Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Chefchaouen known as Chaouen, is a city in northwest Morocco. It is the chief town of the province of the same name, is noted for its buildings in shades of blue. Chefchaouen is situated just inland from Tétouan; the city was founded in 1471 as a small kasbah by Moulay Ali ibn Rashid al-Alami, a descendant of Abd as-Salam al-Alami and Idris I, through them, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Al-Alami founded the city to fight the Portuguese invasions of northern Morocco. Along with the Ghomara tribes of the region, many Moriscos and Jews settled here after the Spanish Reconquista in medieval times. In 1920, the Spanish seized Chefchaouen to form part of Spanish Morocco. Spanish troops imprisoned Abd el-Krim in the kasbah from 1916 to 1917, after he talked with the German consul Dr. Walter Zechlin. After defeating him with the help of the French, Abd el-Krim was deported to Réunion in 1926. Spain returned the city after the independence of Morocco in 1956. Chefchaouen – or Chaouen, as it is called by Moroccans – is a popular tourist destination because of its proximity to Tangier and the Spanish enclave of Ceuta.
There are two hundred hotels catering to the summer influx of European tourists. One distinction possessed by Chefchaouen is its blue-rinsed buildings. Chefchaouen is a popular shopping destination as well, as it offers many native handicrafts that are not available elsewhere in Morocco, such as wool garments and woven blankets; the goat cheese native to the area is popular with tourists. The countryside around it has a reputation for being a prolific source of kief; the Chefchaouen region is one of the main producers of cannabis in Morocco. A nearby attraction is one of the deepest caves in Africa. Chefchaouen's blue walls are a popular subject of interest. There are several theories as to. One popular theory is that the blue keeps mosquitos away, another is that Jews introduced the blue when they took refuge from Hitler in the 1930s; the blue is said to symbolize the sky and heaven, serve as a reminder to lead a spiritual life. However, according to some locals, the walls were mandated to be painted blue to attract tourists at some point in the 1970s.
The growing tourist industry is geared towards Spanish tourists, who are numerous during great Catholic feasts like Semana Santa and Christmas. There are a number of distinct mosques in the town. Aside from the mosque at Place Uta Hammam in the medina, there is a mosque dedicated to the patron saint of northern Morocco's Jebalah region, Moulay Abdeslam Ben Mchich Alami, his tomb and the village surrounding it is by the way an hour's drive or so from Chefchaouen on the old road to Larache. There is a ruined mosque built by the Spanish, with stairs still in the tower; the beauty of Chefchaouen's mountainous surroundings are enhanced by the contrast of the brightly painted medina. It is this beauty and the relaxed atmosphere of the town that makes Chefchaouen attractive to visitors; the main square in the medina is lined with cafes and filled to the brim with locals and tourist mingling easily. Another reason why backpackers love Chefchaouen is the easy availability of drugs. Tourism in Chaouen is driven by its reputation as center of the marijuana plantations region in north Morocco.
During the summer 200 hotels cater to the influx of European tourists. Issaquah, United States Vejer de la Frontera, Spain Ronda, Spain Kunming, China Testour, Tunisia Beni Mellal, Morocco Chaouen Info - Information about the city and province of Chefchaouen or Xauen Lexicorient Town Chefchaouen in the north of Morocco Photos of Chefchaouen's blue architecture The blue city - Chefchaouen
Kenitra is a city in northern Morocco known as Port Lyautey. It is a port on the Sbu river, has a population in 2014 of 431,282, is one of the three main cities of the Rabat-Sale-Quneitra region and the capital of Kenitra Province. During the Cold War Kenitra's U. S. Naval Air Facility served as a stopping point in North Africa; the history of the city begins with the foundation of a trading-post by the Phoenicians, known back as Thamusida. Under the Antonine dynasty, a Venus temple was built there. Before the French protectorate, there was only Kasbah Mahdiyya in the area where the modern city can today be found. In March 1912 the French government and the Sultan of Morocco, Abd al-Hafid, signed the Treaty of Fez; because of his growing unpopularity, the Sultan asked the French government for protection against the Berber rebel tribes surrounding Fez. France appointed Hubert Lyautey resident-general in Morocco. General Lyautey restored order to the country after crushing the tribal uprising. After safely moving the Sultan from Fez to the current capital city, Lyautey began his task of civilian administration.
