HMS Rattlesnake (1822)
HMS Rattlesnake was an Atholl-class 28-gun sixth-rate corvette of the Royal Navy launched in 1822. She made a historic voyage of discovery to the Cape York and Torres Strait areas of northern Australia. Launched at Chatham Dockyard on 26 March 1822, Rattlesnake was 32 feet abeam, she carried six 18-pounder carronades and two 9-pounder long guns. For most of the years 1827 to 1829 Rattlesnake was cruising off the coasts of Greece, under the command of Captain the Hon. Charles Orlando Bridgeman. During that period her log was kept by Midshipman Talavera Vernon Anson and survives in a collection at the New York Public Library. Both men went on to become admirals. William Hobson was appointed captain in December 1834. Rattlesnake served in the Far East squadron, commanded by Admiral Sir Thomas Bladen Capel. In 1836, the Rattlesnake was ordered to Australia, arriving at Hobart on 5 August 1836 and at Sydney 18 days later. On 26 May 1837, the Rattlesnake sailed to the Bay of Islands, New Zealand, in response to a request for help from James Busby, the British Resident, who felt threatened by fighting between Māori tribes.
In 1838 the Rattlesnake returned to England. During the period 1841–42 she was involved in actions off Canton in the fleet commanded by Sir William Parker in the First Anglo-Chinese War, known popularly as the First Opium War, she was converted to a survey ship in 1845. The captain on the voyage to northern Australia and New Guinea from 1846-1850 was Owen Stanley. Aboard were John Thomson as Surgeon, Thomas Henry Huxley as Assistant Surgeon, John MacGillivray as botanist and Oswald Walters Brierly as artist. T. H. Huxley established his scientific reputation by the papers he wrote on this voyage, leading to his election as fellow of the Royal Society in 1851. Rattlesnake was the ship that rescued Barbara Crawford Thompson, shipwrecked on Prince of Wales Island, North Queensland, aged 13 in November 1844 and spent the next five years living with the local Kaurareg people, despite their reputation for being cannibals, she was broken up at Chatham in January 1860. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Winfield, R..
The Sail and Steam Navy List: All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815–1889. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-032-6. MacGillivray, Narrative of the Voyage of HMS Rattlesnake, London: BooneHuxley, T. H. Huxley, Julian, ed. Diary of the Voyage of HMS Rattlesnake, London: Chatto and WindusGoodman, The Rattlesnake: A Voyage of Discovery to the Coral Sea, London: Faber & Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-21078-7Goodman, Jordan, "Losing it in New Guinea: the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake", Elsevier, 29, pp. 60–65, doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2005.04.005, PMID 15935857 Narrative of the Voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake, Volume 1 at Project Gutenberg Narrative of the Voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake, Volume 2 at Project Gutenberg Images from the voyage of the Rattlesnake at the State Library of New South Wales
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
A headland is a coastal landform, a point of land high and with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size is called a cape. Headlands are characterised by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, steep sea cliffs. Headlands and bays are found on the same coastline. A bay is flanked by land on three sides. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where bands of rock of alternating resistance run perpendicular to the coast. Bays form when weak rocks are eroded, leaving bands of stronger rocks forming a headland, or peninsula. Through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines straighten out start the same process all over again. Cap-Vert, Senegal Cape Agulhas, South Africa, Africa's southernmost point Cape Blanc, Mauritania Cape Bojador, Western Sahara Cape Correntes, Mozambique Cape Delgado, Mozambique Cape Juby, Morocco Cape Malabata, Morocco Cape of Good Hope, South Africa Ras ben Sakka, Africa's northernmost point Cabo de Rama, India Cape Dezhnev, Russia Cape Engano, Philippines Indira Point and Nicobar Islands, India Kanyakumari or Cape Comorin, Tamil Nadu, India Beachy Head, England Cabo da Roca, the western tip of mainland Europe Cabo de São Vicente/Sagres, the southwestern tip of mainland Europe Cap Gris Nez, France Cape Arkona, Germany Cape Emine, Bulgaria Cape Enniberg, Faroe Islands Cape Finisterre, Spain Cape Greco, Cyprus Cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria Cape Tainaron, the southern tip of mainland