The Tamil diaspora refers to descendants of the Tamil immigrants who emigrated from their native lands to other parts of the world. They are found in Malaysia, Myanmar, South Africa, Réunion, Europe, North America, parts of the Caribbean, South America. Many of Tamil emigrants who left shores of Tamil Nadu before 18th Century and mixed with countless other ethnicities. In medieval period Tamilians emigrated as soldiers and labourers settled in Kerala, Maharashtra, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and intermixed well with local population, while few communities still maintain their language and culture. Many groups still claim descent from medieval-era Tamil emigrants such as the Thigalas, Hebbars of Karnataka who have resided in Karnataka for generations have adopted Kannada as their mother tongue, Kaikadis of Maharashtra, Chittys of Malaysia and the Sri Lankan Chetties, Bharatha people, some section of the Sri Lankan Tamils of Sri Lanka. An early emigrant group, not well documented is the Tamil Muslims who emigrated in considerable numbers to the Sultanate of Malacca and were instrumental in spreading Islam amongst the indigenous Malays.
Some are descended from immigrants from land of Arabia, though it is not known which part of the Arab world they are from. During this period British, French and Danish colony administrators recruited a lot of local Tamilians and took them to their overseas colonies to work as laborers, petty administration officers and military duties. In the 19th century, Madras Presidency faced brutal famines. Great Famine of 1876–78. Tamil Nadu was both economically weak. Britishers thus made use of hungry Tamil workers for their plantations all over the world - Malaysia, Myanmar, South Africa and Sri Lanka; some of the Tamil groups emigrated as commercial migrants. These groups dominated the trade and finance in Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa and other places; the first Indian to own a merchant ship during the British times comes from this group. These Tamilians well integrated, assimilated with their adopted countries, became part and parcel of local populations in Mauritius, South Africa and Fiji.
Where as Karnataka Tamils of Karnataka, Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka of Sri Lanka, Tamil Malaysians of Malaysia were evolved into distinct communities of their own with unique multilingual sub-culture and identity. Many left to work in the possessions of the French Empire via its holdings in Pondichéry in Réunion and the French Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe. A small group was hired by the Dutch colonial government in Dutch East Indies to work in Sumatra. About 40,000 descendants of these immigrants are still found in Medan. Many independent Tamil merchant guilds such as the Nagarathar left for these areas in an age old tradition of their ancestors who had traded in these areas for the last 2,000 years. Britain hired many Sri Lankan Tamils as clerical and other white collar workers in Malaysia and Singapore. All these different streams have combined to create vibrant Tamil communities in these countries. Many Tamils from India and Sri Lanka migrated to Crown colony of Singapore and British Malaya as labours, army clerks and merchants.
During and after the devastating WW2 a large number of Tamils and other Indians from Burma fled to India- to Manipur, Tamil Nadu. They established Burmese refugee colonies that still exist today and maintain an identity as Burmese returnees. In Sri Lanka the Sinhalese nationalist SLFP party disfranchised all Indian origin Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka and returned 600,000 back to India under the Srimavo-Shastri Pact signed between India and Sri Lanka. Many were repatriated to the Nilgiris region's tea estates, they too maintain a distinct identity as Ceylon returnees in Tamil Nadu. Black July has created another stream of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka refugees in India who have languished for the last 20 years in refugee camps throughout Tamil Nadu while many others have integrated with the mainstream community or left India for other countries in the west. There is a movement of native Sri Lankan Tamils to India; the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora is less than 100 years old and was well established in Malaysia and England prior to the post 1983 Black July induced dispersal of refugees and asylum claimants in India and Canada.
Although recent in origin, this subgroup had well-established communities in these host countries prior to the 1983 pogroms. A more recent Sri Lankan Tamil community has developed in the United States. In the second half of the 20th century, Tamils from India migrated as skilled professionals to various parts of India and countries like UAE, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UK, USA, Singapore and so on; some of them got citizenship of respective countries but still having strong family and cultural ties with Tamil Nadu, than those who migrated before 1950, who lost touch with their ancestral links in Tamil Nadu. With reference to Mainland Africa, There is a significant amount of Tamils in Africa, Especially Kenya. Kenya holds at least 30% of the Tamilians in the Country followed by Uganda. Most of these people are Migrants while some of the
Tamil cinema refers to Tamil-language motion pictures, which are made in India. Based in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, the hub of the Tamil film industry is in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood of Chennai. Kollywood is a colloquial term for this industry, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood; the first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918; the first talking motion picture, was a multilingual and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after India's first talking motion picture Alam Ara. By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939. Tamil cinema had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema. Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India established a global presence through distribution to an increasing number of overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, Japan, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Europe, North America and other countries.