One of the first preoccupations of General Lyautey was to build ports along the inhabitable Atlantic coast where there were no natural harbors. He established Kenitra in 1912 as town; the port at Kenitra, at the mouth of the Sebou river, was opened in 1913. It soon became the best river port in Morocco. Kenitra draws its name from a culvert built at Fouarat lake upstream of the kasbah; this culvert was destroyed in 1928. In 1933, the French named the locale "Port Lyautey", it was renamed "Quneitra" in 1956. Quneitra has grown to be a shipping centre for agricultural produce, fish and lead and zinc ores; the city’s industrial area lies upstream of the port. In November 1942, after Operation Torch, the Americans captured the Port Lyautey French fighter base as a military base, named Craw Field; the Navy ran the base until 1947, when the State Department negotiated reversion of control to France. In 1950, a $23,000,000 expansion was authorized, but the Korean War diverted resources. In the 1950s, nearly 10,000 persons were on the base making it the largest aggregation of Americans in any one overseas base outside Japan.
The base at Kenitra was expanded to become a U. S. Naval Air Station; the base was shared by both the Morocco through the Cold War. A small Navy communications out-station at Sidi Yahia closed in the late 1970s; the Air Station was closed in 1991. Kenitra has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Mdina Khabazate The Cigogne The cite Modern city Mimosa Ville Haute Popular districts Saknia Wuled Oujih Maghrib al Arabi Residential districts Bir Rami Ismailia Val fleury There is a French international school, Groupe scolaire Honoré-de-Balzac, serving moyenne section through collège. Université Ibn-Tofail ENCG Kénitra HECI Kénitra ENSA Kénitra The National Route 1 and the A1 motorway pass through Kenitra and connect it to Rabat-Salé in the south-west and to Larache in the north-east; the city is served by two railway stations: Kenitra-Medina. A shuttle train, TNR, connects every 30 minutes, to Rabat and Casablanca. A high-speed rail line to Tangier is planned to be completed in 2018. In 1938, a group of Kenitra natives created KAC.
This group of soccer lovers wanted to resist French domination in sports in Morocco. The team, made of Kenitra natives, succeeded in reaching the premier Moroccan soccer league in 1956. In 1960, KAC won its first championship league of Morocco. KAC embarked in a journey of glories by winning the 1973-81-82 championship leagues and the 1961 throne cup. Ahmed Souiri was coach. KAC has produced many international players. Bouliahiaoui and Khalifa were among the players who helped the Moroccan national soccer team qualify for the second round of the World Cup finals in Mexico in 1986. Mohammed Boussati still holds a national record of goals by scoring 25 goals in one soccer championship season in 1981-82, its home is the Kenitra Municipal Stadium. The KAC Kénitra was a successful basketball team during the 70s and 80s. Kenitra was the birthplace of: Saïd Aouita, Olympic athlete Amina Aït Hammou, Olympic athlete Youssef Chippo, International football player Margie Cox, American R&B Singer Mohamed Sijelmassi and physician David Bitan, Israeli politician David Charlebois, American Airlines Pilot, First Officer of American Airlines Flight 77.
Bouknadel Battle for Port Lyautey Entry in Lexicorient Pictures of U. S. Naval base facilities in Kenitra Histoire de Kenitra / Port-Lyautey en images de 1911 au 1956
The Loukkos River is a major river in northern Morocco. Although it is short, the river is the third largest in Morocco with an average flow of 50 m³/s; the Loukkos river takes source in the Rif Mountains and flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the city of Larache. The Loukkos river basin is 3,730 km² and contains one of the most fertile and productive agricultural lands in the country. One of the river's tributaries, Oued Makhazine, bears great historical importance since it witnessed one of the most decisive battles in the history of Morocco: the Battle of Alcácer Quibir. In the battle on the 4th of August, 1578, the joint army of deposed Moroccan monarch Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi and his ally, King Sebastian of Portugal, was defeated by the army of the new Moroccan sultan from the same Saadi dynasty; the Lukkus is the largest river in northern Morocco. Although it is short, this river carries the third largest water flow in Morocco; the river can cause great flooding in times of flood. In 1775 the river appeared on a map by Tomás Vargas with the denomination of "River Lucos.
For a time the river formed a border between the French imperial lands. Ancient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill on the right bank of the Loukkos River, just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache; the site lies within the urban perimeter of Larache, about three kilometres inland from the mouth of the river and the Atlantic Ocean. From its 80 metres above the plain the site dominates the marshes. Lixus was established as a Phoenician colony, subsequent to Phoenician navigators traversing the Alboran Sea to reach the Atlantic Ocean. Among the ruins at Lixus there are baths, temples, 4th century AD walls, a mosaic floor, the intricate remains of the Capitol Hill. Further upstream, El-Ksar el Kebir, was established as a Carthaginian colony which after the Punic Wars came under Roman control with the name Oppidum Novum The confluence of the Loukkos River and its tributaries, the al-Mahazin, was the site of a significant battle in 1578 - the Battle of Alcácer Quibir, in which two rival claimant to the throne of Morocco were both killed as was the king of Portugal.
