Mabuchi Motor Company is a Japanese manufacturing company based in Matsudo, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is the world's largest manufacturer by volume of small electric motors, producing over 1.4 billion motors annually. The company employs 24,286 people in its production division, 755 in its administrative division, 583 in its R&D division, 219 in its sales division. Mabuchi Motor holds 70% of the market for motors used with automotive door mirrors, door locks, air conditioning damper actuators. Sales of power window lifter motors are on the rise; the company's ratio of consolidated markets is 64.3% automotive products and 35.7% consumer and industrial products. Applications for Mabuchi brushed DC electric motors and brushless electric motors include power drills, lawn mowers, vibrating cell phones and video game controllers, vacuum cleaners, toy cars and planes, CD, DVD and Blu-ray players, digital cameras, computer printers, electric fans, electric razors, washing machines, electric tooth brushes, blow dryers.
Mabuchi Motor's head office is located near Matsuhidai station on the Hokuso line linking Narita airport with downtown Tokyo. The company is managed by a board of directors. For the purpose of creating an environment for investors to invest more and for expanding liquidity and enlarging the investor base of the stock, Mabuchi Motor split each share of its common stock into two shares on January 1, 2015, with the number of shares outstanding rising from 37.875 million in 2014 to 70.927 million in 2015. Takaichi Mabuchi, the company's co-founder and Honorary Chairman since March 28, 2013, has served as President and Chairman of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. Shinji Kamei, Chairman of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. since March 28, 2013, has served as the Chief Executive Officer and President at Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. Kamei serves as its Representative Director. Hiroo Okoshi has been Chief Executive Officer and President of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. since March 28, 2013. Okoshi served as an Executive Officer and General Manager of Administration Headquarters and as General Manager of Corporate Planning Department.
He has been a director since March 2011. Tadashi Takahashi has been a Managing Executive Officer of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. since March 27, 2015. Takahashi has been General Manager of Research & Development Headquarters since March 28, 2013, he served as Executive Officer from March 28, 2013 to March 27, 2015. Takahashi was General Manager of Production Engineering Innovation Center of Research and Development Headquarters until March 28, 2013, he has been a director since March 28, 2013. Masato Itokawa serves as General Manager of Quality Assurance Executive Officer, he has been a director since March 28, 2013. Tadahito Iyoda has been a General Manager of Administration Headquarters and Executive Officersince March 28, 2013. Iyoda served as General Manager of Corporate Planning Department. Hirotarou Katayama has been General Manager of Operations Control Headquarters since July 2014 and serves as its Executive Officer. Katayama has been a director since March 27, 2015. Iwao Nakamura has been an Outside Director of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. since March 28, 2013 and of Nagase & Co. Ltd. since 2009.
He served as Executive Officer at Nagase & Co. Ltd. and President of Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd. of Volvo AB from 2002 to May 11, 2007. Nakamura was President of Nissan Diesel at AB Volvo from 2002 to July 11, 2007. Nakamura presently serves as a Director of Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd. Ichiro Hashimoto has been an Outside Director of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. since March 27, 2015. He serves as the Chief Operating Officer of Niigata Power Systems Co. Ltd. and once served as its President. In April 1970, Hashimoto joined Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industry Co. Ltd. and has been its director since April, 2008. Hashimoto served as an Executive Vice President of IHI Corporation since April 2010. Since July 1998, Hashimoto served as Head of Soma Works of Aero-Engine & Space Operations of IHI, served as its Executive Officer and President of Power System Operations, Managing Executive Officer and President of Energy and Plants Operations since January 2008, Managing Executive Officer and President of Energy and Plants Operations since April 2008.
