Mesa Airlines, Inc. is an American regional airline based in Phoenix, Arizona. It is an FAA Part 121-certificated air carrier operating under air carrier certificate number MASA036A issued on June 29, 1979, it is a subsidiary of Mesa Air Group and operates flights as American Eagle and United Express via respective code sharing agreements with American Airlines and United Airlines. It serves more than 180 markets in the Western Hemisphere. In a 1997 article from the Journal of Air Transportation, Mesa's safety record was noted as having the fewest incidents among domestic regional airlines At that time. Mesa filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in January 2010, hoping to shed financial obligations for leases on airplanes it no longer needed, emerged from bankruptcy in March of 2011. Since 2013, Mesa has added more aircraft to its fleet than any other regional airline. In November 2017, Mesa opened a new training center in Phoenix; the 23,000-square-foot facility features a full-size CRJ-200 cabin trainer aircraft, 14 classrooms, has the capacity to train 300 crew members at one time.
Mesa Airlines operates as: the regional marketing brand of American Airlines. Mesa began flying routes as American Eagle in 2014 from American's hubs in Dallas/Fort Worth and Phoenix using Bombardier CRJ900 regional jet aircraft. United Express, a mainline airline marketing sub-brand using United Express liveried fleet of Bombardier CRJ700 and Embraer 175 aircraft under a revenue-guarantee code sharing agreement, its hubs are at Washington Dulles for the CRJ700 aircraft. Air Midwest CalPac Desert Sun Airlines FloridaGulf Airlines Go! Liberty Express Airlines Mountain West Airlines Skyway Airlines Superior Airlines Mesa began operations as Mesa Air Shuttle in Farmington, New Mexico, in 1980. From 1989 through 1998, Mesa Airlines operated as a conglomeration of up to eight separate airlines. For the history of the acquisition and expansion of Mesa Airlines during this time see Mesa Air Group; the following history section details the history of the individual airlines that comprised Mesa Airlines during this time frame.
The original Mesa Air Shuttle was a flight division of JB Aviation in Farmington, New Mexico and operated a single route from Farmington to Albuquerque using a Piper Saratoga aircraft. In 1981 as the original Frontier Airlines was discontinuing its flights between the two cities, Mesa obtained a twin engine Piper Navajo Chieftain and increased service on the route. In 1982 the original owners sold the company to Janie Risley; the Risley's expanded the carrier by acquiring a fleet of 14-passenger seat Beechcraft 99 commuter turboprops and adding service throughout New Mexico and surrounding states with a hub at Albuquerque. In 1985 larger 19-passenger seat Beechcraft 1900's were acquired which replaced the Beech 99's and became the backbone of Mesa's fleet. By 1987 up to 47 daily departures were operating from Albuquerque to 18 cities. In 1987 a Denver hub was created when Mesa acquired Centennial Airlines which operated several routes from Denver into Wyoming. After an initial route from Farmington and Gallup to Phoenix began in 1985, Phoenix was expanded into a hub in 1989 with new routes throughout Arizona.
In 1990, most Denver flights were incorporated into the United Express division which Mesa had acquired from Aspen Airways. In 1992, when Mesa established a code share with America West Airlines, its Phoenix hub was turned over to the America West Express division. A minor hub was operated at Farmington in the late 1980s with up to 22 daily flights connecting Albuquerque and Salt Lake City to Durango and Telluride, CO. For a brief time in 1995 and 1996, the Mesa Airlines operation at Albuquerque, the United Express operation in Denver, the America West Express operation in Phoenix were all known as operated by Mountain West Airlines. In 1997 and 1998, routes from Little Rock to Nashville and Wichita and from Nashville to Tupelo were added, first as Mesa Airlines later as US Airways Express. In 1997, Mesa established a small hub at Fort Worth Meacham International Airport, using two Bombardier CRJ200 regional jet aircraft, providing service from Fort Worth to San Antonio and Houston Hobby, as well as new routes from Colorado Springs to Nashville and San Antonio.
