Anchorage is a unified home rule municipality in the U. S. state of Alaska. With an estimated 298,192 residents in 2016, it is Alaska's most populous city and contains more than 40 percent of the state's total population. All together, the Anchorage metropolitan area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough, had a population of 401,635 in 2016, which accounts for more than half of the state's population. At 1,706 square miles of land area, the city is the fourth largest city by land in the United States and larger than the smallest state, Rhode Island, at 1,212 square miles. Anchorage is in the south-central portion of Alaska, at the terminus of the Cook Inlet, on a peninsula formed by the Knik Arm to the north and the Turnagain Arm to the south; the city limits span 1,961.1 square miles which encompass the urban core, a joint military base, several outlying communities and all of Chugach State Park. Due to its location equidistant from New York City and Tokyo, Anchorage lies within 9 1⁄2 hours by air of nearly 90% of the industrialized world.
For this reason, the Anchorage International Airport is a common refueling stop for many international cargo flights and home to a major FedEx hub, which the company calls a "critical part" of its global network of services. Anchorage has won the All-America City Award four times: in 1956, 1965, 1984–85, 2002, by the National Civic League, it has been named by Kiplinger as the most tax-friendly city in the United States. Russian presence in south-central Alaska was well-established in the 19th century. In 1867, U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward brokered a deal to purchase Alaska from Imperial Russia for $7.2 million, or about two cents an acre. His political rivals lampooned the deal as "Seward's folly," "Seward's icebox," and "Walrussia." In 1888, gold was discovered along Turnagain Arm. Alaska became an organized incorporated United States territory in 1912. Anchorage, unlike every other large town in Alaska south of the Brooks Range, was neither a fishing nor mining camp; the area surrounding Anchorage lacks significant economic metal minerals.
A number of Dena'ina settlements existed along Knik Arm for years. By 1911 the families of J. D. "Bud" Whitney and Jim St. Clair lived at the mouth of Ship Creek and were joined there by a young forest ranger, Jack Brown, his bride, Nellie, in 1912; the city grew from its happenstance choice as the site, in 1914, under the direction of Frederick Mears, of a railroad-construction port for the Alaska Engineering Commission. The area near the mouth of Ship Creek, where the railroad headquarters was located became a tent city. A townsite was mapped out on higher ground to the south of the tent city noted in the years since for its order and rigidity compared with other Alaska town sites. In 1915, territorial governor John Franklin Alexander Strong encouraged residents to change the city's name to one that had "more significance and local associations". In the summer of that year, residents held a vote to change the city's name. However, the territorial government declined to change the city's name.
Anchorage was incorporated on November 23, 1920. Construction of the Alaska Railroad continued until its completion in 1923; the city's economy in the 1920s and 1930s centered on the railroad. Col. Otto F. Ohlson, the Swedish-born general manager of the railroad for nearly two decades, became a symbol of residents' contempt due to the firm control he maintained over the railroad's affairs, which by extension became control over economic and other aspects of life in Alaska. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, the city experienced massive growth as air transportation and the military became important. Aviation operations in Anchorage commenced along the firebreak south of town, which residents used as a golf course. An increase in air traffic led to clearing of a site directly east of town site boundaries starting in 1929. However, Merrill Field still sees a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Elmendorf Air Force Base and Fort Richardson were constructed in the 1940s, served as the city's primary economic engine until the 1968 Prudhoe Bay discovery shifted the thrust of the economy toward the oil industry.
The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure process led to the combining of the two bases to form Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson. On March 27, 1964, the magnitude 9.2 Good Friday earthquake hit Anchorage, killing 115 people and causing $116 million in damages. The earth-shaking event lasted nearly five minutes, it was the world's second-largest earthquake in recorded history. Rebuilding dominated the remainder of the 1960s. In 1968, ARCO discovered oil in Prudhoe Bay on the Alaska North Slope, the resulting oil boom spurred further growth in Anchorage. In 1975, the City of Anchorage and the Greater Anchorage Area Borough merged into the geographically larger Municipality of Anchorage The city continued to grow in the 1980s, capital projects and an aggressive beautification campaign took place. During this time Anchorage became known as the "Gree
Alaska North Slope
The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U. S. state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea being on the western side of Point Barrow, the Beaufort Sea on the eastern. Washington Post The Alaska North Slope region includes the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, with the bulk of Alaska's known petroleum until the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field was discovered in 1968, followed by the Kuparuk River oil field in 1969; the region includes the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which itself has been the subject of controversy surrounding the possibility of petroleum drilling within its boundaries. The petroleum extracted from the region is transferred south by means of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System to Valdez on the Pacific Ocean. Under the North Slope is an ancient seabed – the source of the oil. Within the North Slope, there is a geological feature called the Barrow Arch – a belt of the kind of rock known to be able to serve as a trap for oil.
