Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived; some ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but, according to the Suda, it was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete and there are fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together because his popularity grew as theirs declined—he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer and Menander. Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances; this new approach led him to pioneer developments that writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he became "the most tragic of poets", focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way unknown.
He was "the creator of...that cage, the theatre of Shakespeare's Othello, Racine's Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg," in which "...imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates", yet he was the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw. Unique among writers of Ancient Athens, Euripides demonstrated sympathy towards the underrepresented members of society, his male contemporaries were shocked by the'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were offered to other artists.
Traditional accounts of the author's life are found in many commentaries and include details such as these: He was born on Salamis Island around 480 BC, with parents Cleito and Mnesarchus, a retailer who lived in a village near Athens. Upon the receipt of an oracle saying that his son was fated to win "crowns of victory", Mnesarchus insisted that the boy should train for a career in athletics. In fact the boy was destined for a career on the stage, where however he was to win only five victories, one of, after his death, he served for a short time as both torch-bearer at the rites of Apollo Zosterius. His education was not confined to athletics: he studied painting and philosophy under the masters Prodicus and Anaxagoras, he had two disastrous marriages and both his wives—Melite and Choerine —were unfaithful. He became a recluse. "There he built an impressive library and pursued daily communion with the sea and sky". He retired to the "rustic court" of King Archelaus in Macedonia, where he died in 406 BC.
However, as mentioned in the introduction, biographical details such as these should be regarded with scepticism. They are derived entirely from three unreliable sources: folklore, employed by the ancients to lend colour to the lives of celebrated authors; this biography is divided into three sections corresponding to the three kinds of sources. Euripides was the youngest in a set of three great tragedians who were contemporaries: his first play was staged thirteen years after Sophocles' debut and only three years after Aeschylus's masterpiece, the Oresteia; the identity of the threesome is neatly underscored by a patriotic account of their roles during Greece's great victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis—Aeschylus fought there, Sophocles was just old enough to celebrate the victory in a boys' chorus and Euripides was born on the day of the battle. The apocryphal account that he composed his works in a cave on Salamis island was a late tradition and it symbolizes the isolation of an intellectual, rather ahead of his time.
Much of his life and his whole career coincided with the struggle between Athens and Sparta for hegemony in Greece but he didn't live to see the final defeat of his city. It is said that he died in Macedonia after being attacked by the Molossian hounds of King Archelaus and that his cenotaph near Piraeus was struck by lightning—signs of his unique powers, whether for good or ill. In an account by Plutarch, the catastrophic failure of the Sicilian expedition led Athenians to trade renditions of Euripides' lyrics to their enemies in return for food and drink. Plutarch is the source for the story that the victorious Spartan generals, having planned the demolition of Athens and the enslavement of its people, grew merciful after being entertained at a banquet by lyrics from Euripides' play Electra: "they felt that it would be a barbarous act to annihilate a ci
Idomeneus of Crete
In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms. In Homer's Iliad, Idomeneus is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors, he was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, fought Hector and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well, he was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed at least three Amazon women, including Bremusa, at Troy. A tradition, preserved by the mythographer Apollodorus of Athens, continues the story as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm, he promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
The first living thing was his son. The gods sent a plague to Crete; the Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria and Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento, see Grecìa Salentina. Alternatively, Idomeneus was driven out of Crete by Leucus, his foster son, who had seduced and killed Idomeneus' wife Meda and usurped the throne of Crete; the tale is covered by the fourth-century Italian writer Maurus Servius Honoratus, the French 17th century writer François Fénelon. According to the hypothetical reading of Achterberg et al. Idomeneus may be mentioned on the Phaistos Disk as the governor of Mesara. Idomeneo, a 1781 opera seria by Mozart, is based on the story of Idomeneus's return to Crete. In this version, Poseidon spares Idomeneo's son Idamante, on condition that Idomeneo relinquish his throne to the new generation. Achterberg, Winfried.