The industry inspired independent filmmaking in Sri Lanka and Tamil diaspora populations in Malaysia and the Western Hemisphere. In 1897, M. Edwards first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras; the films all featured non-fictional subjects. The film scholar Stephen Hughes points out that within a few years there were regular ticketed shows in a hall in Pophams Broadway, started by one Mrs. Klug, but this lasted only for a few months. Once it was demonstrated as a commercial proposition, a Western entrepreneur, Warwick Major, built the first cinema theatre, the Electric Theatre, which still stands, it was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years; this building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai. The Lyric Theatre was built in the Mount Road area; this venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, ballroom dances. Silent films were screened as an additional attraction.
Swamikannu Vincent, a railway draftsman from Tiruchirapalli, became a travelling exhibitor in 1905. He showed short movies in a tent in Esplanade, near the present Parry's Corner, using carbide jet-burners for projection, he bought the film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor. Soon, he tied up with Path, a well-known pioneering film-producing company, imported projectors; this helped new cinema houses to sprout across the presidency. In years, he produced talkies and built a cinema in Coimbatore. To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organized in Madras, its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a Crone megaphone, made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched dialogue. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court.
With this equipment, he screened the short films Pearl Fish and Raja's Casket in the Victoria Public Hall. When this proved successful, he screened the films in a tent set up in Esplanade; these tent events were the true precursors of the cinema shows. Venkiah traveled with this unit to Burma and Sri Lanka, when he had gathered enough money, he put up a permanent cinema house in Madras—Gaiety, in 1914, the first cinema house in Madras to be built by an Indian, he soon added Crown Theatre in Mint and Globe in Purasawalkam. Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films; the first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact. Most of the films screened were shorts made in the United States and Britain. In 1909, an Englishman, T. H. Huffton, founded Peninsular Film Services in Madras and produced some short films for local audiences.
But soon, hour-long films, which narrated dramatic stories known as "drama films", were imported. From 1912 onwards, feature films made in Bombay were screened in Madras; the era of short films had ended. The arrival of drama films established cinema as a popular entertainment form. More cinema houses came up in the city. Fascinated by this new entertainment form, an automobile dealer in the Thousand Lights area of Madras, R. Nataraja Mudaliyar, decided to venture into film production. After a few days’ training in Pune with the cinematographer Stewart Smith, the official cinematographer of Lord Curzon's 1903 Durbar, he started a film production concern in 1916; the man who laid the foundations of south Indian cinema was A. Narayanan. After a few years in film distribution, he set up a production company in Madras, the General Pictures Corporation, popularly known as GPC. Beginning with The Faithful Wife/Dharmapathini, GPC made about 24 feature films. GPC functioned as a film school and its alumni included names such as Sundara Rao Nadkarni and Jiten Banerji.
The studio of GPC was housed in the Chellapalli bungalow on Thiruvottiyur High Road in Madras. This company, which produced the most number of Tamil silent films, had branc
Tamil Eelam is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka. Tamil Eelam, although encompassing the traditional homelands of Sri Lankan Tamils, has no official status or recognition by world states. Sections of the Eelam community were under de facto control of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam for most of the 2000s; the name is derived from the ancient Tamil name for Eelam. Evidence of a settlement of people with burial practices similar to that found in the Tamil Nadu region in India and further North was excavated at megalithic burial sites at Pomparippu in the western coast and in Kathiraveli in the eastern coast; these are dated between the 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD. Although it is not known when ethnic Tamils first settled in Sri Lanka; the Jaffna Peninsula was referred to in the Manimekalai as Naga Nadu, inhabited by the Naga people. They were early descendant of the Sri Lankan Tamils who adapted Tamil language.
