Sessha and massha called eda-miya are small or miniature shrines entrusted to the care of a larger shrine due to some deep connection with the enshrined kami. The two terms used to have different meanings, but are today synonyms. Setsumatsusha can lie either inside or outside the main shrine's premises. Setsumatsusha are 1x1 ken in size, they can however be as small as beehives or large and have 1x2, 1x3 or in one case, 1x7 bays. The practice of building sessha and massha shrines within a jinja predates written history; the earliest setsumatsusha had some strong connection to the history of the area or the family of the enshrined kami. During the Heian period, Ise Shrine used to make a distinction between the two types based on whether a shrine belonged to the Engishiki Jinmyōchō list or to the Enryaku gishikichō list. From the Japanese Middle Ages onwards, at other shrines popular kami like Hachiman, Inari or Gozu Tennō were enshrined in setsumatsusha, but no clear distinction between the two terms was made.
From the Meiji period to the Second World War, a shrine dedicated to family members of a kami, to the violent side of a kami, or the kami of the region where the main shrine was, were to be considered sessha with a higher rank than the rest, which were called massha. When the shakaku shrine ranking system was abolished in 1946 the distinction disappeared, but both terms remained in use out of habit. Being true shrines, setsumatsusha have most features other types of shrines have, including doors and stairs. However, the Misedana-zukuri is a style used only in sessha and massha, it owes its name to the fact that, unlike other shrine styles, it doesn't feature a stairway at its entrance, the veranda is flat. Miniature stairways can however be present, they can be either tsumairi, have the entrance under the gable, or, more hirairi, that is, have the entrance on the side parallel to the roof's ridge. Apart from the lack of a staircase, such shrines belong to the nagare-zukuri or kasuga-zukuri styles
Toyokuni Shrine (Kyoto)
Toyokuni Shrine is a Shinto shrine located in Higashiyama-ku, Japan. It was built in 1599 to commemorate Toyotomi Hideyoshi, it is the location of the first tamaya constructed, destroyed by the Tokugawa clan. This shrine is the official tomb and shrine of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who died September 18, 1598 in Kyoto. Nobles, priests and townspeople gathered at the shrine to celebrate the anniversary of Hideyoshi's apotheosis with banquets, musical recitals, boisterous festivity; the shrine was closed by Tokugawa Ieyasu in June 1615 "to discourage these unseemly displays of loyalty to a man he had eclipsed."The Meiji Emperor directed that the shrine be restored in Keiō 4, the 6th day of the 6th month. At that time, the shrine area was expanded by encompassing a small parcel of land, part of the adjacent Hōkō-ji. In 1897, the tercentenary of Hideyoshi was celebrated at this site, it is believed that the karamon gate was built for Hideyoshi's Fushimi castle in 1598. When the castle was dismantled in 1623, the gate was first moved to Nijo castle, to the Konchi-in in Nanzen-ji.
It was relocated to Toyokuni shrine in 1876 after the Meiji Restoration. The karamon Painted folding screen depicting Festivals of Toyokuni, by Kanō Naizen of the Kanō School Vest garment decorated with gold Chrysanthemum motif Three decorated Chinese-style chests Iron lantern cage Naginata blade Honebami, attributed to Awataguchi Yoshimitsu Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Sumiyoshi-zukuri is an ancient Shinto shrine architectural style which takes its name from Sumiyoshi Taisha's honden in Ōsaka. As in the case of the taisha-zukuri and shinmei-zukuri styles, its birth predates the arrival in Japan of Buddhism. Ancient shrines were constructed according to the style of storehouses; the buildings had gabled roofs, raised floors, plank walls, were thatched with reed or covered with hinoki cypress bark. Such early shrines did not include a space for worship. Three important forms of ancient shrine architectural styles exist: taisha-zukuri, shinmei-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri They are exemplified by Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha and date to before 552. According to the tradition of Shikinen sengū-sai, the buildings or shrines were faithfully rebuilt at regular intervals adhering to the original design. In this manner, ancient styles have been replicated through the centuries to the present day; the honden on the grounds at Sumiyoshi Taisha has been designated as a national treasure on the grounds that it is the oldest example of this style of architecture.