Europe Cape Wrath, Scotland Gibraltar Great Orme, Wales Land's End, England Mull of Kintyre, Scotland North Cape, the northern tip of mainland Europe Pointe du Raz, France St Bees Head, UK, the most westerly point of northern England Cape Chidley and Labrador/Nunavut Cape Columbia, Canada's northernmost point Cape Freels and Labrador Cape Norman and Labrador Cape Spear and Labrador, Canada's easternmost point Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick Cape Farewell, Greenland's southernmost point Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico Cape Ann, Massachusetts Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Charles, Virginia Cape Cod, Massachusetts Cape Fear, North Carolina Cape Flattery, Washington Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Cape Henlopen, Delaware Cape Henry, Virginia Cape May, New Jersey Cape Mendocino, California Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska Cascade Head, Oregon Diamond Head, Hawaii Heceta Head, Oregon Hilton Head, South Carolina Koko Head, Hawaii Marin Headlands, California Mount Mitchill, New Jersey North Shore, Lake Superior, Minnesota Point Reyes, California Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia Cape York, Queensland South East Cape, Tasmania South West Cape, Tasmania Sydney Heads, New South Wales Cape Egmont Cape Foulwind Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Young Nick's Head Cape Froward, Chile Cape Horn, South America's southernmost point Cape Virgenes, Argentina Cape Headlands and bays
South Mission Beach
South Mission Beach is a town and a locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, South Mission Beach had a population of 932 people; as the name suggests, South Mission Beach is south of Mission Beach, although not south as the town of Wongaling Beach lies between them. The three towns are bounded on the east by a shared sandy beach 13 kilometres long facing the Coral Sea commencing at Clump Point in Mission Beach at the northern end through to Tam O'Shanter Point in South Mission Beach at the southern end. South Mission Beach is bounded in the south and south-west by the Hull River with the North Hill River forming part of its north-western boundary. Most of the land in the locality is low-lying and undeveloped and forms part of the Hull River National Park. However, there are some hills along the south-eastern coastline rising to unnamed peaks of up to 120 metres above sea level; the only development in the locality is residential along the north-east coast where the land is freehold.
The locality of South Mission Beach includes the former township of Kenny. Tam O'Shanter Point creates two bays to the north and south of the headland, Lugger Bay to the north and Kennedy Bay to the south. There is only one road into the locality, South Mission Beach Road, a side-road of the more major Tully Mission Beach Road which connects to the Bruce Highway at Birkalla to the north of Tully; the area lies within the traditional tribal territory of the JiDjiru speaking Aboriginal people, who were related linguistically and culturally to the Jirrbal and Mamu speaking people in the adjacent rainforests. Tam O'Shanter Point was named by Captain Owen Stanley of the Royal Navy survey ship HMS Rattlesnake, after the barque Tam O'Shanter, the ship sailed by explorer Edmund Kennedy to North Queensland on his ill-fated expedition to reach Cape York Peninsula. Kennedy Bay was named after Edmund Kennedy; the first European settlers in the general area were the Cutten family at present day Bingil Bay and the Garner family at present day Garners Beach.
In 1912 the settlers arrived at present day South Mission Beach. In September 1913, 2,900 acres of land on the Hull River were gazetted as an Aboriginal Reserve creating the Hull River Aboriginal Settlement. On 15 September 1914 John Martin Kenny, a non-commissioned officer of the native police and an overseer at the Cape Bedford Mission was appointed Superintendent at the new settlement; the settlement site was in the north of present-day South Mission Beach. On 10 March 1918 the settlement was demolished by a cyclone and the superintendent and his daughter were killed along with 12 Aboriginal people from the settlement. According to a report on the destruction of the settlement, over 400 Aboriginal people lived on the reserve at the time of the cyclone; the Hull River settlement was not rebuilt and many of the people were relocated from the reserve to Palm Island in 1918. All the materials at the Hull River settlement that might be useful at Palm Island were removed and abandoned. After the removal of the Hull River Aboriginal Settlement, European settlers moved to the area to farm.