Media related to Idomeneus at Wikimedia Commons
The Trojan Women
The Trojan Women known by its transliterated Greek title Troades, is a tragedy by the Greek playwright Euripides. Produced in 415 BC during the Peloponnesian War, it is considered a commentary on the capture of the Aegean island of Melos and the subsequent slaughter and subjugation of its populace by the Athenians earlier that year. 415 BC was the year of the scandalous desecration of the hermai and the Athenians' second expedition to Sicily, events which may have influenced the author. The Trojan Women was the third tragedy of a trilogy dealing with the Trojan War; the first tragedy, was about the recognition of the Trojan prince Paris, abandoned in infancy by his parents and rediscovered in adulthood. The second tragedy, dealt with Greek mistreatment of their fellow Greek Palamedes; this trilogy was presented at the Dionysia along with the comedic satyr play Sisyphos. The plots of this trilogy were not connected in the way. Euripides did not favor such connected trilogies. Euripides won second prize at the City Dionysia for his effort, losing to the obscure tragedian Xenocles.
The four Trojan women of the play are the same that appear in the final book of the Iliad lamenting over the corpse of Hector. Taking place near the same time is Hecuba, another play by Euripides. Hecuba: Alas! Alas! Alas! Ilion is ablaze. Chorus: Like smoke blown to heaven on the wings of the wind, our country, our conquered country, perishes, its palaces are overrun by the murderous spear. Hecuba: O land that reared my children! Euripides's play follows the fates of the women of Troy after their city has been sacked, their husbands killed, as their remaining families are about to be taken away as slaves. However, it begins first with the gods Athena and Poseidon discussing ways to punish the Greek armies because they condoned that Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra, the eldest daughter of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, after dragging her from a statue of Athena. What follows shows how much the Trojan women have suffered as their grief is compounded when the Greeks dole out additional deaths and divide their shares of women.
The Greek herald Talthybius arrives to tell the dethroned queen Hecuba what will befall her and her children. Hecuba will be taken away with the Greek general Odysseus, Cassandra is destined to become the conquering general Agamemnon's concubine. Cassandra, who can see the future, is morbidly delighted by this news: she sees that when they arrive in Argos, her new master's embittered wife Clytemnestra will kill both her and her new master. However, Cassandra is cursed so that her visions of the future are never believed, she is carried off; the widowed princess Andromache arrives and Hecuba learns from her that her youngest daughter, has been killed as a sacrifice at the tomb of the Greek warrior Achilles. Andromache's lot is to be the concubine of Achilles' son Neoptolemus, more horrible news for the royal family is yet to come: Talthybius reluctantly informs her that her baby son, has been condemned to die; the Greek leaders are afraid that the boy will grow up to avenge his father Hector, rather than take this chance, they plan to throw him off from the battlements of Troy to his death.
Helen, though not one of the Trojan women, is supposed to suffer as well: Menelaus arrives to take her back to Greece with him where a death sentence awaits her. Helen tries to seduce her husband into sparing her life. Menelaus remains resolved to kill her, but the audience watching the play knows that he will let her live and take her back. At the end of the play it is revealed. In the end, Talthybius returns. Andromache's wish had been to bury her child herself, performing the proper rituals according to Trojan ways, but her ship had departed. Talthybius gives the corpse to Hecuba, who prepares the body of her grandson for burial before they are taken off with Odysseus. Throughout the play, many of the Trojan women lament the loss of the land. Hecuba in particular lets it be known that Troy had been her home for her entire life, only to see herself as an old grandmother watching the burning of Troy, the death of her husband, her children, her grandchildren before she will be taken as a slave to Odysseus.
In 1974, Ellen Stewart, founder of La MaMa Experimental Theater Club in New York, presented "The Trojan Women" as the last Fragment of a Trilogy. With staging by Romanian-born theater director Andrei Serban and music by American composer Elizabeth Swados, this production of The Trojan Women went on to tour more than thirty countries over the course of forty years. Since 2014, The Trojan Women Project has been sharing this production with diverse communities that now include Guatemala and Kosovo. A Festival of work from all participants is scheduled for December, 2019; the French public intellectual, Jean-Paul Sartre wrote a version of The Trojan Women, faithful to the original Greek text, yet includes veiled references to European imperialism in Asia, emphases of existentialist themes. The Israeli playwright Hanoch Levin wrote his own version of the play, adding more disturbing scenes and scatological details. A 1905 stage version, translated by Gilbert Murray, starred Gertrude Kingston as Helen at the Royal Court Theatre in London.
