafrine and šaltin are a few of the music styles and dances. The Divje Babe flute, a found in a cave near Cerkno. Its age is estimated at approximately 55,000 years, the history of modern Slovenian music can be traced back to the 5th century, when Christianity spread in Carantania. Liturgical hymns were introduced, and became the first plainchant to make a connection to the peoples language, during the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music, including wandering minnesingers. Jurij Slatkonja, a Carniolan conductor and composer from Novo Mesto, by the time of Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, music was used to proselytize in Carniola. The first Slovenian hymnal, Eni Psalmi, was published in 1567 and this period saw the rise of Renaissance musicians like Jacobus Gallus. Italy was an important musical influence of the period, especially in sacred music, such as that of Antonio Tarsia of Koper, in oratorio, a commedia was performed in Ljubljana in 1660, and an opera in 1700 in the family palace of the Auerspergs. In 1701, Johann Berthold von Höffer, a nobleman and amateur composer from Ljubljana, and the Ljubljana branch of the Roman Academy of Arcadia was founded a few years later in 1709. Apart from Höffer the Cathedral provost Mihael Omerza was also noted for his oratorios, as the economic depression hit the country in the last half of the 18th century, music declined in popularity. Beginning in 1768, German theatre companies arrived and became very popular, the 1794 formation of the Philharmonische Gesellschaft was important because it was one of the first such orchestras in Central Europe. The 19th century saw the growth of a distinctively Slovenian classical music based on romanticism. The Ljubljana opera house was shared by Slovene and German opera companies, in the early 20th century, impressionism was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj and Slavko Osterc. Avant-garde classical music arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek, Dane Škerl, Primož Ramovš and Ivo Petrić, jakob Jež, Darijan Božič, Lojze Lebič and Vinko Globokar have since composed enduring works, especially Globokars LArmonia, an opera. In the 1950s, Božidar Kantušer was the most progressive of all, contemporary classic music composers include Uroš Rojko, Tomaž Svete, Brina Jež-Brezavšček and Aldo KumarMusic of Slovenia – Laibach performing at wRacku Festiwal 2010
13. Radenska – Radenska is a Slovenia-based worldwide known brand of mineral water, trademark of Radenska company. It is one of the oldest Slovenian brands, development of mineral water company started at Radenci in 1869, when Karl Henn, owner of the land, filled the first bottles of mineral water. Over 50 years later has been recognized as a mineral water healing since 1936, mineral water brand name Radenska Three Hearts has been in use since 1936. It was designed in 1931 by the illustrator Milko Bambič, according to the author, the three hearts symbolised three former nations of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The company is the sponsor of UCI Continental cycling team Rog–LjubljanaRadenska – Radenska
14. Congress Square – Congress Square is one of the central squares in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. The square was built in 1821 at the site of the ruins of a medieval Capuchin monastery, the square was used for ceremonial purposes during the Congress of Ljubljana, after which it was named. After the congress, a park was laid out in the center of the square, during the communist period it was renamed Revolution Square and a few years later Liberation Square, but the local population continued to use the old name. In 1990, it regained its original name, the square has had a highly symbolic role in modern Slovenian history. On October 29,1918, independence from Austrian-Hungarian rule and the establishment of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs was proclaimed during a mass demonstration on the square. In May 1945, the Yugoslav Communist leader Josip Broz Tito first visited Slovenia after World War II and held a speech on the balcony of the University of Ljubljana, which faces the square. On June 22,1988, the first free mass demonstration was held on the square demanding the release of four Slovene journalists imprisoned by the Yugoslav army, the demonstration marked the beginning of the Slovenian spring which culminated in the declaration of Slovenias independence on June 25,1991. In 1999 Bill Clinton became the first U. S. president to visit Slovenia, on June 21, he publicly addressed the crowd gathered on Congress Square, quoting the opening verses of the Slovenian national anthem. Several important buildings face the square, the Slovenska matica publishing house also has its seat on the square. In 1852, a full statue of the Austrian field marshal Joseph Radetzky, was erected in the square. It depicted Radetzky in the battle against the Italian army encouraging his soldiers, the statue was removed six years later, after Radetzkys death, because the town councillors found out that a cast was not decent enough for a monument. In 1860, they erected in a ceremony a bust statue created by the Austrian sculptor Anton Dominik Fernkorn and it was almost two meters high and made of bronze, and was the first representative public statue. The field marshal was depicted highly realistically in his suit with decorations, the statue was meant to reflect the loyalty to the Habsburg crown and was the place of all events on a high level in Ljubljana, but also the meeting place for drunk citizens at night. The statue was removed by patriots in the night of the 30 December 1918, after the collapse of the Austria-Hungary and the end of World War II, in the late 1930s, the square was renovated by the prominent Slovene architect Jože Plečnik. New trees on the park were planted, most of which are there today. In 1940, a statue of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia created by the architect Lojze Dolinar was erected in the middle of the square. In 1941, the statue was removed by the Fascist Italian occupation forces, a Biedermeier bandstand from the 1830s also stands in the park. In December 2004 the artist Matej Andraž Vogrinčič set up an Enchanted Forest in the square consisting of 1,000 potted fir trees, the trees were later donated to the Slovene Forestry Institute, which used them to reforest areas in the north-west of the countryCongress Square – Congress Square viewed from Ljubljana Castle. Star Park is visible on the right.