The venture was short-lived and these routes were all eliminated during corporate restructuring. The Albuquerque hub was merged into Air Midwest in 2001 but operated as a code share for Mesa Airlines until the hub was dissolved at the end of 2007. In 1998, Mesa moved its headquarters from Farmington, NM to Phoenix, AZ. In September 1992, Mesa negotiated a code sharing agreement with America West Airlines to operate as America West Express out of its Phoenix hub, serving 12 cities; these routes were from the independent Mesa operation and several Beech 1900D aircraft were painted in the America West Airlines scheme. The code share allowed increased frequency and increased load factors and expansion into several new markets. In 1995, Mesa created a new subdivision called Desert Sun Airlines and acquired a pair of Fokker 70 jets for use on new America West Express routes from Phoenix to Des Moines and Spokane. Desert Sun was merged into the Mesa Airlines division in 1997 and its Fokker 70 aircraft were replaced by Canadair CRJ-200 regional jet aircraft.
The CRJ-200 aircraft began replacing the Beechcraft 1900D and Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia turboprops. The BE-1900Ds were transitioned over to Mesa's Air Midwest subsidiary. Beginning in December 1997, Mesa began operating de Havilland Canada DHC-8 Dash 8 series 200 aircraft between Ph
Cessna 185 Skywagon
The Cessna 185 Skywagon is a six-seat, single-engined, general aviation light aircraft manufactured by Cessna. It first flew as a prototype in July 1960, with the first production model completed in March 1961; the Cessna 185 is a high-winged aircraft with non-retractable conventional landing gear and a tailwheel. Over 4,400 were built with production ceasing in 1985; when Cessna re-introduced some of its most popular models in the 1990s, the tailwheel equipped Cessna 180 and 185 were not put back into production. The aircraft is a Cessna 180 with a strengthened fuselage; the main difference between the two aircraft is the larger vertical fin on the 185 and the 300 hp Continental IO-520-D engine as opposed to the 230 hp Continental O-470-S fitted to the Cessna 180. The exception was that a Continental Motors IO-470-F engine of 260 hp was fitted until midway through the 1966 production year; the model Skywagon II has a factory fitted avionics package. The Skywagon can be fitted with floats, amphibious float, or skis.
The AgCarryall variant of the 185 adds a 151-gallon belly chemical tank and removable spray booms for aerial application. It is possible to fit a cargo pod under the fuselage that can carry an extra 300 lb; the 180 and 185 are used in bush flying, the commercial transport of passengers and freight to remote, austere airstrips and snowfields in Canada and Alaska. 185 Skywagon Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 260 hp Continental IO-470-F, landplane gross weight 3,200 lb and first certified on 31 January 1961. 185A Skywagon Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 260 hp Continental IO-470-F, landplane gross weight 3,200 lb and first certified on 20 September 1961. 185B Skywagon Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 260 hp Continental IO-470-F, landplane gross weight 3,200 lb and first certified on 25 June 1962. 185C Skywagon Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 260 hp Continental IO-470-F, landplane gross weight 3,200 lb and first certified on 19 July 1963.
185D Skywagon Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 260 hp Continental IO-470-F, landplane gross weight 3,200 lb and first certified on 17 June 1964. 185E Skywagon Six seat high wing light aircraft powered by a 260 hp Continental IO-470-F, landplane gross weight 3,300 lb and first certified on 24 September 1965. A185E Skywagon and AgCarryall Six seat high wing light aircraft and agricultural aircraft powered by a 300 hp Continental IO-520-D, landplane gross weight 3,350 lb and first certified on 24 September 1965. A185F Skywagon and AgCarryall Six seat high wing light aircraft and agricultural aircraft powered by a 300 hp Continental IO-520-D, landplane gross weight 3,350 lb and first certified on 16 October 1973. U-17A Military version of the Cessna 185E, powered by a 260-hp Continental IO-470-F piston engine. Supplied by the USAF to a number of countries under the Military Assistance Programme. U-17B Military version of the Cessna A185E, powered by a 300-hp Continental IO-520-D piston engine.
