Oriental is one of the twelve regions of Morocco, located in the eastern part of the country. It covers an area of 90,127 km² and has a population of 2,314,346; the capital and the largest city is Oujda, the second largest city is Nador. The region includes one prefecture. Mohamed Mhidia became wali of the region in 2015. A majority of the population of Oriental speak Moroccan Darija Arabic as a second language. A large minority speak the Rif-Berber language as a first language. Small numbers speak Eastern Middle Atlas Tamazight and Figuig Tamazight, principally in the south of Oriental; the English name Oriental is derived from the French term L'Oriental and comes directly from the Latin orientalis, "of the east", being that the region is located in the east of Morocco. The Arabic name Ash-Sharq means "the east", as does the Berber name Tagmuḍant. Oriental is situated in the eastern part of the country, with a northern coastline on the Mediterranean Sea; the regions of Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate, Fès-Boulemane and Meknès-Tafilalet lie to its west, with the Algerian provinces of Tlemcen and Naâma to its east and Béchar to the south.
Melilla, a Spanish autonomous city borders the region. In 2015, Oriental was expanded to include Guercif Province; the region is made up into the following prefectures and provinces: Berkane Province Driouch Province Figuig Province Guercif Province Jerada Province Nador Province Oujda-Angad Prefecture Taourirt Province Oriental web portal in French Oujda entry in lexicorient Figuig in English and Arab
Regions of Morocco
Regions are the highest administrative divisions in Morocco. Since 2015, Morocco administers 12 regions, including one that lies within the disputed territory of Western Sahara and two that lie within it; the regions are subdivided into a total of 75 second-order administrative divisions, which are prefectures and provinces. A region is governed by a directly elected regional council; the president of the council is responsible for carrying out the council's decisions. Prior to the 2011 constitutional reforms, this was the responsibility of the Wali, the representative of the central government appointed by the King, who now plays a supporting role in the administration of the region. On 3 January 2010, the Moroccan government established the Consultative Commission for the Regionalization, which aimed to decentralize power to the regions, confer a greater autonomy to the regions coinciding with the Western Sahara; the commission published provisional names and numbers for the new regions, their names were fixed in the Bulletin Officiel dated 5 March 2015.
The new regional councils elected their presidents on 14 September 2015 and regional governors were appointed on 13 October 2015. A.^ Lies or within the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Between 1997 and 2010, Morocco had 16 regions; the entirety of Oued Ed-Dahab-Lagouira, the vast majority of Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, part of Guelmim-Es Semara were situated within the disputed territory of Western Sahara. The sovereignty of Western Sahara is disputed between Morocco and the Polisario Front which claims the territory as the independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Most of the region is administered by Morocco as its Southern Provinces; the Polisario Front, based in headquarters at Tindouf in south western Algeria, controls only those areas east of the Moroccan Wall. Before 1997, Morocco was divided into 7 regions: Central, North-Central, South-Central, Tansift. Administrative divisions of Morocco Administrative divisions of Morocco ISO 3166-2:MA ISO 3166-2:EH
Mohammedia is a port city on the west coast of Morocco between Casablanca and Rabat in the region of Casablanca-Settat. It hosts the most important oil refinery of Morocco, the Samir refinery, which makes it the center of the Moroccan petroleum industry, it has a population of 208,612 according to the 2014 Moroccan census. The harbour, at what is now Mohammédia, was named Fédala; this name comes from the Arabic words Fadl Allah which means "favor of God". Traces still exist of its business role under the Almoravid dynasty, it was frequented in the 14th and 15th centuries by merchant ships from Europe seeking cereals and dried fruits. In 1773, the Sultan Sidi Mohammed ben Abdallah made of Fédala a grains warehouse of Tamasna province and built the Kasbah to protect the shops for traders, he built the white masjid Al Atik as well. During the precolonial period, competition between the Western powers to ensure the economical exploitation of Africa was behind the merger of Europeans interests in the ports of Morocco.
In the region of Fédala, the German family Mannesmann acquired a large area of land. The Treaty of November 4, 1911 between France and Germany on the partition of Africa forced the Mannesmann family to abandon the lands they held for Georges and Jacques Hersent, two French industrialists, who noticed the existence of a natural bay, valuable for the creation of a large port at low cost; the group Hersent created the Franco-Moroccan company in 1912 and founded the port company in 1914 that took a leading part in the development of Fédala. The rapid growth of the city started around the port, which allowed the development of various industries such as canning fishery products, agro-industry plants, textile, etc.. The seaside town took shape in 1925 and the Esplanade was built in 1938; the construction of the sea line in 1951 made of Fédala the first and most modern oil port in North Africa. The church of Saint James, which overlooks the main square, was erected in 1934 by Jean and Georges Hersent, in memory of their son and nephew Jacques, who died at the Marne during the First World War.
