Sports rating system
A sports rating system is a system that analyzes the results of sports competitions to provide ratings for each team or player. Common systems include polls of expert voters, crowdsourcing non-expert voters, betting markets, computer systems. Ratings, or power ratings, are numerical representations of competitive strength directly comparable so that the game outcome between any two teams can be predicted. Rankings, or power rankings, can be directly provided, or can be derived by sorting each team's ratings and assigning an ordinal rank to each team, so that the highest rated team earns the #1 rank. Rating systems provide an alternative to traditional sports standings which are based on win-loss-tie ratios. In the United States, the biggest use of sports ratings systems is to rate NCAA college football teams in Division I FBS, choosing teams to play in the College Football Playoff. Sports ratings systems are used to help determine the field for the NCAA men's and women's basketball tournaments, men's professional golf tournaments, professional tennis tournaments, NASCAR.
They are mentioned in discussions about the teams that could or should receive invitations to participate in certain contests, despite not earning the most direct entrance path. Computer rating systems can tend toward objectivity, without specific player, regional, or style bias. Ken Massey writes that an advantage of computer rating systems is that they can "objectively track all" 351 college basketball teams, while human polls "have limited value". Computer ratings are verifiable and repeatable, are comprehensive, requiring assessment of all selected criteria. By comparison, rating systems relying on human polls include inherent human subjectivity. Sports ratings systems have been around for 80 years, when ratings were calculated on paper rather than by computer, as most are today; some older computer systems still in use today include: Jeff Sagarin's systems, the New York Times system, the Dunkel Index, which dates back to 1929. Before the advent of the college football playoff, the Bowl Championship Series championship game participants were determined by a combination of expert polls and computer systems.
Sports ratings systems use a variety of methods for rating teams, but the most prevalent method is called a power rating. The power rating of a team is a calculation of the team's strength relative to other teams in the same league or division; the basic idea is to maximize the amount of transitive relations in a given data set due to game outcomes. For example, if A defeats B and B defeats C one can safely say that A>B>C. There are obvious problems with basing a system on wins and losses. For example, if C defeats A an intransitive relation is established and a ranking violation will occur if this is the only data available. Scenarios such as this happen regularly in sports—for example, in the 2005 NCAA Division I-A football season, Penn State beat Ohio State, Ohio State beat Michigan, Michigan beat Penn State. To address these logical breakdowns, rating systems consider other criteria such as the game's score and where the match was held. In most cases though, each team plays a sufficient amount of other games during a given season, which lessens the overall effect of such violations.
From an academic perspective, the use of linear algebra and statistics are popular among many of the systems' authors to determine their ratings. Some academic work is published in forums like the MIT Sloan Sports Analytics Conference, others in traditional statistics, mathematics and computer science journals. If sufficient "inter-divisional" league play is not accomplished, teams in an isolated division may be artificially propped up or down in the overall ratings due to a lack of correlation to other teams in the overall league; this phenomenon is evident in systems that analyze historical college football seasons, such as when the top Ivy League teams of the 1970s, like Dartmouth, were calculated by some rating systems to be comparable with accomplished powerhouse teams of that era such as Nebraska, USC, Ohio State. This conflicts with the subjective opinion that claims that while good in their own right, they were not nearly as good as those top programs. However, this may be considered a "pro" by non-BCS teams in Division I-A college football who point out that ratings systems have proven that their top teams belong in the same strata as the BCS teams.