The Mexican film Las Troya
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. He acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defence of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters", offers Hyginus. In Greek, Héktōr is a derivative of the verb ἔχειν, ékhein, archaic form *ἕχειν, hékhein, from Proto-Indo-European *seĝh-. Héktōr, or Éktōr as found in Aeolic poetry, is an epithet of Zeus in his capacity as'he who holds'. Hector's name could thus be taken to mean'holding fast'; as the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, a descendant of Dardanus and Tros, the founder of Troy, he was a prince of the royal house and the heir apparent to his father's throne. He was married with whom he had an infant son, Scamandrius. During the European Middle Ages, Hector figures as one of the Nine Worthies noted by Jacques de Longuyon, known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives.
James Redfield describes Hector as a "martyr to loyalties, a witness to the things of this world, a hero ready to die for the precious imperfections of ordinary life." According to the Iliad, Hector did not approve of war between the Greeks and the Trojans. For ten years, the Achaeans their allies in the east. Hector commanded the Trojan army, with a number of subordinates including Polydamas, his brothers Deiphobus and Paris. By all accounts, Hector was the best warrior the Trojans and their allies could field, his fighting prowess was admired by Greeks and his own people alike. Diomedes and Odysseus, when faced with his attack, described him as what Robert Fagles translated as an'incredible dynamite', a'maniac'. In the Iliad, Hector's exploits in the war prior to the events of the book are recapitulated, he had fought the Greek champion Protesilaus in single combat at the start of the war and killed him. A prophecy had stated. Thus, Protesilaus and Odysseus would not land. Odysseus threw his shield out and landed on that, Protesilaus jumped next from his own ship.
In the ensuing fight, Hector killed him. As described by Homer in the Iliad at the advice of Hector’s brother Helenus and being told by him that he is not destined to die yet, Hector managed to get both armies seated and challenges any one of the Greek warriors to single combat; the Argives were reluctant to accept the challenge. However, after Nestor's chiding, nine Greek heroes stepped up to the challenge and drew by lot to see, to face Hector. Ajax fights Hector to a stalemate for the entire day. With neither able to achieve victory as the day was about to end, they express admiration for each other's courage and strength. Hector gave Ajax his sword, which Ajax uses to kill himself. Ajax gave Hector his girdle that Achilles will attach to his chariot to drag Hector's corpse around the walls of Troy; the Greeks and the Trojans make a truce to bury the dead. In the early dawn the next day the Greeks take advantage of it to build a wall and ditch around the ships. Zeus is watching in the distance.
Another mention of Hector's exploits in the early years of war was given in the Iliad in book IX. During the embassy to Achilles, Odysseus and Ajax all try to persuade Achilles to rejoin the fight. In his response, Achilles points out that while Hector was terrorizing the Greek forces now, that while he himself had fought in their front lines, Hector had'no wish' to take his force far beyond the walls and out from the Skiaian Gate and nearby oak tree, he claims,'There he stood up to me alone one day, he escaped my onslaught.' Another duel that took place, although Hector received help from Aeneas and Deiphobus, was when Hector rushed to try to save his brother Troilus from Achilles' hands. But he came too late and Troilus had perished. All Hector could do was to take the lifeless body of Troilus while Achilles escaped after he fought his way through from the Trojans reinforcement. In the tenth year of the war, observing Paris avoiding combat with Menelaus, Hector upbraids him with having brought trouble on his whole country and now refusing to fight.
Paris therefore proposes single combat between himself and Menelaus, with Helen to go to the victor, ending the war. The duel, leads to inconclusive results due to intervention by Aphrodite who leads Paris off the field. After Pandarus wounds Menelaus with an arrow the fight begins again; the Greeks drive the Trojans back. Hector must now go out to lead a counter-attack. According to Homer his wife Andromache, carrying in her arms her son Astyanax, intercepts Hector at the gate, pleading with him not to go out for her sake as well as his son's. Hector knows that Troy and the house of Priam are doomed to fall and that the gloomy fate of his wife and infant son will be to die or go into slavery in a foreign land. With understanding and tenderness he explains that he cannot refuse to fight, comforts her with the idea that no one can take him until it is his time to go; the gleaming bronze helmet makes him cry. Hector takes it off, embraces his wife and son, for his sake prays aloud to Zeus that his son might be chief after him, become more glorious in battle than he, to bring home the blood of his enemies, make his mother proud.