He served as the Senior Executive Officer, Managing Executive Officer and Executive Officer of IHI Corporation. He served as a director of IHI Corporation starting in April 2010. Since June 2012, he has been a corporate advisor of IHI. Masahiro Gennaka serves as Full-Time Statutory Auditor. Keiichi Horii serves as an Outside Statutory Auditor. Horii has been an auditor of Sanwa Soko Co. Ltd. since June 2011. He became a registered lawyer in April 1979, he was a Partner of Harada and Sugiyama Law Office since January 1995. Nobutaka Motohashi has been an Outside Statutory Auditor of Mabuchi Motor Co. Ltd. since March 2012 and NAGAWA Co. Ltd. since June of that year. He has been a Representative at CPA Motohashi Nobutaka Office since July 2008. Motohashi served as a Representative Partner at Audit Corporation Ernst & Young ShinNihon LLC since May 1976, he joined Audit Corporation Ernst & Young ShinNihon LLC in June 1971. Motohashi was registered as a certified public accountant in March 1973, he withdrew from Ernst & Young ShinNihon LLC in June 2008.
Toru Masuda serves as an Outside Statutory Auditor. Tsuyoshi Nakamura serves as General Manager of Marketing Headquarters and Executive Officer. Nakamura served as Deputy General Manager of Sales & Marketing Headquarters starting i
Four-wheel drive called 4×4 or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, is linked via a transfer case providing an additional output drive-shaft and, in many instances, additional gear ranges. A four-wheeled vehicle with torque supplied to both axles is described as "all-wheel drive". However, "four-wheel drive" refers to a set of specific components and functions, intended off-road application, which complies with modern use of the terminology. 4WD systems were used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions; the terms used by various manufacturers reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. SAE International's standard J1952 recommends only the term All-Wheel-Drive with additional sub classifications which cover all types of AWD/4WD/4x4 systems found on production vehicles.
Four-by-four or 4x4 is used to refer to a class of vehicles in general. Syntactically, the first figure indicates the total number of wheels, the second indicates the number that are powered. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. A 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which provide torque to two axle ends each. If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4. During World War II, the U. S. military would use spaces and a capital'X' – like "4 X 2" or "6 X 4". Four-wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term refers to a system, optimized for off-road driving conditions; the term "4WD" is designated for vehicles equipped with a transfer case which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically.
All-wheel drive was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, six-wheel drive on 6×6s, so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s. Today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles; when referring to heavy vehicles the term is applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts. This is coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems are not intended for more extreme off-road use; when used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles, it refers to a system that applies torque to all four wheels and/or is targeted at improving on-road traction and performance, rather than for off-road applications. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.
An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors. Individual-wheel drive is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor; this system has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric; this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Per the SAE International standard J1952, AWD is the preferred term for all the systems described above; the standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential.
The definition notes. Full-Time AWD systems drive both rear axles at all times via a center differential; the torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed; the definition does not address exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system"; the standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may provide the primary vehicle propulsion. An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor; when the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle. At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle.
In addition to the above primary classifications the J1952 standard notes seconda
A monster truck is a specialized truck with a heavy duty suspension, four-wheel steering, oversized tires constructed for competition and entertainment uses. Created by modifying stock pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles, they have evolved into purpose-built vehicles with tube-frame chassis and fiberglass bodies rather than metal. A competition monster truck is 12 feet tall, equipped with 66-inch off-road tires. Monster trucks developed in the late 1970s and came into the public eye in the early 1980s as side acts at popular motocross, tractor pulling, mud bogging events, where they were used in car-crushing demonstrations. Today they are the main attraction with motocross, mud bogging, ATV racing, or demolition derbies as supporting events. Monster truck shows have two main events, a race and a freestyle competition. Races are conducted as a single-elimination tournament on short, symmetrical tracks, which may include obstacles such as junk cars or dirt mounds; the length and complexity of the track can vary with the size of the venue, with courses in indoor arenas being shorter with fewer obstacles.
In freestyle events, each driver puts on a performance consisting of stunts such as obstacle jumps, backflips and doughnuts. A panel of judges assign points to each performance and the driver with the most points is declared the winner. Additional vehicles for the drivers to crush, such as motor homes and school buses, were placed on the track for the freestyle event. However, incidences of debris flying into the stands and causing serious injuries have influenced most event promoters to turn away from such obstacles. Most freestyle courses now consist of large mounds and ramps erected to allow the trucks to perform large jumps and wheelies upon landing. Freestyle performances have a set time limit and only one truck is allowed on the track at a time as a safety measure. Freestyle events are the final competition of a show, as damage to the trucks would make them unable to race. In the late 1970s modified pickup trucks were becoming popular and the sports of mud bogging and truck pulling were gaining in popularity.