The four identical honden buildings that compose it are 4 ken wide and 2 ken deep and have an entrance under one of the gables (a characteristic called tsumairi-zukuri. The roof is simple, doesn't curve upwards at the eaves and is decorated with purely ornamental poles called chigi and katsuogi; the building is surrounded by a fence called mizugaki, in its turn surrounded by another called tamagaki. There is no veranda, a short stairway leads to the door; the interior is divided in two sections, one at the front and one at the back with a single entrance at the front. The structure is simple, but brightly colored: supporting pillars are painted in vermilion and walls in white; this style is supposed to have its origin in old palace architecture Another example of this style is Sumiyoshi Jinja, part of the Sumiyoshi Sanjin complex in Fukuoka Prefecture. JAANUS, Shinmei-zukuri accessed on December 1, 2009 History and Typology of Shrine Architecture, Encyclopedia of Shinto accessed on November 29, 2009 Kishida, Hideto.
Japanese Architecture. READ BOOKS. ISBN 1-4437-7281-X. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David; the art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11
The sōrin is the vertical shaft which tops a Japanese pagoda, whether made of stone or wood. The sōrin of a wooden pagoda is made of bronze and can be over 10 meters tall; that of a stone pagoda is of stone and less than a meter long. The sōrin is divided in several sections possessing a symbolic meaning and, as a whole, in turn itself represents a pagoda. Although quintessentially Buddhist, in Japan pagodas and their sōrin can be found both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines; this is because until the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868 a Shinto shrine was also a Buddhist temple and vice versa. Itsukushima Shrine for example has one; the sōrin is supported by a long shaft obtained by joining two or three shorter ones, that runs to the base of the edifice. Although it is believed that the pillar at the core of a Japanese pagoda is a device to strengthen it against earthquakes, its sole purpose is to support the long and heavy bronze sōrin. In many cases the central shaft doesn't reach the ground, but has its base somewhere above it within the pagoda, where it is supported by beam or other means.
At Nikkō Tōshōgū, for example, it is suspended with chains from the fourth floor. From its base exits a long tenon which, penetrating a mortise in a base stone, prevents it from oscillating; this structure was adopted not as a measure against earthquakes but because, with aging, the wood of the pagoda, whose grain is horizontal, tends to shrink more than that of the vertical shaft, causing the opening of a gap between the two at the roof. From the gap rain would enter. In other cases, this was done to allow the opening of a room at the ground floor and therefore create some usable space; the sōrin of a wooden pagoda is made of bronze and is divided in several segments called: The Jewel or gem, a spherical or tear-shaped object, shapes sacred to Buddhism. Believed to repel evil and fulfill wishes, it can be found on top of pyramidal temple roofs, of stone lanterns or of tall poles, it can have flames. Those made; the dragon vehicle, the piece below the hōju The water flame, consisting of four decorative sheets of metal set at 90° to each other and installed over the top of the main pillar of a pagoda.
The fūtaku, small bells attached to the edges of a sōrin's rings or of the suien. The nine rings, the largest component of the sōrin. In spite of their name, there can sometimes be only eight or seven of them; the ukebana, a circle of upturned lotus petals eight in number. There can be another circle of petals facing down; the inverted bowl, which sits between the ukebana and the roban. The base or dew basin, on which rests the entire finial; because it covers the top of the roof in order to prevent leaks, it has as many sides as the roof itself. The most important stone pagoda having a finial is the hōkyōintō. Made in stone and metal or wood, hōkyōintō started to be made in their present form during the Kamakura period. Like a gorintō, they are divided in five main sections, its components are, from the top down: Hōju Ukebana Kurin Ukebana Roban. The sōrin sits on the kasa or yane, a stepped pyramid with four wings at the corners called mimikazari or sumikazari; the sōrintō is a type of small pagoda consisting just of a pole and a sōrin
In Japan a tōrō is a traditional lantern made of stone, wood, or metal. Like many other elements of Japanese traditional architecture, it originated in China. In Japan, tōrō were used only in Buddhist temples, where they lined and illuminated paths. Lit lanterns were considered an offering to Buddha. During the Heian period, they started being used in Shinto shrines and private homes; the oldest extant bronze and stone lanterns can be found in Nara. Taima-dera has a stone lantern built during the Nara period, while Kasuga-taisha has one of the following Heian period. During the Azuchi-Momoyama period stone lanterns were popularized by tea masters, who used them as a decoration in their gardens. Soon they started to develop new types according to the need. In modern gardens they have a purely ornamental function and are laid along paths, near water, or next to a building. Tōrō can be classified in two main types, the tsuri-dōrō, which hang from the eaves of a roof, the dai-dōrō used in gardens and along the approach of a shrine or temple.
