The Dewan Negara is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories. The Dewan Negara reviews legislation, passed by the lower house, the Dewan Rakyat. All bills must be passed by both the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Negara, before they are sent to the King for royal assent. However, if the Dewan Negara rejects a bill, it can only delay the bill's passage by a maximum of a year before it is sent to the King, a restriction similar to that placed on the House of Lords in the United Kingdom. Like the Dewan Rakyat, the Dewan Negara meets at the Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur; the Dewan Negara was meant to act as a check on the Dewan Rakyat and represent the interests of the various states, based on the role played by its counterpart in the United States.
However, the original constitution, which provided for a majority of state-elected senators, has since been modified to make the vast majority of senators instead appointed by the King, thus theoretically providing an avenue for sombre non-partisan reconsideration of bills, more similar to the role of the British House of Lords. Members of the Dewan Negara are referred to as "Senators" in English or "Ahli Dewan Negara" in Malay; the term of office is 3 years and senators may only be re-appointed once, consecutively or non-consecutively. Each of the 13 state legislative assemblies chooses two senators; the King appoints two senators for the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, one for the Federal Territories of Labuan and Putrajaya on the advice of the Prime Minister. Another 40 senators, regardless of their states, are appointed by the King on the Prime Minister's advice. Federally appointed senators must have "rendered distinguished public service or have achieved distinction in the professions, industry, cultural activities or social service or are representative of racial minorities or are capable of representing the interests of aborigines".
The intent of the original Constitution of Malaysia, which provided for only 16 Senators to be appointed by the King was to give the states some say over federal policy. However, subsequent amendments have, according to former Lord President of the Federal Court Tun Mohamed Suffian Mohamed Hashim, acted "contrary to the spirit of the original constitution which established the Dewan Negara specially as a body to protect in the federal Parliament, state interests against federal encroachments". To qualify, a candidate must be a Malaysian citizen at least 30 years of age, residing in the Federation, must not owe allegiance to any foreign state, must not have received a prison sentence of one year or longer, must not have been fined RM2,000 or more. Holders of a full-time profit-making position in the public service are ineligible. There is no requirement to belong to a political party. Parliament is permitted to increase the number of Senators to three per state, reduce the number of appointed Senators, or abolish the post of appointed Senator altogether.
The process of appointment is set out by Article 45 of the Constitution. The Constitution provides for direct election of the 26 Senators from the states, but this clause does not take effect until Parliament passes a resolution bringing it into effect. Senators can be appointed to ministerial posts in the Cabinet by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister. However, the Dewan Negara never supplies the Prime Minister, as the Prime Minister must be a member of the Dewan Rakyat; the Dewan Negara is not affected by the elections for the Dewan Rakyat, senators continue to hold office despite the Dewan Rakyat's dissolution for an election. The Dewan Negara elects a President to preside over sittings of the Dewan Negara, ensure observance of the rules of the house, interpret the Standing Orders of the house should they be disputed. Should the President be absent, his Deputy takes his place; the Dewan Negara may initiate legislation, except for financial and fiscal matters – a regulation directly from the Westminster system.
It may amend legislation, provided it does not deal with financial matters. Any proposed legislation must first be passed by the Dewan Rakyat, it is presented to the Dewan Negara in three readings. At the first, the legislation's proposer presents it to the assembly. At the second, the bill is debated. At the third, a vote is taken whether to reject the bill; the Dewan Negara may not formally reject bills. After the bill has passed or the requisite period is up, the bill is presented to the King for royal assent. If the King demurs or 30 days pass without royal assent, the bill is sent back to Parliament with a list of suggested amendments; the bill must be reapproved by both houses of Parliament. If the King still does not grant royal assent 30 days after it is presented to him again, the bill automatically becomes law, it does not take effect, until it is published in the Government Gazette. Although members of Parliament have legal immunity when it comes to freedom of discussion, a gag rule forbids discussion about certain articles of the Constitution such as the status of Bahasa Malaysia as the national language and Bumiputra privileges in Article 153.
As of 17 July 2018, the Dewan Negara has 51 senat
A frond is a large, divided leaf. In both common usage and botanical nomenclature, the leaves of ferns are referred to as fronds and some botanists restrict the term to this group. Other botanists allow the term frond to apply to the large leaves of cycads and palms. "Frond" is used to identify a large, compound leaf, but if the term is used botanically to refer to the leaves of ferns and algae it may be applied to smaller and undivided leaves. Fronds have particular terms describing their components. Like all leaves, fronds have a stalk connecting them to the main stem. In botany, this leaf stalk is called a petiole, but in regard to fronds it is called a stipe, it supports a flattened blade, the continuation of the stipe into this portion is called the rachis; the blades may be simple, pinnate, or further compound. If compound, a frond may be compound twice, or more. If a frond is pinnate, each leafy segment of the blade is called a pinna, the stalk bearing the pinna a petiolule, the main vein or mid-rib of the pinna a costa.