The Pallava dynasty trace their origin back to a fusion between the Chola king Killivalavan and the daughter of the Naga king Pilli Valai. Tamil royal dynasties in this period are known to have patronized Tamil Saivite culture in the east that paralleled the growth of the community in the area, by the 6th century, a special coastal route by boat was functioning to the Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee and Thirukkovil Sithira Velayutha Swami Kovil in Batticaloa; the 12th century saw the rise of a significant Tamil Hindu social formation in the Jaffna Peninsula, with the Jaffna Kingdom. Established as a powerful force in the north, north east and west of the island, it became a tributary fief of the Pandyan Empire in modern South India in 1258, gaining independence in 1323 with the fragmentation of Pandyan control. By the 11th and 12th centuries AD the upper half of the eastern province had a large Tamil community. Eastern Tamils had feudal organizations that centered around Ur Podiyar at a village level and the Kudi system that controlled social interactions.
They were organized politically as Vannimai chiefs who came nominally under the Kingdom of Kandy. The most important social group were the Mukkuvar, who had originated from South India and had invaded Sri Lanka as evidenced by Sinhalese literature of that period, the Kokila Sandeśa and Mukkara Hatana. One of the local traditions that records the landing and settling of eastern Sri Lanka is called Mattakallappu Manmiyam. Among the medieval Vanni chieftaincies, those of Panankamam, Mulliyavalai, Karunavalpattu and Tennamaravadi in the north of the island were incorporated into the Jaffna Kingdom; the chieftaincy in Trincomalee was at times incorporated into the northern Kingdom. Hence Vannimais just south of the Jaffna peninsula and in the eastern Trincomalee district paid an annual tribute to the Jaffna Kingdom instead of taxes; the tribute was in cash, honey and ivory. The annual tribute system was enforced due to the greater distance from Jaffna; the Federal Party became the most dominant Tamil political party in 1956 and lobbied for a unitary state which gave Tamil and Sinhalese equal rights, including recognition of two official languages and considerable autonomy for the Tamil areas.
It was against this backdrop that the Federal party decided to sign the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam Pact in July 1957. As the name goes, it was an agreement between the two individuals and lacked any legality, it was never approved by the ruling party or the Cabinet. However, soon afterwards the agreement was abandoned by the Sinhala party. In 1965, another pact, the Senanayake-Chelvanayakam Pact was signed but not implemented; the failure of the Sinhalese dominated government to implement devolutionary agreements through the 1950s and 1960s, abrogation of power-sharing promises, worsening economic conditions, lack of territorial autonomy caused further disillusionment and isolation among northern Tamils. In the 1970 election the United Front led by Sirimavo Bandaranaike came into power; the new government adopted two new policies. First, the government introduced a discriminatory system regulating university admissions targeted at reducing the intake of overachieving Tamils and other minorities in the Sri Lankan educational system.
The scheme allotted up to 40% of the university placement to rural youth. The government claimed that this was an affirmative action scheme to assist geographically disadvantaged students to gain tertiary education. According to K. M. de Silva, a historian, the system of standardisation of marks required the Tamil students to achieve higher marks than the Sinhalese students to get into university. A similar policy was adapted for employment in the public sector, leaving less than 10 percent of civil service jobs available to Tamil speakers; the Federal Party opposed these policies and Chelvanayakam resigned his parliamentary seat in October 1972. The new constitution in 1972 further exacerbated long standing grievances and sense of discrimination for the Sri Lankan Tamil people; this had emboldened younger Tamils to seek ways to form a Tamil homeland where the rights and freedoms of the Tamil people could be protected and nurtured. In 1973, Tamil parties' call for regional autonomy was replaced with the demand for a separate state called Tamil Eelam.
Two years in 1975, all Tamil political parties merged and became known as the Tamil United Liberation Front. In
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Tamil cuisine is a cuisine native to the Tamil people who are native to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and northern Sri Lanka. It is the cuisine of the Tamil-speaking population of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in India and of the Tamil communities of Singapore and Indonesia. Tamil Nadu is famous for its deep belief that serving food to others is a service to humanity, as it is common in many regions of India; the region has a rich range of cuisine involving vegetarian, non-vegetarian, traditionally vegan dishes. Rice and lentils are used extensively and flavor is achieved by the blending of various spices. Vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments and tamarind is used as the favored souring agent. On special occasions, traditional Tamil dishes are prepared in an elaborate and leisurely way and served in traditional style on a banana leaf; the traditional way of eating a meal involves being seated on the floor, having the food served on a banana leaf, using clean fingers of the right hand to transfer the food to the mouth.