Supplied by the USAF to a number countries under the Military Assistance Programme. U-17C Four-seat light utility aircraft, powered by a Continental IO-470-L piston engine; the Cessna 185 is popular with air charter companies and is operated by private individuals and companies. As part of the United States Military Assistance Program, Cessna received a contract to supply the United States Air Force with the Skywagon; these were intended for delivery overseas and were designated U-17A and U-17B. ArgentinaArgentine Army Aviation BoliviaBolivian Air Force 7 x A185E, 8 x A185F * 5 x U-17A Costa RicaGuardia Civil 3 x U-17A EcuadorEcuadorian Army 2 x 185D GreeceHellenic Army 9+ x U-17A HondurasHonduran Air Force received a Cessna 185B in 1962, a U-17A in 1963 and a 185D in 1965. IranIslamic Revolutionary Air Force 185A - no longer in service Islamic Revolutionary Army Aviation 185A - no longer in service IsraelIsrael Air Force 185 JamaicaJamaica Defence Force - 4 x 185 from 1963 to 1985 Khmer RepublicKhmer Air Force – 5 x U-17 from 1972 to 1975.
LaosRoyal Lao Air Force - U-17s used as reconnaissance and observation aircraft for Nokateng Forward Air Controllers during the Laotian Civil War NicaraguaNicaraguan Air Force 3 x U-17B PanamaPanamanian Public Forces 3 x U-17A ParaguayParaguayan Air Force 5 x U-17A PeruPeruvian Air Force 9 x 185 PhilippinesPhilippine Air Force 8 x U-17A, 9 x U-17B PortugalPortuguese Air Force 5 x 185A operated 1968 to 1974. RhodesiaRhodesian Air Force - Two civil aircraft impressed into service, about 17 aircraft on loan from the South African Air Force, in service during the 1970s. El SalvadorAir Force of El Salvador 1 x 185 South AfricaSouth African Air Force 24 x 185A, 12 x 185D, 9 x 185E- No longer in service. South VietnamRepublic of Vietnam Air Force - About 100 U-17As and U-17Bs were used by the VNAF. No longer in service. ThailandRoyal Thai Army Aviation U-17B TurkeyTurkish Army Aviation U-17B UruguayUruguayan Air Force 12 x U-17A On August 19, 1989, a Cessna A185E Skywagon registered N95KW crashed shortly after a balked landing at Coastal Airport, located near Myrtle Grove, Florida.
The pilot's seat latch slipped on the railing, causing the pilot to unintentionally stall the aircraft. The pilot and the two passengers on board were all injured; the resulting product liability trial, concluding twelve years resulted in a $480 million judgement against Cessna. The case was settled out-of-court for an undisclosed sum; this accident brought about a series of airworthiness directives that affected all small Cessnas built. Data from CessnaGeneral characteri
SkyWest Airlines is a North American regional airline headquartered in St. George, Utah. SkyWest is classified as one of the major airlines of the United States. However, as a regional airline it serves as and operates for other major air carriers via code sharing agreements that it has contracted with such as American, Delta and United. SkyWest is paid to operate and maintain aircraft used on flights that are scheduled and priced by a partner mainline airline. In all, it is the largest regional airline in North America when measured by fleet size, number of passengers carried, number of destinations served between all the airlines it contracts with. SkyWest operates an average of more than 2,200 flights per day to 250+ cities in the United States, Canada and the Bahamas with an extensive network of routes set up to connect passengers between smaller airports and the large hubs of its partner airlines. In total, SkyWest carried 35.9 million passengers in 2017. Under various contracts, the company operates an average of 897 flights per day as Delta Connection on behalf of Delta Air Lines, 812 flights per day as United Express on behalf of United Airlines, 332 flights per day as American Eagle on behalf of American Airlines, 144 flights per day as Alaska SkyWest in partnership with Alaska Airlines.
The vast majority of SkyWest’s contracts are fixed-fee, with partner airlines paying a set amount for each flight operated, regardless of the number of passengers carried. The remaining 7% of flights are operated under a pro-rate contract, with SkyWest assuming all costs, setting fares, retaining all revenue from non-connecting passengers, splitting the fares of connecting passengers on a pro-rated basis with the partner airline. SkyWest operates on a pro-rate basis on 68 routes across 10 hubs through agreements with American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, United Airlines. SkyWest is owned by Inc. an airline holding company. SkyWest provides contract ground handling services at airports across the United States. Frustrated by the limited extent of existing air service, Ralph Atkin, a St. George, Utah lawyer, purchased Dixie Airlines to shuttle businessmen to Salt Lake City in 1972. After early struggles, SkyWest began a steady expansion across the western U. S, it became the eleventh largest regional carrier in 1984 when it acquired Sun Aire Lines of Palm Springs and had its initial public offering in 1986.