If a frond is divided into pinnae, the frond is called once pinnate. In some fronds the pinna are further divided into segments; the segments into which each pinna are divided are called pinnules. A frond may be tripinnate, in which case the pinnule divisions are known as ultimate segments. Pinnae may be arranged along the rachis either directly opposite one another or alternating up the stem; the arrangement may change from the base of a blade to the tip, as in the example of Blechnum shown below. Some fronds may be palmate or bifurcate; some ferns, like members of the group Ophioglossales have a unique arrangement. Fern fronds bear sporangia, where the plant's spores are formed on the underside of the pinnae, but sometimes marginally or scattered over the frond; the sporangia are clustered into a sorus. Associated with each sorus in many species is a membranous protective structure called an indusium, an outgrowth of the blade surface that may cover the sporangia; some fern species feature frond dimorphism, in which fertile and sterile fronds differ in appearance and structure.
Fern fronds, as with all leaves, arise from the stem, either directly, or on an outgrowth from the stem termed a phyllopodium. The stem of a typical fern is horizontal on the surface of the ground; these stems. Many fern fronds are coiled into a fiddle-head or crozier, although cycad and palm fronds do not have this pattern of new leaf growth. Fronds may bear hairs, glands, and, in some species, bulblets for vegetative reproduction. Fern sports
Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, Malaysia. It faces the South China Sea. Kuantan is the 17th largest city in Malaysia based on 2010 population, the largest city in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia; the administrative centre of the state of Pahang was relocated to Kuantan on 27 August 1955 from Kuala Lipis and was officiated by HRH Sultan Abu Bakar Ri'ayatuddin Al Muadzam Shah, the Sultan of Pahang. Kuantan in the first century was a part of Chih-Tu empire. In the 11th century, this piece of land was conquered by another small empire called Pheng-Kheng before being taken over by the Siamese during the 12th century. During the 15th century, Kuantan was ruled by the Malacca Empire. Kuantan is said to have been founded in the 1850s; the word "Kuantan" was mentioned by Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir circa 1851/2 as below:... On Thursday night came a boat from Kuantan, they told the ship's crew there's a pirate ship at Tanjung Tujuh, forty of them and at Pulau Kapas, as well at Pulau Redang. In its early days, it was known as Kampung Teruntum.
The village was situated at the mouth of Teruntum River, in front of the current hospital and it was established by Haji Senik and his followers in the 1850s. Early primary economic activities included small businesses; the main evidence of the establishment of the village is the cemetery, situated near Taman Esplanade in front of the current Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan. Towards the late 19th century, arrival of Chinese miners and traders saw the establishment of a township in Kuantan and nearby tin mining areas such as Gambang and Sungai Lembing. Similar to what occurred in other states in Peninsular Malaysia, rubber plantations attracted Indian settlers as well; the sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse took place off the coast of Kuantan on 10 December 1941. The Pahang state government shifted the administrative centre of Pahang from Kuala Lipis to Kuantan in 1955; the urban area of Kuantan city is located in the mukims of Kuala Kuantan and Beserah. Kuantan will see many new developments including: Relocation of the state administration centre to its proposed site in Bandar Indera Mahkota.
Kuantan Port City consist of Kuantan Port expansion, Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park, Kuantan Integrated Biopark East Coast Rail Link from Kuala Lumpur to Kuantan. Kuantan Waterfront Resort City at Tanjung Lumpur. Greater Kuantan development that stretches from Terengganu to Pekan, Pahang. Kuantan features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification; the area experiences two seasons per year, i.e. the "Dry" and Hot season and the Rainy season. The "Dry" and Hot Season occurs when seasonal south-west winds blow from Sumatra toward the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia but are blocked by the Titiwangsa Mountain Range; the temperature may reach 40 degrees Celsius. The Rainy season occurs between October to March. During this season, the north-east winds bring rain to Kuantan, it can get cloudy with a large amount of rainfall. Floods may occur. Areas subject to possible flooding include the road to Sungai Lembing and a few areas along the Kuantan River. In 2006, Kuantan experienced significant air pollution that affected visibility because of the haze blowing in from Sumatra and the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Kuantan's population is 427,515. The population is composed of 3.3 % Indian and 0.3 % other races. The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2010 census. One of its major economic activities is tourism. Domestically, it is famous for the production of handicrafts, batik and salted fish. Kuantan serves as the commercial capital of Pahang. Trade and commerce are important in the economy of the town; the timber industry, ice cream and the fishing industry play major roles in the local economy. There are petrochemical industries in Gebeng, an industrial area about 25 km north of Kuantan. Among the major companies operating in Kuantan are BASF PETRONAS Chemicals, MTBE/Polypropylene Sdn Bhd, BP Chemicals, MTBE, Bredero Shaw Eastman Chemical, Polyplastics, Mieco, KNM, JiKang, W. R. Grace, Wasco Pipeline Coatings, AMC, etc. Kuantan is being identified as a Special Economic Zone; the launch of SEZ in 2009 by Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak is one of the first of its kind in Malaysia. The SEZ is located inside East Coast Economic Region of Greater Kuantan which stretches from the district of Kertih, Terengganu to the district of Pekan, Pahang.