Once he left for battle, those in the house began to mourn. H
A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms. The title is applied more broadly to all officers of arms. Heralds were messengers sent by monarchs or noblemen to convey messages or proclamations—in this sense being the predecessors of modern diplomats. In the Hundred Years' War, French heralds challenged King Henry V to fight. During the Battle of Agincourt, the English herald and the French herald, watched the battle together from a nearby hill. Like other officers of arms, a herald would wear a surcoat, called a tabard, decorated with the coat of arms of his master, it was due to their role in managing the tournaments of the Late Middle Ages that heralds came to be associated with the regulation of the knights' coats of arms. Heralds have been employed by large landowners, principally as messengers and ambassadors. Heralds were required to organise and referee the contestants at a tournament; this practice of heraldry became important and further regulated over the years, in several countries around the world it is still overseen by heralds.
In the United Kingdom heralds are still called upon at times to read proclamations publicly. There are active official heralds today in several countries, including the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and the Republic of South Africa. In England and Scotland most heralds are full-time employees of the sovereign and are called "Heralds of Arms in Ordinary". Temporary appointments can be made of "Heralds of Arms Extraordinary"; these are appointed for a specific major state occasions, such as a coronation. The Canadian Heraldic Authority has created the position of "Herald of Arms Emeritus" with which to honor long-serving or distinguished heraldists. In Scotland, some Scottish clan chiefs, the heads of great noble houses, still appoint private officers of arms to handle cases of heraldic or genealogical importance of clan members, although these are pursuivants. In addition, many orders of chivalry have heralds attached to them; these heralds may have some heraldic duties but are more merely ceremonial in nature.
Heralds which were ceremonial in nature after the decline of chivalry, were appointed in various nations for specific events such as a coronation as additions to the pageantry of these occasions. In the Netherlands, heralds are appointed for the Dutch monarch's inauguration where they wore their tabards until 1948. Richmond Herald of Arms in Ordinary Chester Herald of Arms in Ordinary Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary York Herald of Arms in Ordinary Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary Windsor Herald of Arms in Ordinary Arundel Herald of Arms Extraordinary Beaumont Herald of Arms Extraordinary Maltravers Herald of Arms Extraordinary New Zealand Herald of Arms Extraordinary Norfolk Herald of Arms Extraordinary Surrey Herald of Arms Extraordinary Wales Herald of Arms Extraordinary Albany Herald of Arms in Ordinary Marchmont Herald of Arms in Ordinary Rothesay Herald of Arms in Ordinary Snawdoun Herald of Arms in Ordinary Angus Herald of Arms Extraordinary Islay Herald of Arms in Extraordinary Orkney Herald of Arms Extraordinary Ross Herald of Arms Extraordinary Chief Herald of Canada Assiniboine Herald of Arms in Ordinary Athabaska Herald of Arms in Ordinary Coppermine Herald of Arms in Ordinary Fraser Herald of Arms in Ordinary Miramichi Herald of Arms in Ordinary Saguenay Herald of Arms in Ordinary Saint-Laurent Herald of Arms in Ordinary Albion Herald of Arms Extraordinary Capilano Herald of Arms Extraordinary Cowichan Herald of Arms Extraordinary Dauphin Herald of Arms Extraordinary Niagara Herald of Arms Extraordinary Rouge Herald of Arms Extraordinary Outaouais Herald of Arms Emeritus Rideau Herald of Arms Emeritus Delhi Herald of Arms Extraordinary The Court of the Lord Lyon Town crier The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland Genealogy & Heraldry Bill, 2006 Introduced in the Irish Senate to provide a sound legislative basis for Ireland's heraldic authority
Ajax the Lesser
Ajax was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the king of Locris. He was called the "lesser" or "Locrian" Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax the Great, son of Telamon, he was the leader of the Locrian contingent during the Trojan War. He is a significant figure in Homer's Iliad and is mentioned in the Odyssey, in Virgil's Aeneid and in Euripides' The Trojan Women. In Etruscan legend, he was known as Aivas Vilates. Ajax's mother's name was Eriopis. According to Strabo, he was born in Naryx in Locris. According to the Iliad, he led his Locrians in forty ships against Troy, he is described as one of the great heroes among the Greeks. In battle, he wore a linen cuirass, was brave and intrepid skilled in throwing the spear and, next to Achilles, the swiftest of all the Greeks. In the funeral games at the pyre of Patroclus, Ajax contended with Odysseus and Antilochus for the prize in the footrace. In traditions, this Ajax is called a son of Oileus and the nymph Rhene and is mentioned among the suitors of Helen.
