Politics of the United Kingdom
The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The highest court is the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, the UK political system is a multi-party system. Since the 1920s, the two largest political participation have been the Conservative Party and the Labour Party, before the Labour Party rose in British politics, the Liberal Party was the other major political party along with the Conservatives. A Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government held office from 2010 until 2015, with the partition of Ireland, Northern Ireland received home rule in 1920, though civil unrest meant direct rule was restored in 1972. Support for nationalist parties in Scotland and Wales led to proposals for devolution in the 1970s though only in the 1990s did devolution actually happen. Today, Scotland and Northern Ireland each possess a legislature and executive, the United Kingdom government remains responsible for non-devolved matters and, in the case of Northern Ireland, co-operates with the government of the Republic of Ireland.
It is a matter of dispute as to increased autonomy. A2014 referendum on independence led to a rejection of the proposal, in Northern Ireland, a smaller percentage vote for Irish nationalist parties. The constitution of the United Kingdom is uncodified, being made up of constitutional conventions and this system of government, known as the Westminster system, has been adopted by other countries, especially those that were formerly parts of the British Empire. The British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the chief of state of the United Kingdom, though she takes little direct part in government, the Crown remains the fount in which ultimate executive power over government lies. The head of Her Majestys Government, the minister, has weekly meetings with the sovereign. In practice, this means that the leader of the party with an absolute majority of seats in the House of Commons is chosen to be the Prime Minister. If no party has a majority, the leader of the largest party is given the first opportunity to form a coalition.
The Prime Minister selects the other Ministers which make up the Government, about twenty of the most senior government ministers make up the Cabinet and approximately 100 ministers in total comprise the government. In accordance with convention, all ministers within the government are either Members of Parliament or peers in the House of Lords. In practice, members of parliament of all parties are strictly controlled by whips who try to ensure they vote according to party policy. If the government has a majority, they are very unlikely to lose enough votes to be unable to pass legislation. The Prime Minister is the most senior minister in the Cabinet and they are responsible for chairing Cabinet meetings, selecting Cabinet ministers, and formulating government policy