Shide is a zigzag-shaped paper streamer seen attached to shimenawa or tamagushi, used in Shinto rituals. A popular ritual is using a haraegushi, or "lightning wand", named for the zig-zag shide paper that adorns the wand. A similar wand, used by miko for purification and blessing, is the gohei with two shide. A Shinto priest waves the haraegushi over a person, item, or newly bought property, such as a building or car; the wand is waved at a slow rhythmic pace, but with a little force so that the shide strips make a rustling noise on each pass of the wand. For new properties, a similar ritual known as jijin sai is performed with a haraegushi, an enclosed part of the land, sake, or ritually purified sake known as o-miki; the haraegushi has been used for centuries in Shinto ceremonies and has similarities in Ainu culture. In Ainu culture, a shaved willow branch called an inaw or inau resembles the Shinto haraegushi, is used in similar blessing rituals. Media related to Shide at Wikimedia Commons
A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house one or more kami. Its most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects, not for worship. Although only one word is used in English, in Japanese Shinto shrines may carry any one of many different, non-equivalent names like gongen, -gū, jingū, mori, myōjin, -sha, ubusuna or yashiro. Structurally, a Shinto shrine is characterized by the presence of a honden or sanctuary, where the kami is enshrined; the honden may however be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, and, worshiped directly. The honden may be missing when there are nearby altar-like structures called himorogi or objects believed capable of attracting spirits called yorishiro that can serve as a direct bond to a kami. There may be a haiden and other structures as well. However, a shrine's most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects rather than for worship. Miniature shrines can be found on roadsides.
Large shrines sometimes have on their precincts miniature shrines. The portable shrines which are carried on poles during festivals enshrine kami and are therefore true shrines. In 927 CE, the Engi-shiki was promulgated; this work listed all of the 2,861 Shinto shrines existing at the time, the 3,131 official-recognized and enshrined Kami. That number has grown and exceeded this figure through the following generations. In Agency for Cultural Affairs in Japan placed the number of shrines at 79,467 affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines; some shrines, such as the Yasukuni Shrine are independent of any outside authority. The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000; this figure may, or may not, include private shrines in homes and owned by small groups, abandoned or derelict shrines, roadside Hokora. etc. Ancestors are kami to be worshiped. Yayoi-period village councils sought the advice of ancestors and other kami, developed instruments to evoke them. Yoshishiro means "approach substitute" and were conceived to attract the kami to allow them physical space, thus making kami accessible to human beings.
Village-council sessions were held in quiet spots in the mountains or in forests near great trees or other natural objects that served as yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into today's shrines, whose origins can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can mean "shrine". Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa; the first buildings at places dedicated to worship were huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura, "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, is considered to be one of the first words for shrine. True shrines arose with the beginning of agriculture, when the need arose to attract kami to ensure good harvests; these were, just temporary structures built for a particular purpose, a tradition of which traces can be found in some rituals. Hints of the first shrines can still be found there. Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands.
Those images or objects are therefore unnecessary. For the same reason, it has a worship hall but no place to house the kami. Archeology confirms that, during the Yayoi period, the most common shintai in the earliest shrines were nearby mountain peaks that supplied stream water to the plains where people lived. Besides the mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantai, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrine's shintai; the name Nantai means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites. In 905 CE, Emperor Daigo ordered a compilation of Shinto rules. Previous attempts at codification are known to have taken place, neither the Konin nor the Jogan Gishiki survive. Under the direction of Fujiwara no Tokihira, the project stalled at his death in April 909. Fujiwara no Tadahira, his brother, took charge and in 912 CE and in 927 CE the Engi-shiki was promulgated in fifty volumes.