In 1985, SkyWest began codesharing as Western Express, a feeder service for Western Airlines at its Salt Lake City hub and other mainline Western destinations utilizing Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia and Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner turboprop aircraft. Following the acquisition and merger of Western by Delta Air Lines in 1986, SkyWest became a Delta Connection air carrier with code share service being flown on behalf of Delta to destinations in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada and Wyoming. In 1995, SkyWest began operating flights for Continental Airlines out of LAX; the relationship was discontinued two years when SkyWest began flying for United Airlines. SkyWest's United Express flights out of SFO, LAX and DEN became its largest operation by the late 1990s. A partnership with Continental was revived in 2003 out of George Bush Intercontinental Airport, but was discontinued in June 2005. On August 15, 2005, Delta sold Atlantic Southeast Airlines to the newly incorporated SkyWest, Inc. for $425 million in cash.
The acquisition was completed on September 8, 2005. On August 4, 2010, SkyWest, Inc. announced that it planned to acquire ExpressJet Airlines and merge it with SkyWest subsidiary Atlantic Southeast Airlines in a deal reported to have a value of $133 million. The purchase aligned the largest commuter operations of United Airlines and Continental Airlines, who were in a merger process, was approved on September 13, 2010, by the Federal Trade Commission. In May 2011, SkyWest replaced six Horizon Air flights on the West Coast being operated for Alaska Airlines; the flights were based out of Seattle and Portland, fly to several California cities including Fresno, Santa Barbara and Ontario. Alaska Airlines has similar agreements with PenAir for Alaskan flights and Horizon Air for flights in the lower 48. On September 6, 2011, AirTran Airways ended its partnership with SkyWest. Shortly after, SkyWest began a codesharing agreement with US Airways to operate CRJ200 aircraft from US Airways' hub in Phoenix, Arizona.
On November 15, 2012, SkyWest began a capacity purchase agreement with American Airlines for 12 CRJ200 aircraft from American's hub in Los Angeles, California. On September 6, 2017, SkyWest Airlines reported that it has entered into aircraft purchase agreements and capacity purchase agreements to acquire and fly 15 new aircraft with Delta Air Lines and 10 new aircraft with Alaska Airlines. Of the 25 aircraft, 15 Embraer E175 SC aircraft will fly under an agreement with Delta in a 70-seat configuration; the E175 SC aircraft can be retrofitted to 76 seats in the future. The agreement with Alaska includes 10 Embraer E175s, which will be configured with 76 seats, similar to aircraft SkyWest has placed into service with Alaska. Expected delivery dates of the 25 aircraft run from March 2018 through the end of 2018. On December 18, 2018, SkyWest, Inc. announced that it would sell ExpressJet Airlines to another airline holding company with ties to United Airlines, ExpressJet's sole client. The 70 million dollar deal closed on January 23, 2019.
SkyWest flies to 251 destinations throughout North America including Denver International Airport, Salt Lake City International Airport, San Francisco International Airport
United Airlines, Inc. referred to as just United, is a major American airline headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network, with an extensive presence in the Asia-Pacific region. United is a founding member of the Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance with a total of 28 member airlines. Regional service is operated by independent carriers under the brand name United Express. United was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, founded in 1926. United has seven hubs, with Chicago–O'Hare being its largest in terms of passengers carried and the number of departures; the company employs over 86,000 people while maintaining its headquarters in Chicago's Willis Tower. Through the airline's parent company, United Continental Holdings, it is publicly traded under NYSE: UAL with a market capitalization of over US$21 billion as of January 2018. United traces its roots to Varney Air Lines, which Walter Varney founded in 1926 in Idaho.