It runs from the city of Barrow to a point just west of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch were estimated by the USGS in 2005 to hold more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion cubic feet of gas; the source rock for the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field and neighboring reserves is a potential source for tight oil and shale gas – containing "up to 2 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and up to 80 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, according to a 2012 U. S. Geological Survey report."Ira Harkey quotes Noel Wien as stating that in the 1920s, "To keep warm and to cook with, the Eskimo was burning hunks of dark stuff he just picked up on the ground all around his tent. This was oil from seepage under the tundra; the Eskimos had always known about the oil, long before there was any drilling for it." Alaska North Slope is a more expensive waterborne crude.
Since 1987, Alaska North Slope crude production has been in decline. Within the North Slope, only a surface "active layer" of the tundra thaws each season. On top of this permafrost, water flows to sea via shallow, braided streams or settles into pools and ponds. Along the bottom of the Landsat 7 image on the right, the rugged terrain of the Brooks Range mountains is snow-covered in places and exposed in others. Much of the region is located in North Slope Borough. On August 12, 2018, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake hit the region, the most powerful recorded for the Alaskan North Slope. North Slope Borough BP#1993–1995: Hazardous substance dumping Arctic coastal tundra Arctic foothills tundra Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Site DOE report on North Slope Oil and Gas Media related to Alaska North Slope at Wikimedia Commons northslope.org, North Slope Science Initiative official website"North Slope of Alaska". NASA Earth Observatory newsroom. 2006-02-19. Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2009-12-22
Fairbanks is a home rule city and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska. 2016 estimates put the population of the city proper at 32,751, the population of the Fairbanks North Star Borough at 97,121, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Alaska. The Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, located 196 driving miles south of the Arctic Circle. Fairbanks is home to the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the founding campus of the University of Alaska system. Though, as of yet, there is not a known permanent Alaska Native settlement at the site of Fairbanks, Athabascan peoples have used the area for thousands of years. An archaeological site excavated on the grounds of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uncovered a Native camp about 3,500 years old, with older remains found at deeper levels.
From evidence gathered at the site, archaeologists surmise that Native activities in the area were limited to seasonal hunting and fishing as fridge temperatures precluded berry gathering. In addition, archeological sites on the grounds of nearby Fort Wainwright date back well over 10,000 years. Arrowheads excavated from the University of Alaska Fairbanks site matched similar items found in Asia, providing some of the first evidence that humans arrived in North America via the Bering Strait land bridge in deep antiquity. Captain E. T. Barnette founded Fairbanks in August 1901 while headed to Tanacross, where he intended to set up a trading post; the steamboat on which Barnette was a passenger, the Lavelle Young, ran aground while attempting to negotiate shallow water. Barnette, along with his party and supplies, were deposited along the banks of the Chena River 7 miles upstream from its confluence with the Tanana River; the sight of smoke from the steamer's engines caught the attention of gold prospectors working in the hills to the north, most notably an Italian immigrant named Felice Pedroni and his partner Tom Gilmore.
The two met Barnette where he convinced him of the potential of the area. Barnette set up his trading post at the site, still intending to make it to Tanacross. Teams of gold prospectors soon congregated around the newly founded Fairbanks. After some urging by James Wickersham, who moved the seat of the Third Division court from Eagle to Fairbanks, the settlement was named after Charles W. Fairbanks, a Republican senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States, serving under Theodore Roosevelt during his second term. In these early years of settlement, the Tanana Valley was an important agricultural center for Alaska until the establishment of the Matanuska Valley Colonization Project and the town of Palmer in 1935. Agricultural activity still occurs today in the Tanana Valley, but to the southeast of Fairbanks in the communities of Salcha and Delta Junction. During the early days of Fairbanks, its vicinity was a major producer of agricultural goods. What is now the northern reaches of South Fairbanks was the farm of Paul J. Rickert, who came from nearby Chena in 1904 and operated a large farm until his death in 1938.