After the meal, the fingers are washed, the banana leaf becomes food for cows. Breakfast includes idli or dosa and rice accompanied by sambar and rasam, followed by curd for lunch. A sappadu consists of rice with other typical Tamil dishes served on a banana leaf which gives different flavor and taste to the food a dessert is served as a dessert to finish the meal. Coffee and tea are the staple drinks. ‘Virundhu’ which means ‘feast’, is when guests are invited during happy ceremonial occasions to share food. For festivals and special ceremonies, a more elaborate menu with steamed rice, variety rice, sambar, kara kuzhambu, thayir along with poriyal, kootu, keerai masiyal, pachadi, thovaiyal, payasam. After the completion of the feast, a banana and betel leaves are provided to aid digestion. Guests sit on a coir mat rolled out on the floor and a full course meal was served on a banana leaf. Nowadays, guests sit at a dinner table and have the same type of food. Traditionally the banana leaf is laid so that the narrower leaf tip is on the left and the wider portion of the leaf on the right.
The stem of the leaf running horizontal in the center with top and bottom halves. Before the feast begins the leaf is sprinkled with water and cleaned by the diner himself though the leaves are clean; the top half of the banana leaf is reserved for the lower half for the rice. The lower right portion of the leaf may have a scoop of warm sweet milky rice Payasam, Sweet Pongal or any Dessert items. While the top left includes a pinch of salt, a dash of pickle and a thimbleful of salad, or a smidgen of chutney. In the middle of the leaf there may be an odd number of fried items like small circles of chips either banana, yam or potato, thin crisp papads or frilly wafers aruna Appalams and vadai; the top right hand corner is reserved for spicy foods including curry, sweet, or sour and the dry items. Over a period of time, each geographical area where Tamils have lived has developed its own distinct variant of the common dishes in addition to dishes native to itself; the four divisions of ancient Tamilakam are the primary means of dividing Tamil cuisine.
Chettinad region comprising Karaikudi and adjoining areas is known for both traditional vegetarian dishes like idiyappam, uthappam and non-vegetarian dishes. Nanjilnadu cuisine comes from Nanjilnadu region of Kanyakumari district which forms the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu and India. Madurai region has its own unique foods such as muttaiparotta, paruthipal and jigarthanda; the cuisine of Kongunadu region has specialties like Santhakai/Sandhavai, kola urundai, Thengai Paal, Ulundu Kali, Arisimparupu sadam, Ragi puttumavu, Arisi Puttumavu, Kambu Paniyaram, Ragi Pakoda, Thengai Barbi, Kadalai Urundai, Ellu Urundai and Pori Urundai. The region is known for non-vegetarian food made of mutton and fish. Parota made with maida or all-purpose flour, loosely similar to the north Indian wheat flour-based Paratha. Arisimparupu sadam is unique to the region and made in homes. Kongunadu cuisine is distinct from rest of the Tamilnadu by using coconut oil and coconut in most dishes; the region is the highest producer in Coconut oil and Turmeric.
Which reflects in their cuisine. The word curry is an Anglicization of the Tamil word kari; the Tamil phrase milagu thanneer meaning pepper soup pepper water, has been adapted in English as mulligatawny The word congee derives from the Tamil word kanji. Rice is the major staple food of most of the Tamil people. Lunch or dinner is a meal of steamed rice served with accompanying items, which include sambar, rasam and curd. Idli, steamed rice-cakes, prepare
Tamil nationalism is the ideology which asserts that the Tamil people constitute a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Tamil people. Tamil nationalism is a secular nationalism, that focus on language and homeland, it expresses itself in the form of linguistic purism and irredentism, Social equality and Tamil Renaissance. Tamils are one of the oldest civilisations in the world with a rich language. Tamil people ruled in Tamilakam and parts of Sri Lanka. During the colonial period, the Tamil areas came under the rule of British Ceylon; this saw the end of the sovereignty of Tamils and reduced them to minority status under a political model implemented during the British Raj. Since the independence of India and Sri Lanka, Tamil separatist movements have been suppressed in both countries. A famous quote by Tamil poet Kannadasan about the Tamils as a stateless nation. Since the adoption of the Vaddukoddai Resolution in 1976 under the leadership of S. J. V. Chelvanayakam, Tamil nationalists in Sri Lanka have attempted to create an independent state amid the increasing political and physical violence against ordinary Tamils by the Sri Lankan government, dominated by Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism.