This, the first formal codification of Shinto rites and Norito to survive, became the basis for all subsequent Shinto liturgical practice and efforts. In addition to the first ten volumes of this fifty volume work, sections in subsequent volumes addressing the Ministry of Ceremonies and the Ministry of the Imperial Household regulated Shinto worship and contained liturgical rites and regulation. Felicia Gressitt Brock published a two-volume annotated English language translation of the first ten volumes with an introduction entitled Engi-shiki; the arrival of Buddhism changed the situation, introducing to Japan the concept of the permanent shrine. A great number of Buddhist temples were built next to existing shrines in mixed complexes called jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. shri
The paper mulberry is a species of flowering plant in the family Moraceae. It is native to Asia, where its range includes China, Korea, Indochina and India, it is cultivated elsewhere and it grows as an introduced species in parts of Europe, the United States, Africa. Other common names include tapa cloth tree. Paper mulberry was used among ancient Austronesians in making barkcloth, it originates from subtropical regions in mainland Asia and is one of the best evidence for the mainstream "Out of Taiwan" hypothesis of the Austronesian expansion. Various genetic studies have traced the origins of paper mulberry populations in the Remote Pacific all the way to Taiwan via New Guinea and Sulawesi. In the Philippines, along the expansion path, paper mulberry are descendants of modern introductions in 1935, it is presumed that ancient introductions of paper mulberry went extinct in prehistory due to its replacement with hand-woven fabrics, given that paper mulberry only survives under human cultivation.
However, its absence in the Philippines further underlines its origins in Taiwan, not within Island Southeast Asia. Additionally paper mulberry populations in New Guinea show genetic inflow from another expansion out of Indochina and South China, it is believed to be the most transported fiber crop in prehistory, having been transported along with the full range of the Austronesian expansion, as opposed to most of the other commensal crops in Oceania. Paper mulberry is present in every island or island group in Polynesia, including Rapa Nui and Aotearoa; some populations have gone extinct after they stopped being cultivated, like in the Cook Islands and Mangareva, although accounts and prepared barkcloth and herbarium specimens of them exist in museum collections gathered by Europeans during the colonial era. They were spread by Polynesians through vegetative propagation with cuttings and root shoots, they were cultivated from seeds as most plants were harvested prior to flowering, when the stems reach around 1 in in diameter, as described by 18th century European accounts.
It is unknown if the feral plants reproduced sexually as the plants are dioecious and require both male and female specimens to be present in one island. This species is a deciduous shrub or tree growing 10–20 meters tall, but known to reach 35 meters at times; the leaves are variable in shape on one individual. The blades may be lobed or unlobed, but they have toothed edges hairy, pale undersides, a rough texture, they are up to about 15–20 centimeters long. The species is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants; the staminate inflorescence is a catkin up to 8 centimeters long with fuzzy male flowers. The pistillate inflorescence is a spherical head up to about 2 centimeters wide with greenish female flowers trailing long styles; the infructescence is a spherical cluster 2 -- 3 centimeters wide containing many orange fruits. Each individual protruding fruit in the cluster is a drupe; this plant has been cultivated in Asia and some Pacific Islands for many centuries for food and medicine.
Paper mulberry is used in the Pacific Islands to make barkcloth. Barkcloth, can be made from other members of the mulberry family, including Ficus and Artocarpus. Barkcloth was occasionally made from Pipturus nettles in Hawaii; however the highest quality of barkcloth was from paper mulberry. Barkcloth was used for clothing among ancient Austronesians and is traditionally made using characteristic stone or wooden beaters which are among the most common artifacts found in Austronesian archaeological sites. Numerous archaeological remains of barkcloth beaters in southern China has been regarded as evidence that the pre-Taiwan Austronesian homelands were located in the region prior to the southward expansion of the Han Dynasty around the Pearl River Delta; the oldest such remains is from the Dingmo Site in Guangxi, dated to around 7,900 BP. Barkcloth remained an important source of clothing fabrics in pre-colonial Melanesia and parts of Indonesia. However, it has been replaced by woven fiber clothing in most of Island Southeast Asia and Micronesia.
It is still worn ceremonially in parts of Melanesia. It is used to make bags and bedding. Although there are numerous names for paper mulberry throughout Austronesia, none are cognates and thus a Proto-Oceanic term can not be reconstructed. In most of Polynesia, the term for barkcloth can be reconstructed from Proto-Nuclear-Polynesian *taba, meaning "bark", with cognates including Wayan taba. Other terms used for barkcloth and paper mulberry are derived from the Proto-Polynesian reconstructed word *siapo, with cognates including Niue and Marquesan hiapo; the term for barkcloth beater, can be reconstructed more extensively back to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ike, with cognates including Uma ike. It is a significant fiber crop in the history of paper, it was used for papermaking in China by around 100 AD. It was used to make washi in Japan by 600 AD. Washi, a Japanese handcrafted paper, is made with the inner bark, pounded and mixed with water to produce a paste, dried into sheets; the wood of the plant is useful for making furniture and utensils, the roots can be used as rope.