It is now one of the largest SEZs in Asia, covering 390,000 hectares. ECER SEZ serves as a catalyst to fast-track the economic development in the east coast. ECER SEZ aims to generate RM90 billion of investments and provide over 90,000 new jobs by 2020. At the centre of southeast Asia with four seaports and two airports, ECER SEZ will serve good transportation link between Indochina and China; the development master plan will offer special incentives to attract investors. Include tax exemptions and export duties exemptions and 100 per cent investment tax allowance. Kuantan's main sightseeing attraction is the beach at Palm Beach. There are scenic beaches popular among vacationers in the city's vicinity, such as Batu Hitam, Chenor, Pantai Sepat and Cherating. Near Cherating there are turtle sanctuaries. A few k
Pahang Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia. It is the third largest Malaysian state by area and ninth largest by population; the state occupies the basin of the Pahang River, a stretch of the east coast as far south as Endau. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the Peninsular Malaysia, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu to the north, Perak and Negeri Sembilan to the west, Johor to the south, while South China Sea is to the east; the Titiwangsa mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula’s east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at Mount Tahan, 2,187m high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, along the coast there is a 32-kilometre wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Rompin and Mersing rivers.
The state is divided into 11 administrative divisions called daerah - Pekan, Maran, Jerantut, Raub, Cameron Highlands and Bera. The largest district is Jerantut, the main gateway to the Taman Negara national park. Pahang's capital and largest city, Kuantan, is the eighth largest urban agglomerations by population in Malaysia; the royal capital and the official seat of the Sultan of Pahang is located at Pekan. Pekan was the old state capital which its name translates into'the town', it was known as'Inderapura'. Other major towns include Temerloh and its hills resorts of Genting Highlands and Bukit Tinggi; the head of state is the Sultan of Pahang. The government system is modeled on the Westminster parliamentary system; the state religion of Pahang is Islam, but grants freedom to manifest other religions in its territory. Pahang is categorised as medium ethnically diverse state with 0.36 of ethnic diversity index in 2010. It is ranked 5th least diverse among Malaysian states and territories, after Terengganu, Kelantan and Perlis.
Archaeological evidences revealed the existence of human habitation in the area, today Pahang from as early as the paleolithic age. The early settlements developed into an ancient maritime trading state by the 3rd century. In the 5th century, the Old Pahang sent envoys to the Liu Song court. During the time of Langkasuka and Ligor, Pahang was one of the outlying dependencies. In the 15th century, the Pahang Sultanate became an autonomous kingdom within the Melaka Sultanate. Pahang entered into a dynastic union with Johor Empire in the early 17th century and emerged as an autonomous kingdom in the late 18th century. Following the bloody Pahang Civil War, concluded in 1863, the state under Tun Ahmad of the Bendahara dynasty, was restored as a Sultanate in 1881. In 1895, Pahang became a British protectorate along with the states of Perak and Negeri Sembilan. During the World War II, Pahang and other states of Malaya were occupied by the Empire of Japan from 1941 to 1945. After the war, Pahang became part of the temporary Malayan Union before being absorbed into the Federation of Malayas and gained full independence through the federation.
On 16 September 1963, the Malayan federation are being merged into a more larger federation of the Federation of Malaysia with North Borneo and Singapore. The federation was opposed by neighbouring Indonesia, which led to the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation over three years along with the continuous war against local Communist insurgents. Modern Pahang is an economically important state with main activities in services and agricultural sectors; as part of ECER, it is a key region for the manufacturing sector, with the local logistics support network serving as a hub for the entire east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia. Over the years, the state has attracted much investment, both local and foreign, in the mineral sector. Important mineral exports include iron ore, gold and bauxite. Malaysia’s substantial oil and natural gas fields lie offshore in the South China Sea. At one time, timber resources brought much wealth to the state. Large-scale development projects have resulted in the clearing of hundreds of square miles of land for oil palm and rubber plantations and the resettling of several hundred thousand people in new villages under the federal agencies and institutions like FELDA, FELCRA and RISDA.