Shortly after the island's independence from Britain, the Sri Lankan government passed the Citizenship Act of 1948, which made more than a million Tamils of Indian origin stateless. The government passed a Sinhala Only Act, which threatened the status of Tamil as a minority language, as well as hindering the social mobility of Tamil speakers.. In addition, the government initiated the Sinhalese colonisation scheme, with the aim of lessening the numerical presence of minorities as well as monopolising traditionally shared economic activities such as agriculture and fisheries, which have been part of the livelihood of Sri Lankan Tamils since time immemorial. After anti-Tamil pogroms in 1956, 1958 and 1977 and police brutality against Tamils protesting against these acts, guerilla groups like Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam were created to safeguard the interest and rights of Tamils in their own land; the burning of Jaffna library in 1981 and Black July in 1983 led to over 25 years of war between the Sri Lankan army and the Tamil Tigers.
Persistent use of violence, including assassinations, led the LTTE to be declared as a terrorist organization by India, the European Union and the USA. The civil war came to an end in 2009 with the military defeat of LTTE and the death of its leader, Prabhakaran; the Sri Lankan civil war led to death of over 100,000 people according to the United Nations. The Sri Lankan Government are alleged to have committed war crimes against the civilian Sri Lankan Tamil people during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009. A PPT verdict declared it as a genocide committed against ethnic Tamils by the Sri Lanka, government. Following the conclusion of the Civil War, the Tamil National Alliance dropped their demand for an independent Tamil Eelam in favour of regional autonomy in a remerged North Eastern Province; the idea of Federalism in Sri Lanka is opposed by the Sri Lankan Government, which prefers a unitary state. In 2010, the Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam was founded by Visvanathan Rudrakumaran who aim to create an independent Tamil Eelam in peaceful democratic means.
The Tamil People's Council led by chief minister C. V. Vigneswaran organized "Eluga Tamil" rally in northern Jaffna and eastern Batticaloa to address that Tamil rights are still refused by Sri Lankan Government; the Indian Tamil Nationalism is the smaller section of the Dravidian Nationalism which consisted of all the four major Dravidian language in the South India. The Dravidian Nationalism was popularised by a series of small movements and organisations that contended that the South Indians, a cultural entity, different from the Indo-Aryans of North India. A new morphed ideology of the Dravidian nationalism gained momentum within the Tamil speakers during the 1930 and 1950; the Dravidian nationalism failed outside Tamil Nadu to find supporters. During 1950s and 1960s, the Nationalist ideologies lead to the argument by Tamil leaders that, at minimal, that Tamils must have self-determination or, at maximum, secession from India. By the late 1960, the political parties who were espousing Dravidian ideologies gained power within the state of Tamil Nadu.
Since the 1969 election victory of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam under C N Annadurai, Tamil nationalism has been a permanent feature of the government of Tamil Nadu. The DMK came to power on the plank of opposing Hindi monopoly/imposition. Prior to coming to power, they openly declared to fight for Tamil independence from India, but since the Indian government had added a new legislation that outlawed anyone wanting independence from India, under the sedition act, that made political parties to lose their right to stand in election, the DMK dropped this demand. With this, the drive for secession became weaker with most mainstream political parties, except a few, who instead committed to development of Tamil Nadu within a united India. Most major Tamil Nadu regional parties such as DMK, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi, Pattali Makkal Katchi and Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam participate as coalition partners of other pan-Indian parties in the Union Government of India at New Delhi.