After the taking of Troy, he rushed into the temple of Athena, where Cassandra had taken refuge, was embracing the statue of the goddess in supplication. Ajax violently dragged her away to the other captives. According to some writers, he raped Cassandra inside the temple. Odysseus called for Ajax's death by stoning for this crime, but Ajax saved himself by claiming innocence with an oath to Athena, clutching her statue in supplication. Since Ajax dragged a supplicant from her temple, Athena had cause to be indignant. According to the Bibliotheca, no one was aware that Ajax had raped Cassandra until Calchas, the Greek seer, warned the Greeks that Athena was furious at the treatment of her priestess and she would destroy the Greek ships if they didn't kill him immediately. Despite this, Ajax managed to hide in the altar of a deity where the Greeks, fearing divine retribution should they kill him and destroy the altar, allowed him to live; when the Greeks left without killing Ajax, despite their sacrifices, Athena became so angry that she persuaded Zeus to send a storm that sank many of their ships.
As he was returning from Troy, Athena hit his ship with a thunderbolt and the vessel was wrecked on the Whirling Rocks. But he escaped with some of his men, managing to cling onto a rock through the assistance of Poseidon, he would have been saved in spite of Athena, but he audaciously declared that he would escape the dangers of the sea in defiance of the immortals. Offended by this presumption, Poseidon split the rock with his trident and Ajax was swallowed up by the sea. Thetis buried him. Other versions depict a different death for Ajax. In these versions, when Ajax came to the Capharean Rocks on the coast of Euboea, his ship was wrecked in a fierce storm, he himself was lifted up in a whirlwind and impaled with a flash of rapid fire from Athena in his chest, his body thrust upon sharp rocks, which afterwards were called the rocks of Ajax. After Ajax's death, his spirit dwelt in the island of Leuce; the Opuntian Locrians worshiped Ajax as their national hero, so great was their faith in him that when they drew up their army in battle, they always left one place open for him, believing that, although invisible to them, he was fighting for and among them.
The story of Ajax was made use of by ancient poets and artists, the hero who appears on some Locrian coins with the helmet and sword is this Ajax. Other accounts of Ajax's death are offered by the scholiast on Lycophron; the abduction of Cassandra by Ajax was represented in Greek works of art, such as the chest of Cypselus described by Pausanias and in extant works. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Ajax". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ajax". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. P. 452
In Greek mythology, was an Argive seer, with a gift for interpreting the flight of birds that he received of Apollo: "as an augur, Calchas had no rival in the camp". He interpreted the entrails of the enemy during the tide of battle. Calchas was the son of son of the seer Idmon, by Polymele, he was the brother of Leucippe and Theoclymenus It was Calchas who prophesied that in order to gain a favourable wind to deploy the Greek ships mustered in Aulis on their way to Troy, Agamemnon would need to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigeneia, to appease Artemis, whom Agamemnon had offended. The episode was related at length in the lost Cypria, of the Epic Cycle, he states that Troy will be sacked on the tenth year of the war. In the Iliad, Calchas tells the Greeks that the captive Chryseis must be returned to her father Chryses in order to get Apollo to stop the plague he has sent as a punishment: this triggered the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon, the main theme of the Iliad. In the story, Poseidon assumes the form of Calchas in order to rouse and empower the Greek forces while Zeus is not observing the battle.
In Sophocles' Ajax, Calchas delivers a prophecy to Teucer suggesting that the protagonist will die if he leaves his tent before the day is out. Calchas plays a role in Quintus of Smyrna's Posthomerica. Calchas said, it is he rather than Helenus that predicts that Troy will only fall once the Argives are able to recruit Philoctetes. It is by his advice that they halt the battle though Neoptolemus is slaughtering the Trojans, he tells the Argives that the city is more taken by strategy than by force. He endorses Odysseus' suggestion that the Trojan Horse will infiltrate the Trojans, he foresees that Aeneas will survive the battle and found the city, tells the Argives that they will not kill him. He did not join the Argives when they boarded the ships, as he foresaw the impending doom of the Kapherean Rocks. Calchas died of shame at Colophon in Asia Minor shortly after the Trojan War: the prophet Mopsus beat him in a contest of soothsaying, although Strabo placed an oracle of Calchas on Monte Gargano in Magna Graecia.
It is said that Calchas died of laughter when he thought another seer had incorrectly predicted his death. This seer had foretold Calchas would never drink from the wine produced from vines he had planted himself. In medieval and versions of the myth, Calchas is portrayed as a Trojan defector and the father of Chryseis, now called Cressida. 4138 Kalchas, Jovian asteroid