This is evidenced by the 2004 Utah team that went undefeated in the regular season and earned a BCS bowl bid due to the bump in their overall BCS ratings via the computer ratings component. They went on to play and defeat the Big East Conference champion Pittsburgh in the 2005 Fiesta Bowl by a score of 35-7. A related example occurred during the 2006 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament where George Mason were awarded an at-large tournament bid due to their regular season record and their RPI rating and rode that opportunity all the way to the Final Four. Goals of some rating systems differ from one another. For example, systems may be crafted to provide a perfect retrodictive analysis of the games played to-date, while others are predictive and give more weight to future trends rather than past results; this results in the potential for misinterpretation of rating system results by people unfamiliar with these goals. When two teams of equal quality play, the team at
A podcast or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download in order to listen to. It is available for subscription, so that new episodes are automatically downloaded via web syndication to the user's own local computer, mobile application, or portable media player; the word was suggested by Ben Hammersley as a portmanteau of "iPod" and "broadcast". The files distributed are in audio format, but may sometimes include other file formats such as PDF or EPUB. Videos which are shared following a podcast model are sometimes called video vodcasts; the generator of a podcast maintains a central list of the files on a server as a web feed that can be accessed through the Internet. The listener or viewer uses special client application software on a computer or media player, known as a podcatcher, which accesses this web feed, checks it for updates, downloads any new files in the series; this process can be automated to download new files automatically, which may seem to users as though new episodes are broadcast or "pushed" to them.
Files are stored locally on the user's device, ready for offline use. There are many different mobile applications available for people to use to subscribe and to listen to podcasts. Many of these applications allow users to download podcasts or to stream them on demand as an alternative to downloading. Many podcast players allow listeners to control the playback speed; some have labeled podcasting as a converged medium bringing together audio, the web, portable media players, as well as a disruptive technology that has caused some individuals in the radio business to reconsider established practices and preconceptions about audiences, consumption and distribution. Podcasts are free of charge to listeners and can be created for little to no cost, which sets them apart from the traditional model of "gate-kept" media and production tools. Podcast creators can monetize their podcasts by allowing companies to purchase ad time, as well as via sites such as Patreon, which provides special extras and content to listeners for a fee.
Podcasting is much a horizontal media form – producers are consumers, consumers may become producers, both can engage in conversations with each other. "Podcast" is a portmanteau word, formed by combining "iPod" and "broadcast". The term "podcasting" as a name for the nascent technology was first suggested by The Guardian columnist and BBC journalist Ben Hammersley, who invented it in early February 2004 while "padding out" an article for The Guardian newspaper. Despite the etymology, the content can be accessed using any computer or similar device that can play media files. Use of the term "podcast" predated Apple's addition of formal support for podcasting to the iPod, or its iTunes software. Other names for podcasting include "net cast", intended as a vendor-neutral term without the loose reference to the Apple iPod; this name is used by shows from the TWiT.tv network. Some sources have suggested the backronym "portable on demand" or "POD", for similar reasons. In 2004, former MTV video jockey Adam Curry, in collaboration with Dave Winer – co-author of the RSS specification – is credited with coming up with the idea to automate the delivery and syncing of textual content to portable audio players.
Podcasting, once an obscure method of spreading audio information, has become a recognized medium for distributing audio content, whether for corporate or personal use. Podcasts are similar to radio programs in form, but they exist as audio files that can be played at a listener's convenience, anytime or anywhere; the first application to make this process feasible was iPodderX, developed by August Trometer and Ray Slakinski. By 2007, audio podcasts were doing what was accomplished via radio broadcasts, the source of radio talk shows and news programs since the 1930s; this shift occurred as a result of the evolution of internet capabilities along with increased consumer access to cheaper hardware and software for audio recording and editing. In October 2003, Matt Schichter launched. B. B. King, Third Eye Blind, Gavin DeGraw, The Beach Boys, Jason Mraz were notable guests the first season; the hour long radio show was recorded live, transcoded to 16kbit/s audio for dial-up online streaming. Despite a lack of a accepted identifying name for the medium at the time of its creation, The Backstage Pass which became known as Matt Schichter Interviews is believed to be the first podcast to be published online.