The two most common types of dai-dōrō are the bronze lantern and the stone lantern, which look like hanging lanterns laid to rest on a pedestal. In its complete, original form, like the gorintō and the pagoda the dai-dōrō represents the five elements of Buddhist cosmology; the bottom-most piece, touching the ground, represents the earth. The segments express the idea that after death our physical bodies will go back to their original, elemental form. Called kaitomoshi, tsuri-dōrō hanging lanterns are small, four- or six-sided and made in metal, copper or wood, they were introduced from China via Korea during the Nara period and were used in Imperial palaces. Bronze lanterns, or kondō-dōrō have a long history in Japan, but are not as common or as diverse as the stone ones. In their classic form they are divided in sections that represent the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. For details on the structure of one of these lanterns, see the following section, Stone lanterns. Many have been designated as Cultural Properties of Japan by the Japanese government.
The one in front of Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden for example has been declared a National Treasure. Kōfuku-ji has in its museum one built in 816 and, a National Treasure. A dai-dōrō is most made of stone, in that case it is called ishi-dōrō; the traditional components of a stone lantern are, from top to bottom:Hōju or hōshu The onion-shaped part at the top of the finial. Ukebana The lotus-shaped support of the hōshu. Kasa A conical or pyramidal umbrella covering the fire box; the corners may curl upwards to form the so-called warabide. Hibukuro The fire box where the fire is lit. Chūdai The platform for the fire box. Sao The post oriented vertically and either circular or square in cross-section with a corresponding "belt" near its middle. Kiso The base rounded or hexagonal, absent in a buried lantern. Kidan A variously shaped slab of rock sometimes present under the base; as mentioned, the lantern's structure is meant to symbolize the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. With the sole exception of the fire box, any parts may be absent.
For example, an oki-dōrō, or movable lantern lacks a post, rests directly on the ground. It may lack an umbrella. Stone lanterns can be classified in each possessing numerous variants. Tachidōrō, or pedestal lanterns, are the most common; the base is always present and the fire box is decorated with carvings of deer or peonies. More than 20 subtypes exist; the following are among the most common. Kasuga-dōrō Named after Kasuga-taisha, it is common at both temples and shrines; the umbrella has either six or eight sides with warabite at the corners. The fire box is either square with carvings representing deer, the sun or the moon. Tall and thin, it is found near the second torii of a shrine. Yūnoki-dōrō The second oldest stone lantern in Japan, found at Kasuga Shrine, is a yūnoki-dōrō or citron tree stone lantern; this style goes back to at least as the Heian period. The post has rings carved at the bottom and top, the hexagonal base and middle platform are carved with lotuses; the umbrella has neither warabite nor an ukebana.
The yunoki seems to stem from a citron tree. This type of lantern became popular in tea house gardens during the Edo Period. Ikekomi-dōrō, or buried lanterns, are moderately sized lanterns whose post does not rest on a base, but goes directly into the ground; because of their modest size, they are used at stone basins in gardens. The foll
Mon is a generic Japanese term for gate used, either alone or as a suffix, in referring to the many gates used by Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines and traditional-style buildings and castles. Unlike gates of secular buildings, most temple and shrine gates are purely symbolic elements of liminality, as they cannot be closed and just mark the transition between the mundane and the sacred. In many cases, for example that of the sanmon, a temple gate has cleansing properties. Gate size is measured in ken, where a ken is the interval between two pillars of a traditional-style building. A temple's rōmon for example can have dimensions from a maximum of 5x2 ken to a more common 3x2 ken, down to one ken; the word is translated in English as "bay" and is better understood as an indication of proportions than as a unit of measurement. Like the temples they belong to, gates can be in the wayō, daibutsuyō, zen ` setchūyō style, they can be named after: Their location, of the omotemon or the karametemon. The deity they house, as the Niōmon, a gate enshrining two gods called Niō in its outer bays.