The naming of Pahang relates to the ancient practice in Malayic culture of defining territorial definitions and apportioning lands by water-sheds. The term'Pahang' in referring to the kingdom thus, is thought to originate from the name of Pahang River. There have been many theories on the origin of the name. According to Malay legend, across the river at Kampung Kembahang where the present stream of the Pahang parts company with the Pahang Tua, in ancient time stretched a huge mahang tree from which the river and kingdom derived their name; this legend agrees with oral tradition among Proto-Malay Jakun peoples that say their forefathers called the country Mahang. Other notable theory was espoused by William Linehan, that relates the early foundation of the kingdom to the settlers from ancient Khmer civilisation, claims its naming origin to the word saamnbahang meaning'tin', based on the discovery of prehistoric tin mines in the state. There were many variations of the name Pahang in history.
The Book of Song referred to the kingdom as Panhuang. The Chinese
Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay, Banjarese, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two official scripts in Brunei and is used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay-dominated areas in Indonesia, it used to be the standard script for the Malay language but has since been replaced by a Latin alphabet, called Rumi. Jawi has since been relegated to a script used for religious and some administrative purposes. Jawi can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, its day-to-day usage is maintained in the more-conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. According to Kamus Dewan, "Jawi" is a term synonymous to'Malay'; the term has been used interchangeably with'Malay' in other terms including Bahasa Jawi or Bahasa Yawi, Masuk Jawi, Jawi pekan or Jawi Peranakan. With verb-building circumfixes men-...-kan, menjawikan refers to the act of translating a foreign text into Malay language. The word Tulisan Jawi that means "Jawi script" is another derivative that carries the meaning'Malay script'.
Prior to the onset of Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still established in the region, the Pallava script was used in writing the Malay language. This is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription; the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent introduction of Arabic writing system began with the arrival of Muslim merchants in the region since the seventh century. Among the oldest archaeological artefacts inscribed with Arabic script are. Islam was spread from the coasts to the interior of the island and in a top-down process in which rulers were converted and introduced more or less orthodox versions of Islam to their peoples; the conversion of King Phra Ong Mahawangsa of Kedah in 1136 and King Merah Silu of Samudra Pasai in 1267 were among the earliest examples. At the early stage of Islamisation, the Arabic script was taught to the people who had newly embraced Islam in the form of religious practices, such as the recitation of Quran as well as salat.
It is not too far-fetched to say that the Arabic script was accepted by the Malay community together with their acceptance of Islam and they didn't take Long to modify the script and adapt it to suit the spoken Classical Malay – it is written from right to left and has 6 sounds not found in Arabic: ca pa ga nga va and nya. Many Arabic characters are never used as they are not pronounced in Malay language, some letters are never joined and some joined obligatorily so; this was the same for the acceptance of Arabic writing in Turkey and India which had taken place earlier and thus, the Jawi script was deemed as the writing of the Muslims. The oldest remains of Malay using the Jawi script have been found on the Terengganu Inscription Stone, dated 702 AH, nearly 600 years after the date of the first recorded existence of Arabic script in the region; the inscription on the stone contains a proclamation issued by the "Sri Paduka Tuan" of Terengganu, urging his subjects to "extend and uphold" Islam and providing 10 basic Sharia laws for their guidance.
This has attested the strong observance of the Muslim faith in the early 14th century Terengganu and the Malay world as a whole. The development of Jawi script was different from that of Pallava writing, restricted to the nobility and monks in monasteries; the Jawi script was embraced by the entire Muslim community regardless of class. With the increased intensity in the appreciation of Islam, scriptures written in Arabic were translated in Malay and written in the Jawi script. Additionally local religious scholars began to elucidate the Islamic teachings in the forms of original writings. Moreover, there were individuals of the community who used Jawi for the writing of literature which existed and spread orally. With this inclusion of written literature, Malay literature took on a more sophisticated form; this was believed to have lasted right up to the 19th century. Other forms of Arabic-based scripts existed in the region, notably the Pegon alphabet of Javanese language in Java and the Serang alphabet of Bugis language in South Sulawesi.
