Fred Severud was a Norwegian born, American structural engineer. His projects included the St. Louis Gateway Arch, Seagram Building and Madison Square Garden.. Fred N. Severud was born Fridtjov Nikolai Sæverud in Norway, he was the son of Cecilie Tvedt. His father was a owner of a margarine factory in Bergen, his parents encouraged their children to attend college. Severud had nine sisters. One brother, Harald Sæverud, gained recognition as a modern classical composer. Another brother, Bjarne Sæverud, would be active within the Norwegian Resistance during the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany during World War II and serve as a representative in the Norwegian Parliament from Bergen Severud attended the Bergen Cathedral School and studied at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. In 1923, Severud emigrated to the United States. Shortly thereafter, Severud started work for an engineering company, where he was promoted. Severud utilized the experience he gained in his early years of designing successful housing projects.
In 1928 he founded an engineering consultancy in Manhattan called Severud-Elstad-Krueger Associates, renamed twenty years as Severud-Perrone-Sturm-Bandel, now known as Severud Associates. He lectured and was the author of several books and articles on architectural and engineering subjects. Along with Joseph H. Abel, he wrote one of the industry’s first comprehensive books, Apartment Houses on how to best design and operate apartment ventures. A few years as one of the few structural engineers in the world to have analyzed the forces from and the effects of atomic bombs, together with Anthony F. Merrill he wrote a textbook on protection from nuclear explosions called The Bomb and You. Frei Otto, the German architect and engineer known for membrane and tensile structures such as the Olympic Stadium in Munich, visited his office in 1951 during the construction of the Raleigh Livestock Aren. Edmund Happold founder of Buro Happold, worked for several years in his office. Dorton Arena, Raleigh, N.
C. Place Ville Marie, Montreal Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin David S. Ingalls Hockey Rink at Yale University Toronto City Hall St Louis Gateway Arch, The Bomb and You: Protection for people, equipment with Anthony F. Merrill Apartment Houses: Progressive Architecture Library with Joseph H. Abel A fellow in the ASCE, Severud was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Severud received numerous personal engineering awards for being an industry pacesetter, among them the Ernest Howard Award and the Franklin P. Brown Medal; the American Institute of Architects presented him with its prestigious Honorary Associate Member award for his lifetime of contributions to structural design. On Sept. 11, 1923 he married Signe Hansen, whom he had known at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. They would have four children–Fred, Jr. Inger and Sonja. Severud left engineering behind on his retirement in 1973, just before his 74th birthday, he died at his home in Florida at the age of 91 from Alzheimer's disease.
Engineering Legends Severud Associates Fazlur Khan Tung-Yen Lin Hal Iyengar da Sousa Cruz, Paulo J. ed. Structures and Architecture: New concepts and challenges ISBN 9781482224610 Campbell, Tracy The Gateway Arch: A Biography ISBN 9780300169492 Lemire, Elise.
Staples Center stylized as STAPLES Center, is a multi-purpose arena in Downtown Los Angeles. Adjacent to the L. A. Live development, it is located next to the Los Angeles Convention Center complex along Figueroa Street; the arena opened on October 17, 1999, is one of the major sporting facilities in the Greater Los Angeles Area. It is owned and operated by the Arturo L. A. Arena Company and Anschutz Entertainment Group; the arena is home to the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League, the Los Angeles Lakers and the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association. The Los Angeles Avengers of the Arena Football League and the Los Angeles D-Fenders of the NBA D-League were tenants. Staples Center is host to over 250 events and nearly 4 million guests each year, it is the only arena in the NBA shared by two teams, as well as one of only two North American professional sports venues to host two teams from the same league.
The Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park will host both the Los Angeles Chargers and Los Angeles Rams beginning in 2020. Staples Center is the venue of the Grammy Awards ceremony and will host the basketball competition during the 2028 Summer Olympics. Staples Center measures 950,000 square feet of total space, with a 94-foot by 200-foot arena floor, it stands 150 feet tall. The arena seats up to 19,067 for basketball, 18,340 for ice hockey, around 20,000 for concerts or other sporting events. Two-thirds of the arena's seating, including 2,500 club seats, are in the lower bowl. There are 160 luxury suites, including 15 event suites, on three levels between the lower and upper bowls; the arena's attendance record is held by the fight between World WBA Welterweight Champion, Antonio Margarito and Shane Mosley with a crowd of 20,820 set on January 25, 2009. Star PlazaOutside the arena at the Star Plaza are statues of Wayne Gretzky and Magic Johnson, although both played at The Forum, where the Kings and Sparks played.
A third statue of boxer Oscar De La Hoya was unveiled outside Staples Center on December 1, 2008. On April 20, 2010 a fourth statue of the late long time Lakers broadcaster Chick Hearn, behind a Laker desk with a chair for fans to sit down for a picture, was unveiled. A fifth statue of the Laker legend Jerry West dribbling was unveiled on February 17, 2011. A sixth statue of Lakers player Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was unveiled on November 16, 2012. A seventh statue of former Kings' Hall of Fame left wing Luc Robitaille was unveiled on March 7, 2015. An eighth statue of Lakers center Shaquille O'Neal was unveiled on March 24, 2017. On January 13, 2018 a ninth statue, of legendary Kings announcer Bob Miller, was unveiled. A tenth statue of Laker legend Elgin Baylor was unveiled on April 6, 2018. Secret tunnelOn January 15, 2018, in the aftermath of an NBA basketball game between the Houston Rockets and the Los Angeles Clippers, point guard Chris Paul made the best of playing in Staples Center for 6 years by utilizing a secret tunnel to confront former Clipper teammates Austin Rivers and Blake Griffin.