Farmers Loop Road and Badger Road, loop roads north and east of Fairbanks, were home to major farming activity. Badger Road is named for Harry Markley Badger, an early resident of Fairbanks who established a farm along the road and became known as "the Strawberry King". Ballaine and McGrath Roads, side roads of Farmers Loop Road, were named for prominent local farmers, whose farms were in the immediate vicinity of their respective namesake roads. Despite early efforts by the Alaska Loyal League, the Tanana Valley Agriculture Association and William Fentress Thompson, the editor-publisher of the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, to encourage food production, agriculture in the area was never able to support the population, although it came close in the 1920s; the construction of Ladd Army Airfield starting in 1939, part of a larger effort by the federal government during the New Deal and World War II to install major infrastructure in the territory for the first time, fostered an economic and population boom in Fairbanks which extended beyond the end of the war.
In the 1940s the Canol pipeline extended north from Whitehorse for a few years. The Haines - Fairbanks 626 mile long 8" petroleum products pipeline was constructed during the period 1953-55; the presence of the U. S. military has remained strong in Fairbanks. Ladd became Fort Wainwright in 1960. Fairbanks suffered from several floods in its first seven decades, whether from ice jams during spring breakup or heavy rainfall; the first bridge crossing the Chena River, a wooden structure built in 1904 to extend Turner Street northward to connect with the wagon roads leading to the gold mining camps washed out before a permanent bridge was constructed at Cushman Street in 1917 by the Alaska Road Commission. On August 14, 1967, after record rainfall upstream, the Chena began to surge over its banks, flooding the entire town of Fairbanks overnight; this disaster led to the creation of the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project, which built and operates the 50-foot-high Moose Creek Dam in the Chena River and accompanying 8-mile-long spillway.
The project was designed to prevent a repetition of the 1967 flood by being able to
Galena is a city in the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 470, with a 2016 estimate of 488 inhabitants. Galena was established in 1918, a military airfield was built adjacent to the city during World War II; the city was incorporated in 1971. The Koyukon Athabascans moved as the wild game migrated. In the summer many families floated on rafts to the Yukon River to fish for salmon. There were 12 summer fish camps located on the Yukon River between the Koyukuk River and the Nowitna River. Galena was established in 1918 near an Athabascan fish camp called Henry's Point, it became a supply and point for nearby lead ore mines that opened in 1918 and 1919. In 1941 and 1942, during World War II, a military air field was built adjacent to the civilian airport, the two facilities shared the runway and flight line facilities; this air field was designated Galena Air Force Station shortly after the split of the United States Air Force from the United States Army, which occurred as a result of the National Security Act of 1947.
During the 1950s, the construction of additional military facilities at Galena and the nearby Campion Air Force Station, in support of Galena's mission as a forward operating base under the auspices of the 5072nd Air Base Group, headquartered at Elmendorf Air Force Base, near Anchorage, provided improvements to the airport and the local infrastructure, causing economic growth for the area. Following the end of the Cold War, in 1993, operation of Galena Air Force Station was turned over to a contractor, all military personnel were withdrawn with only small groups of active personnel visiting the base on an as-needed basis; the former military facility remains in use as a forward operating location, used by the military. This use came under scrutiny by the Base Realignment and Closure Committee in the late 2000s and was closed October 1, 2010; the Air Force retains responsibility for toxin cleanup in the area and engineers from Eielson Air Force Base in Fairbanks still visit the site on occasion.