The fruits and cooked leaves are edible. The fruit and bark have
Kunio Yanagita was a Japanese scholar and considered the father of Japanese native folkloristics, or minzokugaku. Born Kunio Matsuoka in Fukusaki, Hyōgo Prefecture to a local physician; the fifth of eight children, Yanagita's prospects of inheritance were poor. A prominent court justice with no sons, Naohei Yanagita saw the ambitious Matsuoka a promising heir and offered his daughter Taka's hand in marriage in exchange for adopting the family name. Kunio recognized the benefit of adopting the Yanagita name, was formally adopted into the family in 1901. After graduating with a degree in law from Tokyo Imperial University, he became employed as a bureaucrat in the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. In the course of his bureaucratic duties, Yanagita had the opportunity to travel throughout mainland Japan. During these business trips, Yanagita became interested in observing and recording details pertaining to local village customs. Under the influence of literary friends such as the writer Shimazaki Toson, Yanagita published works based on local oral traditions such as Tales of Tono.
He collaborated extensively with folklorist Kizen Sasaki, they published several books together. Yanagita's focus on local traditions was part of a larger effort to insert the lives of commoners into narratives of Japanese history, he argued that historical narratives were dominated by events pertaining to rulers and high-ranking officials. Yanagita claimed that these narratives focused on elite-centered historical events and ignored the relative uneventfulness and repetition that characterized the lives of ordinary Japanese people across history, he emphasized the unique practices of different groups of common people, such as sanka or mountain dwellers, island dwellers. His work is groundbreaking and sometimes has unique cultural records. Tōno Monogatari a record of folk legends gathered in Iwate Prefecture. Famous yōkai in the stories include zashiki-warashi. Kagyūkō Yanagita revealed that the distribution of dialects for the word snail forms concentric circles on the Japanese archipelago. Momotarō no Tanjō He depicted some facets of Japanese society by analyzing the famous folk tale Momotaro.
His methodology was followed by many anthropologists. Kaijō no Michi He sought the origin of the Japanese culture in Okinawa, though many of his speculations were denied by researchers, he was inspired by picking up a palm nut borne by the Kuroshio Current when he was wandering on a beach in Iragomisaki, Aichi Prefecture. Yanagita Kunio Guide to the Japanese Folk TaleAn English translation of Nippon no Mukashibanashi, a collection of Japanese folktales assembled by Yanagita Kunio, translated by Fanny Hagin Mayer. Center versus periphery: Yanagita's theory about dialectal diffusion and vocabulary propagation over time Nihonjinron Yanagita･Matsuoka Family Memorial Kunio Yanagita at Find a Grave
The kairō, bu, sōrō or horō is the Japanese version of a cloister, a covered corridor built around the most sacred area of a Buddhist temple, a zone which contained the Kondō and the pagoda. Nowadays it can be found at Shinto shrines and at shinden-zukuri aristocratic residences; the kairō and the rōmon were among the most important among the garan elements which appeared during the Heian period. The first surrounded the holiest part of the garan. Neither was characteristic of Shinto shrines, but in time they came to replace the traditional shrine surrounding fence called tamagaki; the earliest example of a kairō/rōmon complex can be found at Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū, a shrine now but a former shrine-temple. The rōmon is believed to have been built in 886, the kairō at the same time. Itsukushima Jinja is an example of the mature form of the complex. Two types of kairō exist, one 1-bay wide and another 2-bay wide, the bay being the space between two pillars; the first is by far the most common. The 1-bay wide type is supported by just two rows of pillars and is therefore called tanrō.
Typical windows called renjimado let light in. The 2-bay wide type is supported by three rows of pillars, is called fukurō and is divided in two identical corridors by a wall. Although it is known that several existed at major Buddhist temples, for example at Tōdai-ji, none is extant; some fukurō survive however at Shinto shrines
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase. Chinese characters are logograms; the use of logograms in writing is called logography, a writing system, based on logograms is called a logographic system. In alphabets and syllabaries, individual written characters represent sounds only, rather than entire concepts; these characters are called phonograms in linguistics. Unlike logograms, phonograms do not have word or phrase meanings singularly until the phonograms are combined with additional phonograms thus creating words and phrases that have meaning. Writing language in this way, is called phonetic writing as well as orthographical writing. Logographic systems include the earliest writing systems. A purely logographic script would be impractical for most languages, none is known, apart from one devised for the artificial language Toki Pona, a purposely limited language with only 120 morphemes. All logographic scripts used for natural languages rely on the rebus principle to extend a limited set of logograms: A subset of characters is used for their phonetic values, either consonantal or syllabic.