In August 2004, Adam Curry launched his show Daily Source Code. It was a show focused on chronicling his everyday life, delivering news, discussions about the development of podcasting, as well as promoting new and emerging podcasts. Curry published it in an attempt to gain traction in the development of what would come to be known as podcasting and as a means of testing the software outside of a lab setting; the name Daily Source Code was chosen in the hope that it would attract an audience with an interest in technology. Daily Source Code started at a grassroots level of production and was directed at podcast developers; as its audience became interested in the format, these developers were inspired to create and produce their own projects and, as a result, they improved the code used to create podcasts. As more people learned how easy it was to produce podcasts, a community of pioneer podcasters appeared. In June 2005, Apple released iTunes 4.9 which added formal support for podcasts, thus negating the need to use a separate program in order to download and transfer them to a mobile device.
While this made access to podcasts more
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A talk show or chat show is a television programming or radio programming genre in which one person discusses various topics put forth by a talk show host. Guests consist of a group of people who are learned or who have great experience in relation to whatever issue is being discussed on the show for that episode. Other times, a single guest discusses their area of expertise with a host or co-hosts. A call-in show takes live phone calls from callers listening at home, in etc.. Sometimes, guests are seated but are introduced and enter from backstage. There have been many notable talk show hosts. There are several major formats of talk shows; each subgenre predominates during a specific programming block during the broadcast day. Breakfast chat or early morning shows that alternate between news summaries, political coverage, feature stories, celebrity interviews, musical performances. Late morning chat shows that feature two or more hosts or a celebrity panel, focus on entertainment and lifestyle features.
Daytime tabloid talk shows featuring a host, a guest or a panel of guests, a live audience that interacts extensively with the host and guests. These shows may feature celebrities, political commentators, or "ordinary" people who present unusual or controversial topics. "Lifestyle" or self-help programs, which feature a host or hosts who are medical practitioners, therapists, or counselors, guests who seek intervention, describe medical or psychological problems, or offer advice. Evening panel discussion shows which focus on politics, or popular culture. Late-night talk shows that feature celebrity guests who talk about their work and personal lives as well as their latest films, TV shows, music recordings, or other projects they'd like to promote to the public; the hosts are comedians who open the shows with comedy monologues. Sunday morning talk shows are a staple of network programming in North America, focus on political news and interviews with elected political figures and candidates for office and journalists.
Aftershows which feature in-depth discussion about a program on the same network that aired just before. Spoof talk shows, such as Space Ghost Coast to Coast and Eric Nite Live, Comedy Bang! Bang!, The Eric Andre Show, where the interviews are scripted, shown in a humorous and satirical way, or the show engages in subverting the norms of the format. These formats are not absolute. Syndicated "daytime" shows may appear overnight in some markets, some afternoon programs have similar structures to late night talk shows; these formats may vary across different markets. Late night talk shows are significant in the United States. Breakfast television is a staple of British television; the daytime talk format has become popular in Latin America as well as the United States. Talk-radio host Howard Stern hosted a talk show, syndicated nationally in the USA moved to satellite radio's Sirius; the tabloid talk show genre, pioneered by Phil Donahue but popularized by Oprah Winfrey was popular during the last two decades of the 20th century.
Politics are hardly the only subject of American talk shows, however. Other radio talk show subjects include Car Talk hosted by NPR and Coast to Coast AM hosted by Art Bell and George Noory which discusses topics of the paranormal, conspiracy theories, fringe science, the just plain weird. Sports talk shows are very popular ranging from high-budget shows like The Best Damn Sports Show Period to Max Kellerman's original public-access television cable TV show Max on Boxing. Talk shows have been broadcast on television since the earliest days of the medium. Joe Franklin, an American radio and television personality, hosted; the show began in 1951 on WJZ-TV and moved to WOR-TV from 1962 to 1993. NBC's The Tonight Show is the world's longest-running talk show; the show underwent some minor title changes until settling on its current title in 1962, despite a brief foray into a more news-style program in 1957 and reverting that same year, it has remained a talk show. Ireland's The Late Late Show is the second-longest running talk show in television history, the longest running talk show in Europe, having debuted in 1962.