Their structure or shape, as the nijūmon and the rōmon. Their function, as the sanmon, the most important gate of a Zen or Jōdo temple. Not all such terms are mutually exclusive and the same gate may be called with different names according to the situation. For example, a Niōmon can be called a nijūmon if it has two stories. Different structurally from the others is the toriimon, a two-legged gate in stone or wood associated with Shinto, but common within Japanese Buddhist temples; as prominent a temple as Osaka's Shitennō-ji, founded in 593 by Shōtoku Taishi and the oldest state-built Buddhist temple in the country, has a torii straddling one of its entrances. The origins of the torii are unknown; because the use of symbolic gates is widespread in Asia—such structures can be found for example in India, Thailand and within Nicobarese and Shompen villages—historians believe it may be an imported tradition. It most symbolically marks the entrance of a Shinto shrine. For this reason, it is never closed.
Hakkyakumon or Yatsuashimon – so called because of its eight secondary pillars, which support four main pillars standing under the gate's ridge. It therefore has twelve pillars altogether. Heijūmon – A gate in a wall consisting in just two square posts. Kabukimon – A gate in a wall formed by two square posts and a horizontal beam. Karamon – A gate characterized by a karahafu, an undulating bargeboard peculiar to Japan. Karamon are used at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. Kōraimon – Used at castles and daimyō residences, it consists of a tiled, gabled roof on two pillars, plus two smaller roofs over the secondary pillars on the rear of the gate. Masugata. A defensive structure consisting in a courtyard along the wall of a castle with two gates set at a square angle, one giving access to the castle and one facing the outside; the external gate is a kōraimon, the internal one a yaguramon. The Sakuradamon at Tokyo's Imperial Palace is such a gate. Munamon – A gate formed by two pillars sustaining a gabled roof.
Similar to a kōraimon, but lacking the roofed secondary pillars. Nagayamon lit. nagaya gate – A nagaya a long house, was a row house where low status samurai used to live, the nagayamon was a gate that allowed traffic from one side of the structure to the other. Nijūmon – A two-storied gate with a pent roof between the two stories. Distinguishable from the similar rōmon for having a pent roof between stories. Niōmon – A gate enshrining in its two outer bays the statues of two warden gods, the Niō. Rōmon – A two-storied, single roofed gate where the second story is inaccessible and offers no usable room. Distinguishable from the similar nijūmon for not having a pent roof between stories. Sanmon – The most important gate of a Japanese Zen Buddhist temple. Used by other schools the Jōdo, its importance notwithstanding, the sanmon is not the first gate of the temple, in fact it stands between the sōmon and the butsuden. Sōmon – the gate at the entrance of a temple, it precedes the bigger and more important sanmon.
Torii – This distinctive symbolic gate is associated with Shinto shrines, however it is common at Buddhist temples too, as most have at least one. Uzumimon – Gates opened in a castle wall; because they were used to connect surfaces at different levels, they looked as if they were buried in the ground. Yaguramon – A gate with a yagura on top. Yakuimon – A gate having no pillars under the ridge of its gabled gate, supported by four pillars at its corners. Yakkyakumon or Yotsuashimon – so called because of its four secondary pillars which support two main pillars standing under the gate's ridge, it therefore has six pillars. Media related to Gates in Japan at Wikimedia Commons
A sandō in Japanese architecture is the road approaching either a Shinto shrine or a Buddhist temple. Its point of origin is straddled in the first case by a Shinto torii, in the second by a Buddhist sanmon, gates which mark the beginning of the shrine's or temple territory; the word dō can refer both to a path or road, to the path of one's life's efforts. There can be stone lanterns and other decorations at any point along its course. A sandō can be called a front sandō, if it is the main entrance, or a rear sandō if it is a secondary point of entrance to the rear; the famous Omotesandō district in Tokyo, for example, takes its name from the nearby main access path to Meiji Shrine where an ura-sandō used to exist. Shendao, a decorated road to a grave of an emperor or another dignitary in China