Continental Airlines is the successor to Speed Lanes, which Varney had founded by 1932 and whose name changed to Varney Speed Lines in 1934. VAL flew the first contracted air mail flight in the U. S. on April 6, 1926. In 1927, William Boeing founded Boeing Air Transport to operate air mail routes under contract with the United States Post Office Department. In 1929, Boeing merged his company with Pratt & Whitney to form the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which set about buying, in the space of just 28 months, Pacific Air Transport, Stout Air Services, VAL, National Air Transport, as well as numerous equipment manufacturers at the same time. On March 28, 1931, UATC formed United Air Lines, Inc. as a holding company for its airline subsidiaries. In late 2006, Continental Airlines and United had preliminary merger discussions. On April 16, 2010, those discussions resumed; the board of directors of Continental and UAL Corporation agreed on May 2, 2010, to combine operations, contingent upon shareholder and regulatory approval.
On October 1, 2010, the UAL Corporation changed its name to Inc.. The carriers planned to begin merging their operations in 2011; the merged airline began operating under a single air operator's certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration on November 30, 2011. On March 3, 2012, United and Continental merged their passenger service systems, frequent-flier programs, websites, which eliminated the Continental brand with the exception of its logo. United operates to 231 destinations and 125 international destinations in 48 countries across five continents. United operates seven hubs. Chicago–O'Hare – United's largest hub and its hub for the Midwest. United flies 36 million passengers through O'Hare every year, about 99,000 people per day, making it the busiest airline at the airport. United's corporate headquarters are in Chicago. Denver – United's hub for the central and western United States. In 2017, United flew 25.9 million passengers through DIA or about 71,000 people per day. As of December 2017, United has about 42% of the market share at DIA making it the airport's largest airline.
Houston–Intercontinental – United's hub for the Southern United States and primary gateway to Latin America. About 33.5 million passengers fly through Houston on United every year, or about 91,000 people per day. United has about 78% of the seat share at Bush, making it the airport's largest tenant. Los Angeles – United's secondary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia. About 10 million passengers fly through LAX on about 28,000 people per day. United has 15% of the market share at LAX, making it the third-biggest carrier at the airport. Newark – United's primary hub for the East Coast and a gateway to Europe, Latin America and Asia. About 28.5 million passengers fly on United through Newark every year, or about 78,000 people per day. United controls about 81% of the slots at Newark and carries about 68% of all passengers at the airport. United uses part of Terminal A for United Express Flights. San Francisco – United's primary hub for the West Coast and gateway to Asia and Australia.
About 22 million passengers pass through SFO every year on United, about 60,000 people per day. United has about 46% of the market share at San Francisco International, making it the biggest airline at the airport. Washington–Dulles – United's secondary hub for the East Coast and gateway to Europe. United has about 65% of the market share at Washington Dulles, making it the largest airline at the airport. About 14 million passengers fly through Dulles every year on United, about 38,465 people per day. United Airlines is a member of the Star Alliance and has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: In addition to the above codeshares, United has entered into joint ventures with the following airlines: Air Canada Air New Zealand All Nippon Airways Austrian Airlines Brussels Airlines Lufthansa Swiss International Air Lines As of March 2019, United Airlines operated a fleet of 778 aircraft. On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets, including 260 Airbus A320s.
The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. This sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, which requires Airbus to refund to American any difference between the price paid by American and a lower price paid by United or another airline; this perpetuates United's having a Boeing-skewed fleet. On September 22, 2012, United became the first American airline to take delivery of Boeing 787 aircraft. Un
Alaska Airlines is a major American airline headquartered in SeaTac, within the Seattle metropolitan area of the state of Washington. It is the fifth-largest airline in the United States when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, number of destinations served. Alaska, together with its regional partners, operates a large domestic route network focused on connecting cities on the West Coast of the United States to over one hundred destinations in the contiguous United States, Hawaii, Costa Rica, Mexico. Alaska Airlines is not a member of any of the three major airline alliances. However, it has codeshare agreements with 17 airlines, including member airlines of Oneworld, SkyTeam, Star Alliance, unaffiliated airlines. Regional service is operated by sister airline Horizon Air and independent carrier SkyWest Airlines; the company was founded in 1932 as McGee Airways, offering flights from Alaska. Today, most of the airline's revenue and traffic comes from locations outside of Alaska, but the airline plays a major role in air transportation in the state.