Sebastian of Portugal, king Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I Saadi and his rival Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi were all killed and ended Portugal's ambitions to invade and Christianize the Maghreb.. One of the main reasons for the defeat of the Portuguese troops was the rise in the water Loukkos River during the battle; as a result of this battle, Portugal lost its status as a great power. In 1970 Thor Heyerdahl visited Loukkos River estuary, studied the reed boats, manufactured by local fishermen in his plans to sail "Ra II. According to Heyerdahl ancient Phoenician and Egyptian sailors who became the founders of Mesoamerican cultures. Set out from somewhere like the Lukkus
Oriental is one of the twelve regions of Morocco, located in the eastern part of the country. It covers an area of 90,127 km² and has a population of 2,314,346; the capital and the largest city is Oujda, the second largest city is Nador. The region includes one prefecture. Mohamed Mhidia became wali of the region in 2015. A majority of the population of Oriental speak Moroccan Darija Arabic as a second language. A large minority speak the Rif-Berber language as a first language. Small numbers speak Eastern Middle Atlas Tamazight and Figuig Tamazight, principally in the south of Oriental; the English name Oriental is derived from the French term L'Oriental and comes directly from the Latin orientalis, "of the east", being that the region is located in the east of Morocco. The Arabic name Ash-Sharq means "the east", as does the Berber name Tagmuḍant. Oriental is situated in the eastern part of the country, with a northern coastline on the Mediterranean Sea; the regions of Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate, Fès-Boulemane and Meknès-Tafilalet lie to its west, with the Algerian provinces of Tlemcen and Naâma to its east and Béchar to the south.
Melilla, a Spanish autonomous city borders the region. In 2015, Oriental was expanded to include Guercif Province; the region is made up into the following prefectures and provinces: Berkane Province Driouch Province Figuig Province Guercif Province Jerada Province Nador Province Oujda-Angad Prefecture Taourirt Province Oriental web portal in French Oujda entry in lexicorient Figuig in English and Arab
Rincón, M'Diq or Mediek is a Mediterranean town in Morocco located between Ceuta and Tétouan. It borders Allyene in the west, it is the seat of M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture. M'diq covers an area of 480 hectares, it recorded a population of 56,227 in the 2014 Moroccan census and hosts more than 100,000 tourists each year. SNIM is one of the most important tourist attractions, it is organised once a year by the M'Diq Royal Yachting Club and sponsored by several commercial firms. It is significant to all the surrounding socio-cultural activities; the town's harbour is split into the other for fishing. Both have been expanded in order to improve tourist offerings and to increase the harbour's capacity. M'Diq is a popular weekend destination for residents of nearby Ceuta. Boats up to 50 metres long with a depth of nearly five metres can be moored. Media related to M'diq at Wikimedia Commons Nador Rif News www.ariffino.net Non-official website
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. Many exclaves are enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory, only surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states; the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be conveniently approached—in particular, by wheeled traffic—only through the territory of another country.
Pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. Many pene-exclaves border their own territorial waters, such as Point Roberts, Washington. A pene-enclave can exist on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, accessible only from Germany to the north; the word enclave is French and first appeared in the mid-15th century as a derivative of the verb enclaver, from the colloquial Latin inclavare. It was a term of property law that denoted the situation of a land or parcel of land surrounded by land owned by a different owner, that could not be reached for its exploitation in a practical and sufficient manner without crossing the surrounding land. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land; the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526.
The term enclave began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, etc. that were surrounded by alien territory. This French word entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept, although local terms have continued to be used. In India, the word "pocket" is used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were called detachments or detached parts, national enclaves as detached districts or detached dominions. In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars; the word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a logically extended back-formation of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains. In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states.
Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory. Residing in an enclave within another country has involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, provision of utilities and health services, host nation cooperation. Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, 2015, when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged 162 first-order enclaves; this exchange thus de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all. The residents in these enclaves had complained of being stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram–Angarpota enclave remained. For illustration, in the figure, A1 is a semi-enclave. Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C; the territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B.
The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state, enclosed within the territory of another state. To distinguish the parts of a state enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves. A true enclave cannot be reached without passing through the territory of a single other state that surrounds it. Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called'true enclaves'". Two examples are Büsingen am Hochrhein, a true enclave of Germany, Campione d'Italia, a true enclave of Italy, both of which are surrounded by Switzerland; the definition of a territory comprises territorial waters. In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime (those surrounded by ter