Steve Allen was the first host of The Tonight Show, which began as a local New York show, being picked up by the NBC network in 1954. It in turn had evolved from his late-night radio talk show in Los Angeles. Allen pioneered the format of late night network TV talk shows, originating such talk show staples as an opening monologue, celebrity interviews, audience participation, comedy bits in which cameras were taken outside the studio, as well as music, although the series' popularity was cemented by second host Jack Paar, who took over after Allen had left and the show had ceased to exist. TV news pioneer Edward R. Murrow hosted a talk show entitled Small World in the late 1950s and since political TV talk shows have predominantly aired on Sunday mornings. Syndicated daily talk shows began to gain more popularity during the mid-1970s and reached their height of popularity with the rise of the tabloid talk show. Morning talk shows replaced earlier forms of programming — there were a plethora of morning game shows during the 1960s and early to mid-1970s, some stations showed a morning movie in the time slot that many talk shows now occupy.
Current late night talk shows such as The Tonight Sh
Conservative talk radio
Conservative talk radio is a talk radio format in the United States and other countries devoted to expressing conservative viewpoints of issues, as opposed to progressive talk radio. The definition of conservative talk is broad enough that libertarian talk show hosts are included in the definition; the format has become the dominant form of talk radio in the United States since the 1987 abandonment of the Fairness Doctrine. Notable early conservatives in talk radio ranged from commentators such as Paul Harvey and Fulton Lewis to long-form shows hosted by Clarence Manion, Bob Grant, Alan Burke, Barry Farber and Joe Pyne; because of the Fairness Doctrine, a Federal Communications Commission policy requiring controversial viewpoints to be balanced by opposing opinions on air, conservative talk did not have the hegemony it would have in years, liberal hosts were as common on radio as conservative ones. Furthermore, the threat of the Fairness Doctrine discouraged many radio stations from hiring controversial hosts.
By the 1980s, AM radio was in severe decline. Top 40 radio had migrated to the higher fidelity of FM, the few remaining AM formats country music, were headed in the same direction or, in the case of formats such as MOR, falling out of favor entirely. Talk radio, not needing the high fidelity that music does, became an attractive format for AM radio station operators. However, in order to capitalize on this, operators needed compelling content. Conservative talk radio did not experience its significant growth until 1987, when the Federal Communications Commission stopped enforcing the Fairness Doctrine; the Fairness Doctrine had required radio stations to present contrasting views. Subsequent to the FCCs decision to stop using the rule, radio stations could choose to be either conservative or liberal. Another form of deregulation from the American government came from the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which allowed companies to own more radio stations and for some shows to become nationally syndicated.
Before the deregulation, radio stations were predominantly owned by local community leaders. In 1999, following the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, more than 25% of US Radio stations had been sold, with many more being sold each day; as of 2011, Clear Channel Communications, an industry giant owns over 800 radio stations across the United States, its largest contract is with Rush Limbaugh, worth $400 million over a span of 8 years. Clear Channel Communications rose to become a major figure in talk radio in the United States. Thus, the deregulation from the abolishment of the Fairness Doctrine and the institution of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 have assisted conservative talk radio as a whole gain popularity throughout the United States. Within the next decade, conservative talk radio became the dominant form of commercial talk radio in the United States. By 1991, Limbaugh had become the number one most syndicated radio host and AM radio had been revived. With multiple large-market stations now owned by a small number of companies, syndicated programs could be disseminated more than before.
During the late 1990s, political t radio was still only a portion of the talk radio environment. The September 11, 2001 attacks brought on a wave of nationalism and a desire to rally around the United States and its government, led at the time by the Republican Party; this environment led to a large increase in national conservative talk radio hosts: The Glenn Beck Program, The Sean Hannity Show, The Laura Ingraham Show and Alexander and The Radio Factor all launched into national syndication at this time. The popularity of conservative talk radio led to attempts to imitate its success with progressive talk radio in the mid-2000s, led by the launch of Air America Radio. Air America did not have the success that conservative talk had, due in part to weaker stations and management, inexperienced with the radio medium and a political message, not well received by the public. Air America ceased operations in 2010; as of 2016, conservative syndicated talk shows far outnumber their progressive counterparts.