The base is now controlled by the City of Galena, the Galena School District and the Alaska Department of Transportation. The Alaska Wing of the Civil Air Patrol was pursuing retaining one of the F-16 fighter hangars as a CAP facility for the CAP Wing in Galena, the "Yukon Squadron"; the City of Galena gained notoriety in 2011 when it was noted in media reports as being the US community which received the most benefits from lobbying efforts. The town evaded bankruptcy by aggressively lobbying for state and federal funds for the GILA boarding school in the town, which produced funds that turned the city's finances around. In May 2013, Galena suffered a freak catastrophic flood when the spring breakup on the Yukon River caused an ice jam 20 miles downstream, backing up the river and affecting 90% of homes in the city; this flood was on the scale of a flood never seen before by Galena residents. In the part of town closest to the river, houses were submerged to the roofs in water, properties on higher ground suffered damage also.
Most of the residents had to evacuate in thanks to the efforts of the local airline, volunteer missionary pilots, the Alaska National Guard. Some of the residents chose to stay behind and took refuge in the few last remaining dry parts of town; the flood dike the Air Force built around the runway managed to keep the river from inundating the runway and GILA. Efforts are underway to help Galena rebuild, with the assistance of the Federal Emergency Management Agency and volunteer groups. Galena is located at 64°44′26″N 156°53′8″W. Galena is located on the north bank of the Yukon River, 45 mi east of Nulato; the Innoko National Wildlife Refuge is southwest of Galena. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.0 square miles, of which, 17.9 square miles of it is land and 6.1 square miles of it is water. Galena is inaccessible by road to other parts of Alaska. Residents rely on river cargo in the brief summer season for the bulk of its needs, by air travel to access the outside world.
Galena first appeared on the 1890 U. S. Census as the unincorporated native village of "Notaloten", it would not appear again until 1930. It formally incorporated as a city in 1971; as of the census of 2010, there were 470 people, 190 households, 123 families residing in the city. The population density was 26.3 people per square mile. There were 264 housing units at an average density of 14.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 29.4% White, 0.0% Black or African American, 63.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 6.2% from two or more races. 2.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 29.3% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 20 to 29, 20.8% from 30 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. There were 229 females, 166 of whom were 18 years and over, 241 males, 171 of whom were 18 years and over; the median income for a household in the city was $60,313, the median income for a family was $62,917.
The per capita income for the city was $26,551. About 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line and 18.9% were below 125 percent of the poverty line. The headquarters for the Koyukuk/Innoko/Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge is located in Galena; the City of Galena is incorporated as a first-class city, governed by a city council. The city's mayor is Jon Korta; the Louden Tribal Counc
The Alaskan Athabascans, Alaskan Athabaskans, Alaskan Athapaskans are Alaska Native peoples of the Northern Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. They are the original inhabitants of the interior of Alaska and neighboring Yukon and Northwest Territories of Canada to the east. In Alaska, where they are the oldest, there are eleven groups identified by the languages they speak; the word Tinneh was employed to designate the Alaskan Athabaskans, this word being taken from their own language Dinaa or Dena and signifying "men" or "people". The Alaskan Athabascan culture is an inland river fishing and hunter-gatherer culture; the Alaskan Athabascans have a matrilineal system in which children belong to the mother's clan, with the exception of the Yupikized Athabaskans. The Alaska Dene are divided into eleven tribal groups, some of which are found in the adjacent Yukon and Northwest-Territories. Koyukon Kaiyuhkhotana or Lower Yukon Koyukon Koyukukhotana or Koyukuk River Koyukon Yukonikhotana / Unakhotana or Upper Yukon Koyukon 2.
Gwich'in or Kutchin 3. Hän or Han 4. Holikachuk or Innoko 5. Deg Hit'an or Ingalik 6. Upper Kuskokwim or Kolchan / Goltsan Tanana Athabaskans 7. Tanana / Lower Tanana and / or Middle Tanana 8. Tanacross or Tanana Crossing 9. Upper Tanana 10. Dena'ina or Tanaina 11. Ahtna or Copper River Athabasken (Atna Hwt'aene - ″People along the'Atna' River, i.e. Copper River″, auch meist jedoch Koht'aene / Hwt'aene - „Bewohner einer Gegend“ oder „Volk entlang, vom...“, um durch eine Ortsangabe die Zugehörigkeit zu einer regionalen Band/Gruppe zu bestimmen.
