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Tanganyika

Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964. It first gained independence from the United Kingdom on 9 December 1961 as a state headed by Queen Elizabeth II before becoming a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations a year later. After signing the Articles of Union on 22 April 1964 and passing an Act of Union on 25 April, Tanganyika joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on Union Day, 26 April 1964; the new state changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania within a year. Tanganyika consisted of the Tanganyika Territory, the British share of German East Africa, which the British took under a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, and, transformed into a United Nations Trust Territory after World War II; the next largest share of German East Africa was taken into Belgian trusteeship becoming present-day Rwanda and Burundi. The Tanganyika Independence Act 1961 transformed the United Nations trust territory into the independent sovereign state of Tanganyika.

The British monarch Elizabeth II remained head of state as Queen of Tanganyika and Tanganyika shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch's constitutional roles were delegated to the Governor-General of Tanganyika; the royal succession was governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701. Tanganyika adopted a new constitution in 1962 that abolished the monarchy, with the National Assembly drastically revising the new Constitution to favor a strong executive branch of government, namely a president. Tanganyika became a republic within the Commonwealth, with Julius Nyerere as President of Tanganyika. After the Union of Zanzibar and Tanganyika, an interim Constitution amended from the 1962 Constitution became the governing document. Although meant to be temporary, the Constitutions remained effective until 1977; the unification of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964 followed Nyerere's principle of Ujamaa which entailed a strong "territorial nationalism." Postage stamps and postal history of Tanganyika Tanganyika laughter epidemic

Hindu saints

There is no formal canonization process in Hinduism, but over time many men and women have reached the status of saints among their followers and among Hindus in general. Hindu saints have renounced the world, are variously called gurus, rishis and other names. Many people conflate the terms "saint" and "sant", because of their similar meanings; the term sant is a Sanskrit word "which differs from the false cognate,'saint'..." Traditionally, "sant" referred to devotional Bhakti poet-saints of two groups: Vaishnava and a group, referred to as "Saguna Bhakti". Some Hindu saints are given god-like status, being seen as incarnations of Vishnu and other aspects of God, sometimes many years after their deaths; this explains another common name for Hindu saints, "godmen". Hindu saints have come from many walks of life including the blind, former criminals and former concubines. List of Hindu gurus and saints

Protocol on Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices

The Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices is a United Nations treaty that restricts the use of land mines, remotely delivered mines, booby traps. It is Protocol II to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons; the Protocol prohibits the use of land mines, remotely delivered mines, or booby traps to kill civilians or to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering to soldiers. It prohibits the use of booby traps that are "attached to or associated with" any of the following features: internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals; the Protocol applies to both internal armed conflicts. It prohibits the use of their transfer; the original Protocol was an annex to the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and entered into force on 2 December 1983. The Protocol was amended in Geneva on 3 May 1996; the amended version entered into force on 3 December 1998 and as of November 2018 has 105 state parties, which includes 104 United Nations member states plus the Holy See.

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