Listeners of conservative talk radio in the United States have predominantly been white and religious Americans as they are more prone to being ideological conservatives. Furthermore, men were more to be listeners of conservative talk radio than women. Recent Arbitron polls have shown that the vast majority of conservative talk radio station listeners are males over the age of 54, with less than 1
Randi Joyce Robertson, better known by her air name Randi Rhodes, is an American progressive political commentator and talk radio host. The Randi Rhodes Show is live streamed having been broadcast nationally on Air America Radio, Nova M Radio, Premiere Radio Networks. Rhodes was born Randi Joyce Bueten in New York to a Jewish family. Randi grew up in the Brooklyn and Queens boroughs of New York City, her father was a mechanical engineer and World War II veteran and her mother was a dress shop worker. Rhodes has described her adolescence as mischievous and cites it as why she enlisted in the United States Air Force, her married name is Randi Robertson. Rhodes is a radio name chosen to honor Ozzy Osbourne's guitar player Randy Rhoads, whom Rhodes describes as "a consummate professional... but he always practiced. I mean, he practiced eight hours a day, he lived to be the best." Rhodes enlisted in the United States Air Force and worked stateside at McGuire Air Force Base in New Jersey as an aircraft mechanic, achieving the rank of Airman first class.
She served two years in one year in the reserves. Rhodes went through basic training at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas. From there she went to Sheppard Air Force Base in Wichita Falls and was being trained as a flight engineer. First she became an aircraft mechanic. After she transferred to what would be her permanent station in New Jersey she decided to leave the active-duty Air Force through the Palace Chase program and was honorably discharged after three years service at the age of 21. In the 1980 presidential election, Rhodes voted for Republican candidate Ronald Reagan, explaining: "I was young and stupid and sick of the gas lines", but never voted Republican again. Rhodes' radio career began in Texas at a country music station, her next job was in a larger market, Alabama. While in Mobile, she was paired with a male DJ for the "Randy and Randi" morning show; this was her first experience with extemporaneous dialogue other than reading cue cards between records. She used this experience as a spring-board to larger markets.
In the late 1980s, she was hired out of that medium market directly to New York City by WAPP "The Apple", owned at the time by Doubleday Broadcasting. While working for WAPP, she took the name "Randi Rhodes," having used "Randi St. John". While teaming with host Perry Stone at Milwaukee's WQFM, Rhodes was suspended in 1987 when their program offended the gay community and led several businesses to cancel ads. In late September 1992, Rhodes started on WIOD in Miami; the Miami Herald described her as "a chain-smoking bottle blond... part Joan Rivers, part shock jock Howard Stern and part Saturday Night Live's'Coffee Talk' lady. But she's her rude, loud, gleeful self." In 2004, Rhodes joined Air America Radio, bringing The Randi Rhodes Show to a national audience for the first time. Rhodes' show on Air America consisted principally of monologue and listener calls, with a short comedic segment at the beginning of the show's second and third hours. Only did she do interviews; the show was punctuated with musical interludes, including the show's unofficial theme song, Pain by Stereomud.
On Fridays, Rhodes opened the show with the song "Bounce Your Boobies" by Rusty Warren. With her distinctive Brooklyn-Queens accent, she would take calls spanning the political spectrum, aggressively promoting her views. In 2007, Rhodes was recognized by the radio industry's well known periodical, Talkers Magazine as Woman of the Year. In October 2007, rumors of Rhodes having been mugged in New York were fueled by Air America host Jon Elliott, who had said she was attacked at 39th and Park Avenue while walking her dog, Simon on October 14. Elliott said Rhodes lost several teeth, speculated the attack could have been part of a right-wing conspiracy. On October 17, the New York Daily News reported Rhodes never filed a police report, nor did she claim to be the victim of a mugging. Rhodes' attorney confirmed Rhodes was injured in a fall while walking her dog, said Rhodes wasn't sure how it had happened. Elliott issued an apology for his on-air comments. Air America suspended Rhodes from the network on April 3, 2008 after an event in San Francisco for Air America affiliate KKGN.