15. Politics of Slovenia – Executive power is exercised by the Government of Slovenia. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly and in part in the National Council. The judiciary of Slovenia is independent of the executive and the legislature, as a young independent republic, Slovenia pursued economic stabilization and further political openness, while emphasizing its Western outlook and central European heritage. From 1998 to 2000, Slovenia occupied a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council and in that capacity distinguished itself with a constructive, creative, Slovenia has been a member of the United Nations since May 1992 and of the Council of Europe since May 1993. Slovenia signed an agreement with the European Union in 1996 and is a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement. Slovenia also is a member of all major financial institutions as well as 40 other international organizations, among them the World Trade Organization. However, Slovenia is the only former Communist state that has never carried out lustration, by Constitution of Slovenia the country is a parliamentary democracy and a republic. Within its government, power is shared between an elected president, a prime minister, and an incompletely bicameral legislature. The Constitutional Court has the highest power of review of legislation to ensure its consistency with Slovenias constitution and its nine judges are elected for 9-year terms. In 1997, elections were held to both a president and representatives to Parliaments upper house, the National Council. Milan Kučan, elected President of the Yugoslav Republic of Slovenia in 1990 and he was elected the first President of independent Slovenia in 1992 and again in November 1997 by a comfortable margin. Janez Drnovšek of the center-left Liberal Democratic Party of Slovenia was reelected Prime Minister in the 15 October 2000 parliamentary elections, drnovšeks coalition held an almost two-thirds majority in Parliament. The government, most of the Slovenian polity, shares a common view of the desirability of an association with the West. For all the apparent bitterness that divides left and right wings, Slovenian society is built on consensus, which has converged on a social-democrat model. Political differences tend to have their roots in the roles that groups and individuals played during the years of communist rule and the struggle for independence. As the most prosperous republic of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia emerged from its brief war of secession in 1991 as an independent nation for the first time in its history. Since that time, the country has made steady but cautious progress toward developing a market economy, economic reforms introduced shortly after independence led to healthy economic growth. Despite the halting pace of reform and signs of slowing GDP growth today, the Slovenians have pursued internal economic restructuring with cautionPolitics of Slovenia – Presidential Palace in Ljubljana.
16. Lojze Grozde – Lojze Grozde was a Slovenian student who was murdered by partisans during World War II. His death is recognised as martyrdom by the Catholic Church and he was beatified on 13 June 2010. Grozde was born on 27 May 1923 in the village of Gorenje Vodale, Tržišče near Mokronog in Lower Carniola, when he was four years old, his mother married. His stepfather chased him away each time he wanted to see his mother, later, because Lojze was a good pupil, the stepfather became friendlier towards him, and so he remained at the house and his aunt took care of him. She saw to his schooling and sent him to a school in Ljubljana, some benefactors helped her support her nephew. He stayed at the Marijanišče boarding school and Classical Secondary School in Ljubljana, there he was an outstanding student, but found time for literary creativity too and so became poet and writer. He was a member of Catholic Action and a member of the Marian Congregation, towards the end of his high schooling World War II was approaching. This was also the time when Lojze had to make a decision about his vocation and he sought his path in life through meditation and learning, in deep prayer, and in apostolic work for others. During his summer vacation of 1942 he did not go home because there was a lot of violence and it was only for New Year 1943 that he decided to visit his relatives. He asked for a permit to travel home, First he visited a friend of his at the village of Struge. He decided to continue to Mirna on foot, and on the way he rode in a cart, by the time the cart had reached Mirna, it was pulled over by the Slovenian partisans and he was seized and interrogated. On him they found a book, The Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis. He was taken to an inn and interrogated, tortured. Three hours earlier the seminarian Janez Hočevar, who wanted to visit his relatives in nearby Šentrupert, had also shot. Lojze Grozde was suspected of being an informant, the saw in him the mentality that they deprecated and persecuted. Soon, rumors of Grozdes grisly death spread and it is spoken, that the Tone Tomšič Partisan Brigade, which had conquered Mirna, on so cruel way celebrated the New Year. Some others maintain today, that Grozde was not tortured, Partisan General Lado Kocijan stated that for the partisan tribunal, Grozde was a White Guard courier, and so he was condemned to death. It is not true that they tortured him, that cut the skin from the soles of his feet, cut out his tongueLojze Grozde – Lojze Grozde as pupil