The term logosyllabary is used to emphasize the phonetic nature of these scripts when the phonetic domain is the syllable. In both Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and in Chinese, there has been the additional development of fusing such phonetic elements with determinatives. Logographic writing systems include: Logoconsonantal scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes may be extended phonetically according to the consonants of the words they represent, ignoring the vowels. For example, Egyptian was used to write both sȝ'duck' and sȝ'son', though it is that these words were not pronounced the same apart from their consonants; the primary examples of logoconsonantal scripts are:Hieroglyphs and demotic: Ancient Egyptian Logosyllabic scripts These are scripts in which the graphemes represent morphemes polysyllabic morphemes, but when extended phonetically represent single syllables. They include:Anatolian hieroglyphs: Luwian Cuneiform: Sumerian, other Semitic languages, Hittite, Luwian and Urartian Maya glyphs: Chorti and other Classic Maya languages Han characters: Chinese, Japanese, Zhuang Derivatives of Han characters: Chữ nôm: Vietnam Dongba script written with Geba script: Naxi language Jurchen script: Jurchen Khitan large script: Khitan Sawndip: Zhuang languages Shui script: Shui language Tangut script: Tangut language Yi: various Yi languagesNone of these systems is purely logographic.
This can be illustrated with Chinese. Not all Chinese characters represent morphemes: some morphemes are composed of more than one character. For example, the Chinese word for spider, 蜘蛛 zhīzhū, was created by fusing the rebus 知朱 zhīzhū with the "bug" determinative 虫. Neither *蜘 zhī nor *蛛 zhū can be used separately; this is incorrect. In Archaic Chinese, one can find the reverse: a single character representing more than one morpheme. An example is Archaic Chinese 王 hjwangs, a combination of a morpheme hjwang meaning king and a suffix pronounced /s/. In modern Mandarin, bimorphemic syllables are always written with two characters, for example 花儿 huār'flower'. A peculiar system of logograms developed within the Pahlavi scripts used to write Middle Persian during much of the Sassanid period; these logograms, called hozwārishn, were dispensed with altogether after the Arab conquest of Persia and the adoption of a variant of the Arabic alphabet. Logograms are used in modern shorthand to represent common words.
In addition, the numerals and mathematical symbols are logograms – 1'one', 2'two', +'plus', ='equals', so on. In English, the ampersand & is used for'and' and for Latin et, % for'percent', # for'number', § for'section', $ for'dollar', € for'euro', £ for'pound', ° for'degree', @ for'at', so on. All historical logographic systems include a phonetic dimension, as it is impractical to have a separate basic character for every word or morpheme in a language. In some cases, such as cuneiform as it was used for Akkadian, the vast majority of glyphs are used for their sound values rather than logographically. Many logographic systems have a semantic/ideographic component, called "determinatives" in the case of Egyptian and "radicals" in the case of Chinese. Typical Egyptian usage was to augment a logogram, which may represent several words with different pronunciations, with a determinate to narrow down the meaning, a phonetic component to specify the pronunciation. In the case of Chinese, the vast majority of characters are a fixed combination of a radical that indicates its nominal category, plus a phonetic to give an idea of the pronunciation.
The Mayan system used logograms
Matsuyama is the capital city of Ehime Prefecture on the island of Shikoku in Japan and Shikoku's largest city, with a population of 516,459 as of December 1, 2014. It is located on the northeastern portion of the Dōgo Plain, its name means "pine mountain". The city was founded on December 15, 1889; the city is known for its hot springs, among the oldest in Japan, is home to the Dōgo Onsen Honkan, a Meiji Period wooden public bathhouse dating from 1894. A second favorite tourist spot is Matsuyama Castle. Eight of the eighty-eight temples in the Shikoku Pilgrimage are in Matsuyama. Matsuyama was in medieval times part of the Iyo-Matsuyama Domain, a fiefdom of Iyo Province consisting of a castle town, supporting Matsuyama Castle. There was a nearby village at Dōgo Onsen to the east and a port somewhat farther to the west at Mitsuhama providing a link to the Japanese mainland and Kyūshū. Dōgo Onsen was famous in the Asuka period, as Shōtoku Taishi visited the spa in the year 596, it is mentioned in passing in The Tale of Genji.