While doing a stand-up comedy act, Rhodes said on March 22, 2008:"Geraldine Ferraro turned out to be the David Duke in drag... What a whore Geraldine Ferraro is! She's such a fucking whore! I wanna see her have to stand beside her husband at one of those mandatory'I have sinned against you. Mr. Ferraro should have to stand next to his whore of a wife... Hillary is a big fucking whore, too. You know why she's a big fucking whore? Because her deal is always,'Read the fine print, asshole!'" When a video of the event was made public the following week, Air America suspended her for "inappropriate comments". The event was promoted on KKGN's website. Geraldine Ferraro called for Rhodes' employment to be terminated when the personal attacks directed towards her and Clinton began circulating through the media. Rhodes claimed that Air America breached its contract with her, questioned the network's commitment to free speech. On April 10, 2008, Rhodes went on Larry King Live to clarify her suspension from the network.
That evening, she conducted an interview on The Mike Malloy Show in which Rhodes went into greater detail concerning the suspension. Air America had been sold; the new owner read her existing contract and wanted to amend two details: R
Springfield is a city in the state of Massachusetts, United States, the seat of Hampden County. Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, the eastern Mill River; as of the 2010 Census, the city's population was 153,060. As of 2017, the estimated population was 154,758, making it the third-largest city in Massachusetts, the fourth-most populous city in New England after Boston and Providence, the 12th-most populous in the Northeastern United States. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas in Massachusetts, had a population of 692,942 as of 2010; the first Springfield in the New World, during the American Revolution, George Washington designated it as the site of the Springfield Armory for its central location. The Armory would play a pivotal role in the Civil War with its manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles". Today the city is the largest in western New England, the urban and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley.
Springfield has several nicknames – "The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts. Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River; the Hartford-Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges – the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States. The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions. Springfield was founded in 1636 by English Puritan William Pynchon as "Agawam Plantation" under the administration of the Connecticut Colony. In 1641 it was renamed after Pynchon's hometown of Springfield, England, following incidents, including trade disputes as well as Captain John Mason's hostilities toward native tribes, that precipitated the settlement joining the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
During its early existence, Springfield flourished as both an agricultural settlement and trading post, although its prosperity waned during King Philip's War in 1675, when natives laid siege to it and burned it to the ground as part of the ongoing campaign. During that attack, three-quarters of the original settlement was burned to the ground, with many of Springfield's residents survived by taking refuge in John Pynchon's brick house, the "Old Fort", the first such house to be built in the Connecticut River Valley. Out of the siege, Miles Morgan and his sons were lauded as heroes; the original settlement – today's downtown Springfield – was located atop bluffs at the confluence of four rivers, at the nexus of trade routes to Boston, New York City, Montreal, with some of the northeastern United States' most fertile soil. In 1777, Springfield's location at numerous crossroads led George Washington and Henry Knox to establish the United States' National Armory at Springfield, which produced the first American musket in 1794, the famous Springfield rifle.
From 1777 until its closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory attracted skilled laborers to Springfield, making it the United States' longtime center for precision manufacturing. The near-capture of the armory during Shays' Rebellion of 1787 led directly to the formation of the U. S. Constitutional Convention. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Springfielders produced many innovations, including the first American-English dictionary. Springfield underwent a protracted decline during the second half of the 20th century, due to the decommissioning of the Springfield Armory in 1969. During the 1980s and 1990s, Springfield developed a national reputation for crime, political corruption and cronyism. During the early 21st century, Springfield sought to overcome its downgrade in reputation via long-term revitalization projects and undertook several large projects, including a $1 billion intercity rail line a $1 billion MGM casino.