Several truck owners had created lifted trucks to compete in such events, soon competition to hold the title of "biggest truck" developed. The trucks which garnered the most national attention were Bob Chandler's Bigfoot, Everett Jasmer's USA-1, Fred Shafer and Jack Willman Sr.'s Bear Foot, Jeff Dane's King Kong. At the time, the largest tires the trucks were running were 48 inches in diameter. In April 1981, Bob Chandler drove over junked cars in Bigfoot in what is believed to be the first monster truck to crush cars. Chandler drove Bigfoot over a pair of cars in a field as a test of the truck's ability, filmed it to use as a promotional tool in his four-wheel drive performance shop. An event promoter asked Chandler to do it in front of a crowd. Hesitant because of the "destructive" image that could be associated with Bigfoot, Chandler agreed. After some smaller shows, Chandler performed the feat in the Pontiac Silverdome in 1982. At this show, Chandler debuted a new version of Bigfoot with 66-inch tires.
At a prior event in the early 1980s, when Bigfoot was still running 48-inch tires, Bob George, one of the owners of a motorsport promotion company named Truck-a-rama – known as the United States Hot Rod Association – is said to have coined the phrase "monster truck" when referring to Bigfoot. The term "monster truck" became the generic name for all trucks with oversized tires. King Kong and Bear Foot each followed Bigfoot to 66-inch-diameter tires, soon other monster trucks, such as King Krunch and Virginia Giant were being constructed; these early trucks were built off of stock chassis which were reinforced, used leaf spring suspension, a stock body, heavy axles from military-specification vehicles to support the tires. For most of the early 1980s, monster trucks performed exhibitions as a side show to truck pulling or mud bogging events. In August 1983, Bigfoot and USA-1 competed in the first side-by-side monster truck race, filmed for the television show That's Incredible. By 1985 major promoters, such as the USHRA and TNT Motorsports, were racing monster trucks on a regular basis.
In 1988, TNT Motorsports created a series to establish the first national championship of monster truck racing. In 1988, to standardize rules for truck construction and safety, Bob Chandler and George Carpenter formed the Monster Truck Racing Association; the MTRA created standard safety rules to govern monster trucks. The organization still plays a major role in the sport's development in the USA and EU. With racing taking precedence, several teams began to think in new ways as to how the trucks could be built. Towards the end of 1988, Gary Cook and David Morris debuted Equalizer, a truck with a combination of coil springs and shock absorbers as the main source of suspension rather than the standard of leaf springs and shock absorbers. In 1989, Jack Willman Sr. now with his own truck, debuted a new truck which used a solid axle suspension system made of parallel four-link suspensions and coilovers that together weighed in at close to 9,000 pounds. However, the biggest innovation came from Chandler in 1989, when the CAD-designed Bigfoot #8 debuted featuring a full tubular chassis and a long-travel suspension system made of triangulated four-link suspensions, bump stops, limit straps and shock absorbers charged with nitrogen gas.
The truck revoluti
Radio controlled cars are battery/gas-powered model cars or trucks that can be controlled from a distance using a specialized transmitter or remote. The term "R/C" has been used to mean both "remote controlled" and "radio controlled", where "remote controlled" includes vehicles that are connected to their controller by a wire, but common use of "R/C" today refers to vehicles controlled by a radio-frequency link; this article focuses on radio-controlled vehicles only. Cars are powered by various sources. Electric models are powered by small but powerful electric motors and rechargeable nickel-cadmium, nickel metal hydride, or lithium polymer cells. There are brushed or brushless electric motors. Most fuel-powered models use glow plug engines, small internal combustion engines fueled by a special mixture of nitromethane and oil; these are referred to as "nitro" cars. Exceptionally large models have been introduced that are powered by small gasoline engines, similar to string trimmer motors, which use a mix of oil and gasoline.