Both writing systems applied extensively the Arabic diacritics and added several letters other than Jawi letters to suit the languages. Due to their limited usage, the spelling system of both scripts did not undergo similar advance developments and modifications as experienced by Jawi script; the script became prominent with the spread of Islam. The Malays held the script in high esteem as it is the gateway to understanding Islam and its Holy Book, the Quran; the use of Jawi script was a key factor driving the emergence of Malay as the lingua f
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
North–South Expressway (Malaysia)
The North–South Expressway is the longest controlled-access expressway in Malaysia with the total length of about 772 km running from Bukit Kayu Hitam in Kedah at the Malaysia–Thailand border to Johor Bahru in southern Peninsular Malaysia near the Malaysia–Singapore border. The expressway links many major cities and towns in western Peninsular Malaysia, acting as the'backbone' of the west coast of the peninsula, it is known as PLUS Expressway, named after the highway's concessionaire, Projek Lebuhraya Utara Selatan Berhad (North South Expressway Project. The company has changed its name to Projek Lebuhraya Usahasama Berhad, a subsidiary of PLUS Malaysia Berhad; this expressway passes through 7 states on the peninsula: Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Kedah. It provides a faster alternative to the old Federal Route 1, thus reducing travelling time between various towns & cities; the expressway is part of the Asian Highway Network of route AH2. The North–South Expressway is divided into 2 main routes – the northern route and the southern route.
Both routes run in parallel with the Federal Route 1 from Johor Bahru to Bukit Kayu Hitam, where both terminus of the FT1 serve as the Kilometre Zero of the E2 and E1 while Kuala Lumpur serves as the final kilometre for both routes. While the E2 ends at the Selangor–Kuala Lumpur border at km 310, the E1 ends at Exit 108 Bukit Lanjan Interchange at km 460 before proceeding to the city via the New Klang Valley Expressway, gazetted as Expressway E1; the E1 and E2 expressways are linked together via the North–South Expressway Central Link E6. While most of the expressway was construction according to JKR R6 design standards being defined in the Arahan Teknik 8/86: A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads, the Jitra–Bukit Kayu Hitam section does not adhere to the JKR R6 standards and was grandfathered as part of the E1 expressway, as the section was constructed before the Arahan Teknik 8/86 was published by the Malaysian Public Works Department in 1986; the North–South Expressway was constructed due to the congestion along the Federal Route 1 as a result of the increasing traffic of the FT1.
In 1977, the government proposed to build a new north–south divided highway as an alternative to the Federal Route 1, which would be known as the North–South Expressway E1 and E2. The proposal to build the new highway was mooted as a result of the severe congestion along the Federal Route 1; because of the large cost of the project, the highway was planned to be privatised and tolled, but none of the constructors being invited by the government were unwilling to do the job due to economic uncertainties at that time and the plan could not be materialised. It was only after Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad became the Prime Minister that the North–South Expressway project was revived; the project was launched in 1981. The Malaysian Highway Authority was established on 24 October 1980; the MHA was established to supervise and execute the design, regulation and maintenance of inter-urban highways, to impose and collect tolls, to enter into contracts and to provide for matters connected therewith. At that time, all construction works of the expressway between 1982 and 1988 was administered by Malaysian Highway Authority before being transferred to Projek Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan Berhad on 13 May 1988.
The construction of the expressway was done in stages. As the construction works continued, segments of the highway were opened to traffic as they were finished to help fund the construction works; the Jitra–Bukit Kayu Hitam section was constructed as an upgrade of the existing Federal Route 1 section into a divided highway with partial access control and at-grade intersections. At that time, the construction of the Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway E2 was ongoing, therefore the expressway would form the pioneer route for the southern route; the Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway E2, opened on 16 June 1982, was the first completed section of the North–South Expressway project and became the first expressway to implement the ticket system followed by the Jitra–Bukit Kayu Hitam section in 1985. Unlike the other sections of the North–South Expressway, the Jitra–Bukit Kayu Hitam section did not comply with the expressway standards defined by the Arahan Teknik 8/86: A Guide on Geometric Design of Roads, only published by the Malaysian Public Works Department in 1986, resulting the section to be grandfathered as a part of the North–South Expressway E1.
The third section being opened to motorists was the Seberang Jaya–Perai section. The section was constructed as a part of the Penang Bridge E36 project; the Seberang Jaya–Perai section, together with the Penang Bridge E36, was opened on 14 September 1985. Meanwhile, the 27.3-km Skudai Highway FT1 was constructed in Johor Bahru as another upgrade of the Federal Route 1 in the south. The toll road had two toll plazas at the Johor Causeway, it was constructed by the Malaysian Public Works Department before being handed over to Malaysian Hig