In 1958, S. P. Adithanar founded the "We Tamils" party who wanted the creation of a homogeneous Greater Tamil Nadu incorporating Tamil speaking areas of India and Sri Lanka. In 1960, the party organized a statew
The Tamil script is an abugida script, used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet. Certain minority languages such as Saurashtra, Badaga and Paniya are written in the Tamil script; the Tamil script has 12 vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the ஃ. ஃ is called "அக்கு" akku and is classified in Tamil orthography as being neither a consonant nor a vowel. However, it is listed at the end of the vowel set; the script is syllabic, not alphabetic. The complete script, consists of the 31 letters in their independent form and an additional 216 combinant letters, for a total of 247 combinations of a consonant and a vowel, a mute consonant, or a vowel alone; the combinant letters are formed by adding a vowel marker to the consonant. Some vowels require the basic shape of the consonant to be altered in a way, specific to that vowel.
Others are written by adding a vowel-specific suffix to the consonant, yet others a prefix, still other vowels require adding both a prefix and a suffix to the consonant. In every case, the vowel marker is different from the standalone character for the vowel; the Tamil script is written from left to right. The Tamil script, like the other Brahmic scripts, is thought to have evolved from the original Brahmi script; the earliest inscriptions which are accepted examples of Tamil writing date to a time just after the Ashokan period. Although some inscriptions which have been dated to a much early period of 5th century BCE, have been discovered at places like Adichanallur and Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu; the script used by such inscriptions is known as the Tamil-Brahmi, or "Tamili script", differs in many ways from standard Ashokan Brahmi. For example, early Tamil-Brahmi, unlike Ashokan Brahmi, had a system to distinguish between pure consonants and consonants with an inherent vowel. In addition, according to Iravatham Mahadevan, early Tamil Brahmi used different vowel markers, had extra characters to represent letters not found in Sanskrit, omitted letters for sounds not present in Tamil such as voiced consonants and aspirates.
Inscriptions from the 2nd century use a form of Tamil-Brahmi, similar to the writing system described in the Tolkāppiyam, an ancient Tamil grammar. Most notably, they used the puḷḷi to suppress the inherent vowel; the Tamil letters thereafter evolved towards a more rounded form, by the 5th or 6th century, they had reached a form called the early vaṭṭeḻuttu. The modern Tamil script does not, descend from that script. In the 6th century, the Pallava dynasty created a new script for Tamil, the Grantha alphabet evolved from it, adding the Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet for sounds not found to write Sanskrit. Parallel to Pallava script a new script again emerged in Chola territory resembling the same glyph development like Pallava script, but it did not evolve from that. By the 8th century, the new scripts supplanted Vaṭṭeḻuttu in the Chola resp. Pallava kingdoms. However, Vaṭṭeḻuttu continued to be used in the southern portion of the Tamil-speaking region, in the Chera and Pandyan kingdoms until the 11th century, when the Pandyan kingdom was conquered by the Cholas.
With the fall of Pallava kingdom, the Chola dynasty pushed the Chola-Pallava script as the de facto script. Over the next few centuries, the Chola-Pallava script evolved into the modern Tamil script; the Grantha and its parent script influenced the Tamil script notably. The use of palm leaves; the scribe had to be careful not to pierce the leaves with the stylus while writing because a leaf with a hole was more to tear and decay faster. As a result, the use of the puḷḷi to distinguish pure consonants became rare, with pure consonants being written as if the inherent vowel were present; the vowel marker for the kuṟṟiyal ukaram, a half-rounded u which occurs at the end of some words and in the medial position in certain compound words fell out of use and was replaced by the marker for the simple u. The puḷḷi did not reappear until the introduction of printing, but the marker kuṟṟiyal ukaram never came back into use although the sound itself still exists and plays an important role in Tamil prosody.
The forms of some of the letters were simplified in the 19th century to make the script easier to typeset. In the 20th century, the script was simplified further in a series of reforms, which regularised the vowel markers used with consonants by eliminating special markers and most irregular forms; the Tamil script differs from other Brahmi-derived scripts in a number of ways. Unlike every other Brahmic script, it does not represent voiced or aspirated stop consonants as these are not phonemes of the Tamil language though voiced and fricative allophones of stops do appear in spoken Tamil, thus the character க் k, for example, represents /k/ but can be pronounced /ɡ/ or /x/ based on the rules of Tamil grammar. A separate set of characters appears for these sounds when the Tamil script is used to write Sanskrit or other languages. Unlike other Brahmi scripts, the Tamil script uses typographic ligatures to represent conjunc