It operates many flights linking small towns to major transportation hubs and carries more passengers between Alaska and the contiguous United States than any other airline. The airline operates its largest hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport, it operates hubs in Anchorage, Los Angeles, San Francisco and focus cities at San Diego and San Jose; as of 2018, the airline employs over 21,000 people and been ranked by J. D. Power and Associates as having the highest customer satisfaction of the traditional airlines for eleven consecutive years. Through the airline's parent company, Alaska Air Group, it is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol ALK and is part of the Dow Jones Transportation Average and the S&P 500 Index; the airline traces its roots to McGee Airways, started by Linious "Mac" McGee in 1932. The airline flew its inaugural service between Anchorage and Bristol Bay with a Stinson single-engined, three-passenger aircraft. At the time, there were no scheduled flights.
It was the middle of the Great Depression and the airline was struggling financially. There were too many airlines in Anchorage at the time, not enough demand to support them. In the next few years the airline performed many mergers and acquisitions that produced changes in the name and saw business expand throughout Alaska; the first of these mergers was in 1934, when McGee sold his namesake airline for US$50,000 to Star Air Service, an airline located in Anchorage. This allowed McGee to enter the mining industry. With a fleet of fifteen aircraft, Star Air Service was a dominant airline in Alaska, but Star continued to struggle financially because of high maintenance costs for its wood and fabric planes. In 1937, McGee came back to the airline and opened a liquor store, the airline began flying liquor to remote Alaskan communities; that year, Star Air Service purchased Alaska Interior Airlines and was incorporated as Star Air Lines. Star was again sold that year to a group of miners. In 1938, federal regulation began.
The CAB awarded the airline most of the routes that it wanted in Alaska, but the coveted route between Seattle and Anchorage was awarded to Pan American Airways. In 1941, Star Air Service was purchased by a businessman from New York. In 1942, the airline purchased three other airlines in Alaska, Lavery Air Service, Mirow Air Service, Pollack Flying Service as well as a hangar at the Anchorage airport; that year, the airline's name was changed to Alaska Star Airlines. The name Alaska Airlines was adopted on May 2, 1944, having narrowly beaten a competitor, applying for the name. In the 1940s Alaska's headquarters were in Anchorage; when the United States entered World War II in December 1941, Alaska Airlines faced a shortage of pilots. During the war, the airline lacked funds and equipment, pilots were forced to buy fuel for their planes out of their own pockets; the company, subjected to lawsuits went through many different presidents during this time. In 1943, Alaska Airlines purchased its first multi-engine aircraft.
That same year the company's stock was traded for the first time on the American Stock Exchange. In 1945, Alaska Airlines hired its first stewardesses. In 1947, jockey James Wooten became president of the airline and he began to expand the airline greatly. Under his leadership, the company purchased many surplus military aircraft from the government that were used during World War II; the airline purchased Douglas DC-4s and Curtiss-Wright C-46 Commandos. Alaska Airlines was the first carrier certified to operate DC-3s on skis. Alaska Airlines' large charter business made it profitable, the airline moved its base of operations to Paine Field, an airport north of Seattle, it kept a branch office in Anchorage, however. Despite its success, Alaska Airlines' worldwide charter business was short-lived. In 1949, the CAB tightened its regulations and placed heavy fines on the airline and shut it down for safety violations; the airline was prohibited from operating worldwide charter flights, president James Wooten left the company.
In 1949, Alaska Air began operating five Bell 47B helicopters in order to support oil exploration on the North Slope thus becoming the first airline in Alaska to operate rotary-wing aircraft. In 1949, the airline was a major participant in an effort by the newly established state of Israel to airlift Jews out of Yemen to Israel in what became known as Operation Magic Carpet. C-46 or DC-4 aircraf
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. referred to as Delta, is a major American airline, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline, along with its subsidiaries and regional affiliates, operates over 5,400 flights daily and serves an extensive domestic and international network that includes 304 destinations in 52 countries on six continents, as of October 2018. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. Regional service is operated under the brand name Delta Connection. One of the five remaining legacy carriers, Delta is the sixth-oldest operating airline by foundation date, the oldest airline still operating in the United States. Among predecessors of today's Delta Air Lines, Western Airlines and Northwest Airlines began flying passengers in 1926 and 1927, respectively. Delta has eight hubs, with Atlanta being its largest in terms of total passengers and number of departures, it is the world's second largest airline in terms of scheduled passengers carried, revenue passenger-kilometers flown and fleet size.
