Thomasville is the county seat of Thomas County, United States. The city is the second largest in southwest Georgia after Albany; the city holds an annual Rose Festival. The city features plantations open to the public, a historic downtown, a large farmer's market, a 308-year-old oak tree at the corner of Monroe and Crawford streets; the population was 19,340 at the 2013 United States Census. In 2016, Thomasville was featured as the second-best historic small town in USA Today on one of the paper's 10 Best Lists, runner up to Bisbee, Arizona—coming in ahead of Abingdon, Mackinac Island, Astoria, Oregon. Thomasville was founded in 1825 as seat of the newly formed Thomas County, it was incorporated as a town in 1831 and as a city in 1889. The community was named for Jett Thomas, a general in the War of 1812. Thomasville plants and maintains more than 1,000 roses located throughout the city, as do a number of residents who have their own rose gardens. During the last week of April, rose growers from all over the world display their prize roses for a panel of judges.
The Thomasville Rose Garden at Cherokee Lake Park is the largest of 85 rose beds maintained by the city, is host to the annual rose festival. Thomasville is home to several historic and cultural organizations, including the Thomas County Historical Society and Museum of History, Thomasville Landmarks, Inc. the Thomasville Center for the Arts, Jack Hadley's Black History Museum, Pebble Hill Plantation. Daily tours and research hours are available at each institution. Thomasville is located at 30°50′11″N 83°58′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.9 square miles, of which 14.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. It is the second largest city in Southwest Georgia after Albany; the city has three U. S. Routes: 19, 84 and 319, it is located 34 miles northeast of Tallahassee, Florida, 28 miles southwest of Moultrie, 43 miles west of Valdosta, 95 miles east of Dothan, Alabama, 59 miles south of Albany and 22 miles north of Monticello, Florida.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Thomasville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,162 people, 7,021 households, 4,654 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,221.4 people per square mile. There were 7,788 housing units at an average density of 523.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 55.39% African American, 42.83% White, 0.23% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population. There were 7,021 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 22.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,926, the median income for a family was $37,606. Males had a median income of $28,331 versus 12,312 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,910. About 15.1% of families and 19.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 21.0% of those age 65 or over. The Thomasville City School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of three elementary schools, a middle school, a high school; the district has 204 full-time teachers and over 3,107 students. The Thomas County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of three elementary schools, a middle school, two high schools, Thomas County Central and Bishop Hall Charter School.
The district has 329 full-time teachers and over 5,466 students. Calvary Christian School Favors Christian Academy Brookwood School Independent college preparatory school. Thomas University - Main Campus Southern Regional Technical College - Main Campus The bakery company Flowers Foods is based in Thomasville. Senior Life Insurance Company is based in Thomasville; the city has installed a fiber optic network, known as CNS, which provides affordable, high speed Internet access. The city's network has been in place since 1999; the city transfers excess revenues from CNS services and from its other utilities to the city's general fund to pay for police and fire protection, street maintenance, other essential services. In 2012, because of these revenues, the city was able to eliminate property fire tax for its residents and businesses; the Thomasville Times-Enterprise is a daily newspaper owned by Community Newspaper Holdings, CNHI. The newspaper publishes the glossy magazine Thomasville Scene. William Andrews – NFL player for Atlanta Falcons Lloyd J. Austin – U.
S. Army, Commander of the XVIII Airborne Corps and Multi-National Corps-Iraq Stephanie Bentley – country music artist Mike Bobo – college football coach Elbridge Bryant – singer and one of the founding members of The Temptations Joe Burns – running back for the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets and NFL's Buffalo Bills Benjamin Butterworth – U. S. Representative from Ohio Joelle Carter – a
Tallahassee is the capital city of the U. S. state of Florida. It only incorporated municipality in Leon County. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2017, the population was 191,049, making it the 7th-largest city in the U. S state of Florida, the 126th-largest city in the United States; the population of the Tallahassee metropolitan area was 382,627 as of 2017. Tallahassee is the largest city in the Florida Panhandle region, the main center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Big Bend and Southwest Georgia regions. Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nation's twenty-sixth best public university by U. S. News & World Report, it is home to Florida A&M University, the fifth-largest black university by total enrollment. Tallahassee Community College is a large state college that serves as a feeder school to Florida State and Florida A&M. Tallahassee qualifies as a significant college town, with a student population exceeding 70,000.