However, access remained principally by sea due to a lack of road access In December 1938 a road from Tully to the Mission Beach area was completed. A township, established in 1939 was named Kenny in honour of John Martin Kenny of the Hull River Aboriginal Settlement, but it was known locally as South Mission Beach and was renamed so on 1 November 1963; the former township of Kenny was named after John Martin Kenny of the Hull River Aboriginal Settlement. This Wikipedia article incorporates text from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander missions and reserves in Queensland published by the State Library of Queensland under CC-BY licence, accessed on 15 April 2014. "South Mission Beach". Queensland Places. Centre for the Government of Queensland, University of Queensland
Edmund Besley Court Kennedy J. P. was an explorer in Australia in the mid nineteenth century. He was the Assistant-Surveyor of New South Wales, working with Sir Thomas Mitchell. Kennedy explored the interior of Queensland and northern New South Wales, including the Thomson River, the Barcoo River, Cooper Creek, Cape York Peninsula, he died in December 1848 after being speared by Aborigines in far north Queensland near Cape York. Kennedy was born on 5 September 1818 on Guernsey in the Channel Islands to Colonel Thomas Kennedy and Mary Ann Kennedy, he was the sixth born of nine children, comprising five boys. Kennedy was educated at Elizabeth College Guernsey, expressed an early interest in surveying. In 1837 he went to Rio de Janeiro, returning to England in 1838 when the business house in which he worked closed down. A naval officer friend of the family, Captain Charles James Tyers, suggested that if Kennedy obtained the necessary qualifications, he would arrange employment for him in Australia.
During 1839 Kennedy attended lectures in surveying at King's College London, obtaining a certificate from his tutor. In November 1839 Kennedy sailed for Sydney in the barque Globe which arrived in March 1840. Another family contact Captain Perry, deputy to Sir Thomas Mitchell, arranged a position for Kennedy as assistant surveyor in the New South Wales Survey Department after he had passed an examination. In August Kennedy was assigned to join Tyers on an overland journey to Melbourne, thence to Portland Bay for survey duties. Whilst there, he met an Irish immigrant Margaret Murphy with whom he had a daughter, although they remained unmarried, their daughter Eliza died at age five. During this period, Kennedy developed his professional skills, however a disagreement with the local port magistrate James Blair resulted in his recall to Sydney in May 1843, his work at Portland Bay was praised, he was looked upon favourably by Mitchell, who subsequently selected him for the next expedition at short notice.
In 1845, Mitchell received authority from London for an expedition from Sydney to the Gulf of Carpentaria terminating at Port Essington. He was convinced that a major river must run in a north-westerly direction to the gulf, that he would be the one to discover it, his initial choice for second in command was the surveyor Townsend, but shortly before setting off, Edmund Kennedy was appointed to replace him. On 5 November Kennedy was sworn in as a Justice of the Peace at the Supreme Court, the expedition set off from Sydney in mid November; the party trekked via Bathurst to a rendezvous point at Boree. Kennedy in a letter to his father noted that the party consisted of 30 men, 12 months supplies plus "8 drays, 3 carts, 102 bullocks, 255 sheep, 17 horses." The large size of the expedition was to be detrimental to the rate of progress. Mitchell tracked north along the Bogan River, east to the Macquarie, north to the Narran along the Balonne. Here Mitchell found a natural rocky causeway and named it St George Bridge, near the present town of St George, Queensland.
To allow time for stock to refresh, he left Kennedy at a depot camp for three weeks, thereafter to follow while Mitchell probed northwards with a small party. Mitchell continued to follow the Balonne, which took him too far north-east, so he veered west until coming across the Maranoa River where Kennedy and the main party caught up on 1 June 1846. By now Mitchell realised that their equipment was a cumbersome impediment to progress, so he decided to leave Kennedy behind again, near the present town of Mitchell, he was gone for four and a half months. Mitchell followed the Maranoa to its headwaters, entered an area of hills which left him perplexed. At least four streams, the Nogoa, Belyando and Nivelle were traced to determine their direction of flow, but none trended north-west, much time was employed in so doing, he travelled north-west with only a native guide and two men. He discovered a substantial river which seemed to flow towards the gulf, so he named the river Victoria, after the British Sovereign.