In 2018, Delta ranked No. 75 in the Fortune 500 list of the largest American corporations by total revenue. Delta Air Lines began as a crop dusting operation called Incorporated; the company was founded on May 30, 1924, in Macon and moved to Monroe, Louisiana, in 1925. They flew a Huff-Daland Duster, the first true crop duster, designed to combat the boll weevil infestation of cotton crops. Collett E. Woolman, one of the original directors, purchased the company on September 13, 1928, renamed it Delta Air Service. Service began on June 17, 1929, with the inaugural flight between Dallas and Jackson, Mississippi; the company recognizes four founders: the principal founder Collett E. Woolman, C. H. McHenery, Travis Oliver, Malcolm S. Biedenharn. Delta moved its headquarters to its current location in Atlanta in 1941, continued to grow through the addition of routes and the acquisition of other airlines, it replaced propeller planes with jets in the 1960s and entered international competition to Europe in the 1970s and across the Pacific in the 1980s.
Delta's more recent history is marked by its emergence from bankruptcy on April 25, 2007, the subsequent merger with Northwest Airlines. The merger was announced April 14, 2008, was set to create the world's largest airline. After approval of the merger on October 29, 2008, Northwest continued to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta until December 31, 2009, when both carriers' operating certificates were merged. Delta completed integration with Northwest on January 31, 2010, when their reservation systems and websites were combined, the Northwest Airlines brand was retired; as of October 2018, Delta and its worldwide alliance partners operated more than 15,000 flights per day. Delta is the only U. S. carrier that flies to Accra, Dakar, Düsseldorf, Lagos, Ponta Delgada, Stuttgart. It is the only U. S. carrier that has scheduled service to Africa, thereby the only U. S. carrier to serve all six inhabited continents. Delta has eight hubs. Atlanta – In addition to its corporate headquarters, Delta operates its primary hub in Atlanta as well as Delta TechOps, Delta's primary maintenance base.
It is Delta's main gateway to Latin America and the Caribbean, a secondary transatlantic gateway. Detroit – Inherited through the merger with Northwest, Detroit serves as one of Delta's two Midwest hubs, it is the primary Asian gateway for the northeastern United States and it provides service to many destinations in the Americas and Europe. Los Angeles – Delta inherited its LAX hub from Western Airlines, but dismantled it in the mid-1990s, opting to relocate most of those aircraft to the U. S. East Coast. Since it has re-opened the hub, offering service to Latin America, Asia and Europe, as well as major domestic bases and West Coast regional destinations. Minneapolis–Saint Paul – Inherited through the merger with Northwest, Minneapolis–Saint Paul serves as one of Delta's two Midwest hubs. Service includes most major Canadian and American metropolitan areas, a number of regional destinations in the upper Midwest as well as many destinations in Latin America and Asia. New York–JFK, New York City – A major international gateway to Europe.
Inherited from its partnership with Pan Am after Pan Am's collapse in 1991. Offers service on many transcontinental "prestige routes" to west coast destinations Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle. New York–LaGuardia, New York City – An important domestic hub created as a result of a slot swap with US Airways. Delta service at LaGuardia covers numerous east coast US cities, a number of regional destinations in the US and Canada. Salt Lake City – Delta inherited Salt Lake City during the Western Airlines merger. Service covers most major US destinations as well as a number of regional destinations in the US and Canada, select cities in Europe and Hawaii. Seattle–Tacoma – Delta announced Seattle's hub status in 2014; the hub serves as an important gateway to Asia. Delta started aggressively building its presence in Seattle in 2011, sparking tensions with Seattle-based Alaska Airlines. Since 2017, due to airport space restrictions, Delta's growth in Seattle has slowed, Delta has been upgauging existing flights rather than adding new ones.
In addition to their eight hubs, Delta operates three smaller focus cities. Boston – Boston was a hub for Delta in the second half of the 20th century through the early 2000s; the present Terminal A was built for Delta's sole use, but following the 2005 bankruptcy, they scaled back operations and leased 11 gates in the terminal. Delta has since regained all the Terminal A gates and