Electric cars are considered easier for the novice to work with compared to fuel-driven models, but can be as complex at the higher budget and skill levels. In both of these categories, both on-road and off-road vehicles are available. Off-road models, which are built with functional off-road suspensions, a wide tire selection, can be used on various types of terrain. On-road cars, with a much less robust suspension, are limited to smooth, paved surfaces. In the past decade, advances in "on-road" vehicles have made their suspension as adjustable as many full scale race cars, today. Toy-grade R/C cars are manufactured with a focus on design coupled with reducing production costs. Where as a hobby-grade car has separate electronic components that are individually replaceable if they fail, toy grade cars are made with components harder to find as spare parts and a single electronic circuit board integrated into the design of the vehicle. Although hobby-grade enthusiasts look down on toy-grade R/C cars, their maintenance is much easier than that of the hobby-grade models since number of components is drastically smaller, parts can be harvested at no cost from any R/C toy car of the similar size.
Performance tends to depend on price, but with addition of hobby-grade type of batteries toy R/C cars can get up to 1/2 the speed of comparable hobby-grade car for 1/5 of the price. Stock toy-grade cars are equipped with weaker motors and are powered by alkaline or NiCad batteries which means their top speed is only 5–15 mph. Cheaper ones lack any form of a suspension and the ones that do feature a suspension have primitive or rudimentary designs. Steering is not proportional and there is no proportional "throttle" either, with stopped and full power being the only options. With all the disadvantages, toy-grade R/C cars are a great intro to the hobby for ages 5–10, are cheap platform for modifications and tuning for older enthusiasts. In recent years, hobby-grade "ready-to-run" models have become available from major manufacturers of radio-controlled cars, attracting many hobbyists who would otherwise not have purchased a kit car. Vehicles of this type need little or no final assembly and in most cases, the bodies are shipped painted and trimmed.
Safety inspection of the product to ensure correct operation is essential, as injury to operators or bystanders from disassembling vehicles is possible. A number of cars and trucks are presently available only in ready-to-run form; the growing popularity of the RTR vehicle has prompted many manufacturers to discontinue production of kit vehicles. High-spec racing vehicles are still available or sold only as kits, companies like Thunder Tiger, Losi, HPI, Traxxas and Tamiya sell kit and RTR versions with the benefits of a kit version being in upgraded parts or lower costs, respectively. Hobby grade vehicles can cost much more, ranging from $90 to over $2000. Ready-to-run, As the name suggests, are pre-assembled models ready for immediate use, they reach to speeds of about 70 miles per hour, with some modified versions capable of reaching 100 miles per hour. There are versions that run on nitro. Ready To Run Cars, Commonly known as, the "Assemble it yourself" cars, they are customizable, you can assemble the parts on your own, they are ideal because you can acquire new spares for broken parts and you can modify some features to improve performance.
They are used by professional RC drivers, you may opt for the ready to run as a beginner as it helps you develop your understanding for how the different parts work and how to fix them. Electrically powered models utilize mechanical or electronic speed control units to adjust the amount of power delivered to the electric motor; the power delivered is proportional to the amount of throttle called for by the transmitter - the more you pull the trigger, the faster it goes. The voltage is "pulsed" using transistors to produce varying output with smooth transitions and greater efficiency. Electronic speed controllers use solid state components to regulate duty cycle, adjusting the power delivered to the electrical motor. In addition, most electronic speed controllers can use the electric motor as a magnetic brake, offering better control of the model than is possible with a mechanical speed control. Mechanical speed controllers use a network of resistors and switch between them by rotating a head with an electrode around a plate that has electrical contacts.