As the capital, Tallahassee is the site of the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governor's Mansion, nearly 30 state agency headquarters. The city is known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce, it is a recognized regional center for scientific research, home to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In 2015, Tallahassee was awarded the All-American City Award by the National Civic League for the second time. Indigenous peoples occupied this area for thousands of years before European encounter. Around AD 1200, the large and complex Mississippian culture had built earthwork mounds near Lake Jackson which survive today; the Spanish Empire established their first colonial settlement at St. Augustine. During the 17th century they established several missions in Apalachee territory in order to procure food and labor to support their settlement, as well as to convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.
The largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee in Tallahassee, has been reconstructed by the state of Florida. The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachee people, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee. Hernando de Soto and his mid-16th century expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in the winter of 1538–1539. Based on archaeological excavations, this Anhaica site is now known to have been located about 0.5 miles east of the present Florida State Capitol. The De Soto encampment is believed to be the first place that Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States although there is no historical documentation to back this claim; the name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean language word translated as "old fields" or "old town". It was an expression of the Creek people who migrated from areas of Georgia and Alabama to this region in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, under pressure from European-American encroachment on their territory, they found large areas of cleared land occupied by the Apalachee tribe.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee, Spanish territory. The first battle took place on November 12, 1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown just west of present-day Tallahassee, had refused Jackson's orders to relocate. Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, driving off its occupants; the Indians retaliated, killing 50 soldiers and civilians. Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jackson's adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they "advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse two of the enemy were made prisoner." Florida became an American territory in September 1821, in accordance with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The first session of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida met on July 22, 1822 at Pensacola, the former capital of West Florida. Members from St. Augustine, the former capital of East Florida, traveled fifty-nine days by water to attend; the second session was in St. Augustine, western delegates needed 28 days to travel perilously around the peninsula to reach Pensacola.
During this session, delegates decided to hold future meetings at a halfway point. Two appointed commissioners selected Tallahassee, at that point an Apalachee settlement abandoned after Andrew Jackson burned it in 1818, as a halfway point. In 1824 the third legislative session met there in a crude log building serving as the capitol. From 1821 through 1845, during Florida's territorial period, the rough-hewn frontier capital developed as a town; the Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolution, returned to the United States in 1824 for a tour. The U. S. Congress voted to give him $200,000, US citizenship, the Lafayette Land Grant, 36 square miles of land that today includes large portions of Tallahassee. In 1845 a Greek revival masonry structure was erected as the Capitol building in time for statehood. Now known as the "old Capitol", it stands in front of the high-rise Capitol building, built in the 1970s. Tallahassee was in the heart of Florida's Cotton Belt—Leon County led the state in cotton production—and was the center of the slave trade in Florida.
During the American Civil War, Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi River, not captured by Union forces, the only one n
Government of Florida
The government of Florida is established and operated according to the Constitution of Florida and is composed of three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of Florida and the other elected and appointed constitutional officers. The state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative and ratification; the executive branch of the government of Florida consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Florida Cabinet, several executive departments. Each office term is limited for two four-year terms; the Governor of Florida is the chief executive of the government of Florida and the chief administrative officer of the state responsible for the planning and budgeting for the state, serves as chair when the Governor and the Florida Cabinet sit as a decision-making body in various constitutional roles. The Governor has the power to execute Florida's laws and to call out the state militia to preserve the public peace, being Commander-in-Chief of the state's military forces that are not in active service of the United States.
At least once every legislative session, the Governor is required to deliver the "State of the State Address" to the Florida Legislature regarding the condition and operation of the state government and to suggest new legislation. Florida is unique among U. S. states in having a strong cabinet-style government. Members of the Florida Cabinet are independently elected, have equal footing with the Governor on issues under the Cabinet's jurisdiction; the Cabinet consists of the Attorney General, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Chief Financial Officer. Along with the Governor, each member carries one vote in the decision making process. In the event of a tie, the side of the Governor is the prevailing side. Cabinet elections are held every four years, on numbered years not divisible by four; the Florida Attorney General is the state's chief legal officer. As defined in the Florida Constitution, the Attorney General appoints a statewide prosecutor who may prosecute violations of criminal law occurring in or affecting two or more judicial circuits.
The Attorney General is responsible for the Department of Legal Affairs. The Attorney General is head of the Florida Department of Legal Affairs; the Florida Chief Financial Officer's duties include monitoring the state's finances and fiscal well being and assuring that state programs are properly spending money and overseeing the proper management of the revenue and spending of the state. The Chief Financial Officer is the head of the Florida Department of Financial Services; the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture is the head of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The purpose of agencies is to promulgate rules to implement legislation. In April 2014, there were 25,362 administrative rules, eight agencies have over 1,000 rules each, of which the most regulated agencies are the Department of Financial Services and Department of Health; the Florida Administrative Register is the daily publication containing proposed rules and notices of state agencies. The regulations are codified in the Florida Administrative Code.