The Chena River is a 100-mile tributary of the Tanana River in the Interior region of the U. S. state of Alaska. It flows west from the White Mountains to the Tanana River near the city of Fairbanks, built on both sides of the river; the Tanana empties into the 2,300-mile long Yukon River. Named tributaries of the Chena River include the North Fork, South Fork, West Fork, Middle Fork and the Little Chena River; the Chena River State Recreation Area surrounds much of the upper half of the main stem. The Chena River is used for recreational boating. During the winter months, it is traveled by snowmachines and mushers; the Chena River Lakes Flood Control Project dam is about 40 miles up the Chena River from Fairbanks. The dam was built in response to the 1967 Fairbanks flood; when closed, the dam impounds water and, when the inflow is high enough, diverts it about 8 miles to the Tanana River near North Pole, upstream of Fairbanks and the natural mouth of the Chena. The Chena River supports populations of many fish species, including Arctic grayling, chum salmon, humpback whitefish, king salmon, least cisco, longnose suckers, northern pike, round whitefish, sheefish.
Accessible from Fairbanks, the Chena is the most popular sport-fishing river in interior Alaska. Overfishing for grayling reduced their number in the Chena to "dangerous levels" by the mid-1980s. In the 21st century, sport fishing for grayling, which grow in length to 18 inches in the upper river, is limited to catch and release. Easy access to the river from Chena Hot Springs Road, the Chena River Recreation Area, four bridges, elsewhere make a wide variety of float trips possible. Most of the river is rated Class I on the International Scale of River Difficulty. High water increases these difficulty ratings. Dangers on the North Fork include a much narrower channel than that of the main stem, possible logjams, overhanging vegetation, shallows, any of which may require a portage. Dangers below that include possible overhangs and channel braiding. In the early season, boaters may encounter ice jams anywhere along the river. List of rivers of Alaska
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance, a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are flammable and surface active; the general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, may be volatile or non-volatile, they are used for food, medical purposes and the manufacture of many types of paints and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious rituals as purifying agents. First attested in English 1176, the word oil comes from Old French oile, from Latin oleum, which in turn comes from the Greek ἔλαιον, "olive oil, oil" and that from ἐλαία, "olive tree", "olive fruit"; the earliest attested forms of the word are the Mycenaean Greek, e-ra-wo and, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants and other organisms through natural metabolic processes.
Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids and similar chemicals found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins and alkaloids. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils, they have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals. Crude oil, or petroleum, its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil; the name "mineral oil" is a misnomer, in that minerals are not the source of the oil—ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote, because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, sands.
Mineral oil refers to several specific distillates of crude oil. Several edible vegetable and animal oils, fats, are used for various purposes in cooking and food preparation. In particular, many foods are fried in oil much hotter than boiling water. Oils are used for flavoring and for modifying the texture of foods. Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as butter and other types, or plant oils from the olive, maize and many other species. Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth. See hair conditioner. Oil has been used throughout history as a religious medium, it is considered a spiritually purifying agent and is used for anointing purposes. As a particular example, holy anointing oil has been an important ritual liquid for Judaism and Christianity. Color pigments are suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for paints; the oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD. Oils are used for instance in electric transformers.
Heat transfer oils are used both as coolants, for heating and in other applications of heat transfer. Given that they are non-polar, oils do not adhere to other substances; this makes them useful as lubricants for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more used as machine lubricants than biological oils are. Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980, it is a long-running myth that spermaceti from whales has still been used in NASA projects such as the Hubble Telescope and the Voyager probe because of its low freezing temperature. Spermaceti is not an oil, but a mixture of wax esters, there is no evidence that NASA has used whale oil; some oils burn in liquid or aerosol form, generating light, heat which can be used directly or converted into other forms of energy such as electricity or mechanical work. To obtain many fuel oils, crude oil is pumped from the ground and is shipped via oil tanker or a pipeline to an oil refinery.
There, it is converted from crude oil to diesel fuel, fuel oils, jet fuel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. A 42-US-gallon barrel of crude oil produces 10 US gallons of diesel, 4 US gallons of jet fuel, 19 US gallons of gasoline, 7 US gallons of other products, 3 US gallons split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases, 2 US gallons of heating oil; the total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to 45 US gallons. Not all oils used as fuels are mineral oils, see biodiesel and vegetable oil fuel. In the 18th and 19th cent