Mechanical speed controllers are prone
Tamiya Incorporated is a Japanese manufacturer of plastic model kits, radio controlled cars and solar powered educational models, sailboat models and enamel model paints and various modeling tools and supplies. The company was founded by Yoshio Tamiya in Shizuoka, Japan, in 1946; the metal molds were produced from plans which had the concept of being "easy to understand and build for beginners". The box art was consistent with this throughout the company; the company has gained a reputation among hobbyists of producing models of outstanding quality and accurate scale detail, a philosophy reflected directly on the company's motto, "First in Quality Around the World". Tamiya Inc. has been awarded on a regular basis each year, the Modell des Jahres award, hosted by the German magazine ModellFan. The company was founded in 1946 as Tamiya Co. by Yoshio Tamiya in Oshika, Shizuoka City. It was a sawmill and lumber supply company. With the high availability of wood, the Mokuzaigyou Company's wood products division was producing wooden models of ships and airplanes, which became company's foundation.
In 1953, they decided to stop the sale of architectural lumber and focused on model making. In the mid-1950s, foreign-made plastic models were beginning to be imported and wooden model sales were decreasing, so in 1959 they decided to manufacture plastic models, their first model was the Yamato. However, Tamiya's predecessors had sold Yamato models at 350 yen. By competing, Tamiya was at risk of getting into the red by setting their price the same. However, they could not recover the cost of producing metal molds, so once again, they changed their products to wooden models, but at that time the model trade's tide was turning toward plastic models. Using metal molds no longer needed for plastic toys, they released a racecar mini-kit, to finance the production of their next plastic model. To their good fortune, it became a hit, they decided that the second plastic model was to be the Panther tank, which had a linear form which would make the molds simple to produce. They commissioned Shigeru Komatsuzaki to do the box art.
The Panther was motorized, moved well, had a clear instruction manual which made it easy to assemble. Because of this, it gained a good reputation; the model was made in a 1:35 scale to become a standard scale modelling scale for military subjects, because it was decided that tank would use a single TYPE 2 battery but would hold two of them. At first, Tamiya had delays and unclear pricing, which led to trouble, they scouted metal-mold craftsmen and in 1964 started their Metal Molds division. Starting in 1966, they transferred a number of craftsmen to the Mold Manufacturing Factory, they gained the know-how and came to make molds for Tamiya. Today, CAD has been introduced into the process. Tamiya was known by their high accuracy of their molds, that influenced the condition of the products after they were assembled. In a time when Tamiya manufactured plastic models using mold craftsmen's skills and earlier plans, other companies' products' detail bolts were represented by simple hemispheric protuberances while Tamiya represented bolts more as hexagonal posts.
This level of detail and thoroughness with which they produced their models earned them a reputation overseas. On the occasion of the release of Tamiya's first plastic model, Shunsaku Tamiya commissioned his younger brother, Masao a first year student at Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music Design Department, to create a new trademark, he created the Star Mark. At first it was decorated with English. In 1960 with the release of the slot car, the design was changed to its current form. Now, the left, red star stands for creativity and passion and the right, blue star stands for youth and sincerity. Tamiya News has been published by Tamiya Model and is an informational, monthly publication about the company's own models. In 1967, when it was started, it was published bimonthly with an occasional special supplement. For a long time it cost 50 yen, but was raised to 100 yen; the unique, thin publications were sent out via standard mail. Introductory articles on new products, model shops, model clubs, conversions were included, as were articles on famous and obscure modelers.
A sister publication with articles focused on miniature vehicles and bullet racers and such, Tamiya Junior News exists as a free publication. Other model-related publications held doll-conversion contests or scenic photo contests, they published the results in booklets. In the UK in 1985, Tamiya Model Magazine was launched, it was published as a quarterly title bimonthly and monthly, as it remains now. The magazine is produced by British publisher'Doolittle Media' and positively promotes new and existing Tamiya products, but includes the model products from other manufacturers. On early products, the box art corresponded to; the box art was done by Shigeru Komatsuzaki, Yoshiyuki Takani, others. As Tamiya's goods' image and world view both broadened, their boxart, which had a feeling of "compositions of achievement" or "a story contained in a picture", became mainstream; this further enhanced its goods' image. However, after 1968's slot racer, products appeared without scenery on a white background.
They had changed the boxart to be more accurate. This experiment turned out to be popular, after that, Tamiya switched to the white