There are numerous decisions and rulings of state agencies. The state had about 122,000 employees in 2010; the Florida Constitution mandates a bicameral state legislature, consisting of a Florida Senate of 40 members and a Florida House of Representatives of 120 members. The two bodies meet in the Florida State Capitol; the Florida House of Representative members serve for two-year terms, while Florida Senate members serve staggered four-year terms, with 20 Senators up for election every two years. Members of both houses are term limited to serve a maximum of eight years. There are state auditors led by the Florida Auditor General, appointed by the Joint Legislative Auditing Committee, the utility-regulating Florida Public Service Commission, the Florida Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability; the legislature's session is part-time. The regular session of the Florida Legislature commences on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March with the Governor's State of the State speech before a joint session and ends on the last Friday in April or the first Friday in May.
The Florida Legislature meets in special sessions, sometimes as many as a half dozen in a year, that are called for particular purposes, such as budget reduction or reforming property insurance. A special session may be called by the governor, by joint proclamation of the Speaker of the House and Senate President or by three-fifths vote of the members of both houses. Outside of these regular and special sessions, the members of both houses participate in county delegation meetings and interim committee meetings throughout the year from November to February in advance of the regular session, its session laws are compiled into the Laws of Florida, the Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state which have general applicability. The Florida State Courts System is the unified state court system; the Florida State Courts System consists of the: the state supreme court. The Supreme Court of Florida is the highest court of Florida and consists of seven judges: the Chief
Flag of Florida
The flag of Florida consists of a red saltire on a white background, with the state seal superimposed on the center. The design was approved by popular referendum November 6, 1900; the flag's current design has been in use since May 21, 1985, after the state seal was graphically altered and sanctioned for use by state officials. In 2001, a survey conducted by the North American Vexillological Association placed Florida's flag 34th in design quality out of the 72 Canadian provincial, U. S. state and U. S. territorial flags ranked. Spain was a dynastic union and federation of kingdoms when Juan Ponce de León claimed Florida on April 2, 1513. Several banners or standards were used during the first period of settlement and governance in Florida, such as the royal standard of the Crown of Castile in Pensacola and the Cross of Burgundy in St. Augustine; as with other Spanish territories, the Burgundian saltire was used in Florida to represent collective Spanish sovereignty between 1513 and 1821. In 1763, Spain passed control of Florida to Great Britain via the Treaty of Paris.
Great Britain used the original union flag with the white diagonal stripes in Florida during this brief period. The British divided the Florida territory into East Florida, with its capital at St. Augustine, West Florida, with its capital at Pensacola; the border was the Apalachicola River. Spain regained control of Florida in 1783. In 1785, King Charles III chose a new naval and battle flag for Spain, now a more centralized nation-state, its territories; this flag, a tri-band of red-gold-red, was used along with the Burgundian saltire in the provinces of East and West Florida until 1821, when the Florida provinces joined the United States. Between 1821 and 1861, Florida had no official flag; the Lone Star and Stripes the Naval Ensign of Texas, was used as a provisional flag between 1861 and 1868, after Florida seceded from the Union and declared itself a "sovereign and independent nation", reaffirming the preamble in the Constitution of 1838. This flag was used when Floridian forces took control of U.
S. a navy yard in Pensacola. Col. William H. Chase was Commander of Floridian troops and the flag is referred to as the Chase Flag. In the year the Florida Legislature passed a law authorizing Governor Perry to design an official flag, his design was the tri-band of the Confederacy but with the blue field extending down and the new seal of Florida within the blue field. As a member of the Confederacy, Florida saw use of all three versions of the Confederate flag; the Bonnie Blue Flag the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida, was used as an unofficial flag of the Confederacy. It features a single five-point star centered in a blue background. Between 1868 and 1900, the flag of Florida was the state seal on a white background. In a discrepancy, however, a version of the state seal depicts a steamboat with a white flag that includes a red saltire, similar to Florida's current flag. In the late 1890s, Governor Francis P. Fleming advocated that St. Andrew's Cross be added so that it would not appear to be a white flag of truce hanging still on a flagpole.