Mitchell had reached the limit of his supplies, was forced to turn back. The two smaller teams returned to Kennedy's depot on 19 October; the expedition beat a retreat to Sydney, arriving 20 January 1847. Mitchell was impressed with the leadership qualities of Kennedy, as demonstrated by his management of the depot camps in 1846, his technical skills relating to survey and exploration; as the question of a great north-west river remained unanswered, Mitchell gained approval in February 1847 for a new expedition to the Gulf of Carpentaria, with the express purpose of plotting the course of his Victoria River en route. This time he placed Kennedy in charge of a party of eight, which set off from Windsor, New South Wales 21 March 1847, his instructions were to travel via St. George Bridge to the Maranoa where his earlier depot had been determine the course of the Victoria. Kennedy had spent some time plotting Mitchell's Victoria river on the latest map of the colony, was struck by the fact that its general course turned towards a bend of Cooper Creek, named by Charles Sturt in 1845.
The expedition continued northward over what was now new territory for Kennedy, by mid August was in the vicinity from which Mitchell had been forced to return. Kennedy decided to conceal the carts and supplies from local aborigines by digging a large trench in which to bury them proceeded by packhorse; the river began taking them away from the gulf. Scouting ahead he found a substantial tributary joining the Victoria fro
Captain Owen Stanley FRS RN was a British Royal Navy officer and surveyor. Stanley was born in Alderley, the son of Edward Stanley, rector of Alderley and Bishop of Norwich. A brother was his sister Mary Stanley, he entered the Royal Naval College at the age of fifteen and remained there in 1824–1826, but these dates are inconsistent. For a few months in 1826, he served as a volunteer on board the Royal Navy's HMS Druid, in the English Channel. After gaining the rank of midshipman in 1826, in 1826–1827, he spent time about South America on board HMS Ganges. In 1827–1830, he was on the Royal Navy's HMS Forte, and in 1830, he was with Phillip Parker King on board HMS Adventure while it surveyed the Straits of Magellan at the tip of South America. By 1830, the 1821–1829 Greek War of Independence had ended and the United Kingdom found itself in a'peace keeping' role about Greece in the Mediterranean once the fighting stopped. Owen Stanley found himself in the middle of these efforts. By 1831, he served as mate on board the Royal Navy's HMS Belvidera and with Captain John Franklin on HMS Rainbow both in the Mediterranean in 1831.
In 1831, he received promotion to lieutenant and continued to serve in Grecian waters until 1836 on a number of ships. He served on HMS Kent in 1831. In 1836, with his Mediterranean service now over, he sailed to the Arctic as scientific officer on HMS Terror under George Back. In 1838 he was given command of HMS Britomart and sailed to Australia and New Zealand, returning in 1843. While on the'high seas' two things of some note happened to him: On 26 March 1839, he was promoted to commander. During that time, on 23 September 1844, he was promoted to captain at the age of 33. In December 1846 Stanley sailed from Portsmouth in charge of HMS Rattlesnake, with the naturalists Thomas Huxley, John MacGillivray and artist Oswald Walters Brierly on board, accompanied by Charles Bampfield Yule in HMS Bramble. In November 1847 he arrived at Port Curtis on the Australian coast, after surveying the harbour described it as a good anchorage. In 1848 he continued further north to survey New Guinea, in June of that year offered protection and assistance to Edmund Kennedy's expedition to the Cape York Peninsula.
Owen went on to survey the Louisiade Archipelago but in 1849 fell ill, died in March 1850 after returning to Sydney. Thomas Huxley published Diary of the Voyage of the HMS Rattlesnake in 1850 describing the events of the voyage. In memory of his brother, Dean Stanley of Westminster Abbey donated the font in ChristChurch Cathedral, Christchurch; the Owen Stanley Range in New Guinea is named after him. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Stanley, Owen". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Huxley, Julian. T. H. Huxley's diary of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake. London 1935 Quanchi, Max. Historical Dictionary of the Discovery and Exploration of the Pacific Islands; the Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810853957. MacGillivray, John Voyage Of HMS RattlesnakeVolume I: Gutenberg Project EText num 12433, ISBN 978-1-4065-2973-9 Volume II: Gutenberg Project EText num 12525, ISBN 978-1-4021-7207-6, Owen National Library of Australia, Trove and Organisation record for Owen Stanley