The final score of the game was 102-113. He was joined with teammates such as Trevor Ariza, James Harden, Gerald Green to confront the opponents, which only resulted in verbal altercations; the Staples Center has been referred to as "the deal that wasn't " Long before construction of the Staples Center broke ground, plans for the arena were negotiated between elected city officials, real estate developers Ed Roski of Majestic Realty and Philip Anschutz. They had acquired the hockey team the Los Angeles Kings in 1995 and were in the beginning of 1996 looking for a new home for their team, which played at the Forum in Inglewood. Majestic Realty Co. in conjunction with AEG were scouring the Los Angeles area for available land to develop an arena when they were approached by Steve Soboroff president of LA Recreation and Parks Commission. Mr. Soboroff requested that they consider building the arena in downtown Los Angeles adjacent to the convention center; the proposal intrigued Roski and Anschutz and soon a plan to develop the arena, the current Staples Center, was devised.
Months of negotiations ensued between Philip Anschutz and city officials with Ed Roski and John Semcken of Majestic Realty Co. spearheading the negotiations for the real estate developers. The negotiations grew contentious at times and the real estate developers threatened to pull out altogether on more than one occasion; the main opposition came from Councilman Joel Wachs, opposed utilizing public funds to subsidizing the proposed project and councilwoman Rita Walters, who objected parts of it. The developers and city leaders reached an agreement and in 1997, construction broke ground and Staples Center opened a year later, it was financed at a cost of US$375 million and is named for the office-supply company Staples, Inc., one of the center's corporate sponsors that paid for naming rights. The arena opened on October 17, 1999, with a Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band concert as its inaugural event. On October 21, 2009, Staples Center celebrated its 10th anniversary. To commemorate the occasion, the venue's official web site nominated 25 of the arena's greatest moments from its first ten years with fans voting on the top ten.
During the late summer of 2010, modifications were made to
3rd Street/Jefferson and 3rd Street/Washington stations
3rd Street/Washington station and 3rd Street/Jefferson station are light rail stations on Valley Metro Rail in Phoenix, United States. They are the fifteenth stop westbound and the fourteenth stop eastbound on the initial 20 mile starter line; this station is split between two platforms, the westbound platform, located on 3rd Street and Washington Street and the eastbound platform on 3rd Street and Jefferson Street 500 feet apart. Phoenix Convention Center Phoenix Symphony Hall Collier Center Talking Stick Resort Arena Chase Field Sandra Day O'Connor United States Courthouse Arizona Science Center Heritage Square 1, DASH, SR-51 Rapid Valley Metro map
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
WSP Global Inc. is a Canadian business providing management and consultancy services to the built and natural environment. It is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange. After the purchase of New York-headquartered professional services firm Parsons Brinckerhoff in October 2014, WSP Global became one of the largest professional services firms in the world, with 43,600 employees in 500 offices serving in 40 countries. Engineering Services firms, G. B. G. M. Ltd and Les Consultants Dupuis, Côté Inc. began operating in Quebec City in 1959. In 1969 in England, WSP was established by Chris Cole and three other partners trading as the Williams Sale Partnership. In 1976, it was a founder member of the Building Services Information Association, it was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1987. After acquiring three firms and geographical expansion in 1993, the name of the Canadian firm GBGM was changed to GENIVAR. In the 1990s, the company expanded at home and overseas forming WSP Asia in 1995, incorporating T P O'Sullivan and Partners in 1997, acquiring US practices Cantor Seinuk and Flack + Kurtz in 2000, as well as buying Jacobson & Widmark in Sweden in 2001, LT Consultants Oyj and EMP Projects Oyj in Finland in 2003 and, PHB Group in the UAE in 2005.
On 7 June 2012, Genivar Inc. announced that it made a friendly takeover cash offer of £278 million for WSP Group plc, headquartered in London. The offer was backed by WSP's board of directors as well as investors holding 37% of the company's shares and the take over was completed on 1 August 2012; this merger created a professional services firm with 15,000 employees, working in over 300 offices worldwide. The company reorganised its corporate structure on 1 January 2014, to create a parent company named WSP Global Inc. and adopted the common brand of WSP. On 31 October 2014, WSP Global announced that it had completed the purchase of New York-headquartered professional services firm Parsons Brinckerhoff from Balfour Beatty for USD$1.24 billion. The company has a network of 170 offices and nearly 13,500 employees on five continents and became a wholly owned independent subsidiary. Together, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff is one the largest professional services firms in the world with 32,000 employees in 500 offices serving 39 countries.
In early 2015, WSP Global announced the engineering consultancy firm's plans to expand to 45,000 employees by 2020. In October 2016, WSP purchased Mouchel Consulting from the Kier Group for £75 million. In January 2017, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff announced that it would assume the name "WSP USA", effective from May 2017. In August 2017, WSP announced its intention to make a takeover bid for Opus International Consultants. In July 2018, WSP announced its intention to buy Berger Group Holdings Inc. parent of the group of companies operating under the name of Louis Berger Group, a Morristown, N. J.-based international professional services firm, for $400 million. The company is organised into the following global business lines: Transportation. Official site