Floridians approved the addition of St. Andrew's Cross by popular referendum in 1900; the red saltire of the Cross of Burgundy represents the cross on which St. Andrew was crucified, the standard can be seen in Florida's historic settlements, such as St. Augustine, today. Lastly, some historians see the addition of a red saltire as a commemoration of Florida's contributions to the Confederacy by Governor Fleming, who served in the 2nd Florida Regiment of the Confederate army; the addition was made during a period of nostalgia for the "Lost Cause" around the time of the flag's change. According to historian John M. Coski, the adoption of Florida's flag coincided with the rise of Jim Crow laws and segregation, as other former Confederate slave states, such as Mississippi and Alabama adopted new state flags around the same time when those states instituted Jim Crow segregation laws themselves: The flag changes in Mississippi and Florida coincided with the passage of formal Jim Crow segregation laws throughout the South.
Four years before Mississippi incorporated a Confederate battle flag into its state flag, its constitutional convention passed pioneering provisions to'reform' politics by disenfranchising most African Americans. State of Florida Symbols of the State of Florida Great Seal of the State of Florida Cross of Burgundy In God We Trust Official website
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Jefferson County, Florida
Jefferson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,761, its county seat is Monticello. Jefferson County is part of FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Jefferson County was created in 1827, it was named for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States of America, who had died the year before the county's establishment. Fort Roger Jones, north of US 90. Fort Noel, south of Lamont on the Aucilla River, six miles northwest of Fort Pleasant in Taylor County. Known as Fort Number Three. Camp Carter, near Waukeenah. Fort Welaunee, a settlers' fort on the Welaunee Plantation near Wacissa. Fort Gamble was established here. Fort Aucilla, two miles south-east of Fort Gamble, southwest of Lamont, between the Aucilla and Wacissa Rivers. Spelled Ocilla. Fort Wacissa, a settlers' fort located south of Wacissa on the Wacissa River, west of Cabbage Grove. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 637 square miles, of which 598 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water.
Jefferson County is the only county in Florida which borders both the state of Georgia and the Gulf of Mexico Thomas County, Georgia - north Brooks County, Georgia - northeast Madison County - east Taylor County - southeast Wakulla County - southwest Leon County - west St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge Aucilla River Lake Miccosukee Wacissa River As of the census of 2010, there were 14,761 people, 5,646 households, 3,798 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 5,251 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.4% White, 36.2% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.50% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. 3.70 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 5,646 households out of which 26.9% had individuals under the age of 18 living with them, 47.30% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families.
28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 18.6% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 32.30% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.00 males age 18 and over. The following income information is from the 2000 census; the median income for a household in the county was $32,998, the median income for a family was $40,407. Males had a median income of $26,271 versus $25,748 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,006. About 13.30% of families and 17.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 17.00% of those age 65 or over. Jefferson County is one of only a handful of counties in the Florida Panhandle that favors the Democratic Party.
In 2016 it flipped and Donald Trump won the county. The Jefferson County School District is the only one in Florida operating under a declared financial emergency due to budget deficits. On April 23, 2009, the Florida Department of Education took over financial oversight of the district. In June 2011, the District exited financial emergency one year sooner than expected due to hard work and sacrifice of the part of District faculty and staff; the District has now operated for two years with a fund balance well over the mandated 3%. The District is proud to be financially sound. Academically, the District is showing huge gains in writing. In 2013 there is a new sense of excitement on the part of students and the community as all are working hard to provide a high quality education delivered with fidelity in a safe, secure environment. Career Academies have been introduced on the campus of Jefferson County Middle High School offering students options in career areas connected to the local economy.
The Jefferson County Tigers won the State Championship in Football in 2011. Jefferson County's library is the R. J. Bailar Public Library, which works with the Wilderness Coast Public Libraries; the sole existing railroad line is a CSX line once owned by the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, used by Amtrak's Sunset Limited until 2005, when the service was truncated to New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina. No Amtrak trains stopped anywhere in Jefferson County. Interstate 10 is the main west-to-east interstate highway in the county, serves as the unofficial dividing line between northern and southern Jefferson County, it contains three interchanges within the county. Beyond this point I-10 runs through Madison County. US 19 is the westernmost north-south US highway in the county, it enters from southwestern Madison County as the Georgia-Florida Parkway in a concurrency with US 27 breaks away from US 27 in Capps to run straight north through Monticello where it encounters a traffic circle with US 90 around the historic Monticello Courthouse.