The site of the former Yuzuki Castle is nearby. Famous Buddhist temples in Matsuyama include Ishite-ji, Taisan-ji, Jōdo-ji, all dating back to the 8th century, although the oldest surviving buildings are from the early 14th century, as well as Hōgon-ji, Taihō-ji and Enmyō-ji. Famous shrines of the city include Isaniwa Jinja, built in 1667; the haiku poet Masaoka Shiki lived in Matsuyama. His house, now known as the Shiki-do, a museum, the Shiki Memorial Museum, are popular attractions, the centerpieces of the city's claim as a center of the international haiku movement. Other famous haiku poets associated with Matsuyama include Kurita Chodō, whose Kōshin-an was visited by Kobayashi Issa, Shiki's followers, Takahama Kyoshi and Kawahigashi Hekigoto, Taneda Santōka. Santoka's house, known as Isso-an, is a tourist attraction and is periodically open to the public; the Matsuyama Declaration of 1999 proposed the formation of International Haiku Research Center, the first Masaoka Shiki International Haiku Awards were given in 2000.
Recipients have included Cor van den Heuvel and Gary Snyder. The famed novel Botchan by Natsume Sōseki is set in Matsuyama; as a result, there are numerous sites and locales named after the main character, including Botchan Stadium, the Botchan Ressha, Botchan dango. Matsuyama figures in several works by Shiba Ryōtarō, notably his popular novel, Saka no Ue no Kumo. In anticipation of the upcoming NHK Taiga drama adaptation of Saka no Ue no Kumo, a Saka no Ue no Kumo Museum was established in 2007. Matsuyama was the setting of a 1907 novel about the Russo-Japanese War, As the Hague Ordains, by American writer Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore. Matsuyama figures in the novel because the city housed a camp for Russian prisoners during the war. A Russian cemetery commemorates this important episode in Matsuyama history; the Russo-Japanese War is remembered in Matsuyama because of the contributions of two Japanese military leaders, the Akiyama brothers, Akiyama Saneyuki and Akiyama Yoshifuru, who were born in the city.
In the twentieth century, various mergers joined the castle town with neighboring Dōgo, other townships, aided by urban sprawl, creating a seamless modern city that now ranks as the largest in Shikoku. As of the most recent merger, on January 1, 2005, absorbing the city of Hōjō, town of Nakajima, the city had an estimated population of 512,982 and a population density of 1,196 persons per km²; the total area is 428.86 km². Matsuyama is home to several universities including Ehime University and several private colleges, including Matsuyama University and Matsuyama Shinonome College. Matsuyama has several important museums; the Museum of Art, Ehime is the city's main art museum, its collections emphasizing the works of regional artists. The Shiki Memorial Museum is a museum that focuses on the life and work of Masaoka Shiki, with special attention to his contribution to haiku; the Saka no Ue no Kumo Museum features exhibits connected with the famous novel and television series. There is a Juzo Itami museum dedicated to the famous film director.
Famous products of Matsuyama include Botchan dango. In the 17th century, the lord of Matsuyama castle Sadayuki Matsudaira introduced the process of tart-making brought to Japan by the Portuguese, to Matsuyama. At first it was a Castella with jam. According to legend Sadayuki made some changes, such as adding red bean paste. Now there are many makers of tarts in Matsuyama. In addition to tarts, Botchan dango is a famous product of Matsuyama. Botchan dango was named after the famous novel Botchan by Natsume Sōseki, it consists of three bean paste beads of three flavors, matcha and red bean paste. Within the paste is contained mochi. Matsuyama is the site of a number of festivals, including the Dogo Festival, held in the spring, the Matsuyama Festival, held in August, the Fall Festival, held in October, which features battling mikoshi; the city is represented in the J. League of football with its local club, Ehime FC; the Ehime Mandarin Pirates represent the city in the baseball Shikoku Island League Plus.
Matsuyama has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, is heavier from April to July as well as in September. Matsuyama has a well-developed transport network, it is c