North of the city it runs through the State of Georgia. US 27 is another north-south US highway in the county, it enters from Madison County in a concurrency with US 19, but unlike US 19 breaks away at Capps and runs west toward Tallahassee SR 59 is the westernmost north-south highway in Jeff
Wakulla County, Florida
Wakulla County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,776, its county seat is Crawfordville. Wakulla County is part of FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Wakulla County has a near-absence of any municipal population, with two small municipalities holding about 3% of the population; the county seat, Crawfordville, is one of only two unincorporated county seats among Florida's 67 counties. In 1528, Pánfilo de Narváez found his way to what would be Wakulla County from the future Pinellas County, camping at the confluence of the Wakulla and St. Marks rivers. Narváez determined this was a suitable spot for a fort. In 1539, Hernando de Soto's expedition passed through La Florida with a similar route; the Fort San Marcos de Apalache began with a wooden fort in the late 1600s. The vicinity around the fort was not settled until 1733. Spanish colonial officials began constructing a stone fort, unfinished in the mid-1760s when Great Britain took over; the British divided Florida into East Florida, which included present-day Wakulla County, West Florida.
The boundary was the Apalachicola River. Twenty years when the Spanish returned, they kept the East and West divisions, with the administrative capitals remaining at St. Augustine and Pensacola, respectively; the area to become Wakulla County was an active place in the early 19th century. A former British officer named William Augustus Bowles attempted to unify and lead 400 Creek Indians against the Spanish outpost of San Marcos, capturing it; this provoked Spain, a Spanish flotilla arrived some five weeks to restore control. In 1818, General Andrew Jackson invaded the area. Two captive British citizens, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, were tried, found guilty of inciting Indian raids, executed under Jackson's authority – causing a diplomatic nightmare between the U. S. and Britain. The U. S. Army garrison of 200 infantry and artillery men occupied the fort for the better part of a year. In 1821, Florida was ceded to the United States and Fort St. Marks, as the Americans called it, was again garrisoned by U.
S. troops. In 1824, the fort was turned over to the Territory of Florida. By 1839, the fort was returned to the Federal government and a merchant marine hospital was built; the hospital provided care for area yellow fever victims. 1840 - Camp Lawson, northwest of Wakulla and northeast of Ivan, on the St. Marks River. A log stockade known as Fort Lawson. 1841-1842 - Fort Many located near Wakulla Springs. 1839 - Fort Number Five located near Sopchoppy. 1839-1843 - Fort Stansbury was located on the Wakulla River 9 miles from St. Marks. 1841-1843 - Fort Port Leon. Abandoned after a hurricane destroyed it. Site was used for a CSA Army artillery battery. 1839 - James Island Post located on James Island. Source: Florida Forts Wakulla County was created from Leon County in 1843, it may be named for the Timucuan Indian word for "spring of water" or "mysterious water". This is in reference to Wakulla County's greatest natural attraction, Wakulla Springs, one of the world's largest freshwater springs, both in terms of depth and water flow.
In 1974, the water flow was measured at 1.23 billion US gallons per day—the greatest recorded flow for a single spring. In an 1856 book, adventurer Charles Lanman wrote of the springs: An adequate idea of this mammoth spring could never be given by pen or pencil, it is the fountain-head of a river... and is of sufficient volume to float a steamboat, if such an affair had yet dared to penetrate this solemn wilderness... It wells up in the heart of a dense cypress swamp, is nearly round in shape, measures some four hundred feet in diameter, is in depth about one hundred and fifty feet, having at its bottom an immense horizontal chasm, with a dark portal, from one side of which looms up a limestone cliff, the summit of, itself nearly fifty feet beneath the spectator, who gazes upon it from the sides of a tiny boat; the water is so astonishlingly clear that a pin can be seen on the bottom in the deepest places, of course every animate and inanimate object which it contains is exposed to view. The apparent color of the water from the shore is greenish, but as you look perpendicularly into it, it is colorless as air, the sensation of floating upon it is that of being suspended in a balloon.
Another possible origin for the name Wakulla, not as accepted, is that it means "mist" or "misting" in reference to the Wakulla Volcano, a 19th-century phenomenon in which a column of smoke could be seen emerging from the swamp for miles. The town of Port Leon was once a thriving cotton-shipping hub, with a railroad from Tallahassee that carried over 50,000 tons of cotton a year to be put on ships for shipment direct to Europe. Port Leon was the sixth-largest town in Florida, with 1,500 residents. However, a hurricane and the accompanying storm surge wiped out the entire town. New Port never quite achieved the prosperity of Port Leon. During the Civil War, Wakulla County was blockaded from 1861 to 1865 by a Union Navy squadron at the mouth of the St. Marks River. Confederates took the old Spanish fort known as San Marcos de Apalache, or Fort St. Marks, renamed it Fort Ward; the Battle of Natural Bridge stopped the