The town has a school "Jacques Hersent", founded in 1929 by Georges Hersent, which claims to be named after his son Jacques, drowned in Mohammedia. US Army invaded Fedala from the Atlantic on November 1942 as part of operation Torch; the invasion was carried out by the Center Attack Group of the Western Task Force which landed on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. The landing began on 4 AM. Fedala was renamed Mohammedia on 25 June 1960 in honor of King Mohammed V, the restorer of Moroccan independence, on the occasion of laying the foundation stone of the Samir oil refinery; the new name indicates the modern character of this city. Today, the city serves as a manufacturing center. Mohammedia is a resort city containing a golf and tennis club and many other activities. In addition, people call it madinate lwouroude wa riyada which means "city of flowers and sports". Within the past decade, Mohammedia's beaches "Sablet & Mimosa" have drawn many people from Casablanca, its nearby cities. Sablet and Mimosa have been under development, building new beach condos, villas, as well as more investments in small businesses which creates more jobs.
Summer is the best season in Mohammedia being that there is more involvement due to an increase of the population. There is a wide range of outdoor activities including basketball, soccer and fishing; the night life is a great experience to be part of, including several cafes, clubs, a boardwalk. A couple of beach residential areas that are good place for vacation are "Residence of Oubaha" and "Palm Beach." There are several other projects going on in the city of Mohammedia as well as infrastructure throughout the city. Mohammédia lies along the Atlantic Ocean 24 kilometres northeast of Casablanca, it is located between the outlets of the rivers Oued El-Maleh and Oued Nfifikh and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Ben Slimane Province to the east and south, the prefecture of Sidi Bernoussi-Zenata to the west. Mohammédia has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate; the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean influences on the city climate and makes its winter soft and warm, its summer hot and cool.
Mohammédia enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year with measurable precipitation annually. The period of November through April is mild and rainy with average high temperatures of 17 to 21 °C and lows of 8 to 12 °C, however temperatures can drop to around 2 °C in the morning, or be as high as 24 °C for a few days during winter; the period of May through October is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 22 to 26 °C and lows of 15 to 20 °C, but temperatures can exceed 32 °C and reach 40 °C. Most rainfall occurs from November to April, the average annual precipitation is around 432 mm. Precipitation is most in the form of light rain showers, but sometimes there is heavy rainfall and thunderstorms; the province is divided administratively into the following: The population of Mohammédia is growing at a fast rate. The city, which had a population of only 500 people in 1914, is home to about 204,000 people; the population of the prefecture of Mohammédia is estimated at 336,000 inhabitants with an average population density of 5,000 inhabitants per square kilometre.
All population groups of the Moroccan Kingdom are represented in this region. The first inhabitants of the city were the Zenata tribes, of which only few remain, divid
Figuig is a province in the Oriental Region of Morocco. Its capital is Bouarfa, it recorded a population of 138,325 in the 2014 Moroccan census, up from 129,430 in 2004. The major cities and towns are: Bni Tadjite Bouanane Bouarfa Figuig Talssint Tendrara Media related to Figuig Province at Wikimedia Commons
Nador is a province in the Oriental Region of Morocco. Its population in 2004 was 728,634, it is situated east from west from Berkane Province. The major cities and towns are: Al Aaroui Beni Ensar / Aït Nsar Bni Chiker Farkhana Ihddaden Jaadar Kariat Arekmane Nador Ras El Ma Segangan/ Zeghanghane Selouane Tiztoutine Touima Zaio The province is divided administratively into the following
Tangier is a major city in northwestern Morocco. It is on the Maghreb coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel; the town is the capital of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region, as well as the Tangier-Assilah prefecture of Morocco. Many civilisations and cultures have influenced the history of Tangier, starting from before the 5th century. Between the period of being a strategic Berber town and a Phoenician trading centre to the independence era around the 1950s, Tangier was a nexus for many cultures. In 1923, it was considered as having international status by foreign colonial powers, became a destination for many European and American diplomats, spies and businessmen; the city is undergoing rapid development and modernisation. Projects include new tourism projects along the bay, a modern business district called Tangier City Centre, a new airport terminal, a new football stadium. Tangier's economy is set to benefit from the new Tanger-Med port.
The Carthaginian name of the city is variously recorded as TNG, TNGʾ, TYNGʾ, TTGʾ. The old Berber name was Tingi, which Ruiz connects to Berber tingis, meaning "marsh"; the Greeks claimed that Tingís had been named for a daughter of the titan Atlas, supposed to support the vault of heaven nearby. Latin Tingis developed into Portuguese Tânger, Spanish Tánger, French Tanger, which entered English as "Tangier" and "Tangiers"; the Arabic name of the town is Tanjah, the modern Berber name is Tanja. Tangier was formally known as Colonia Julia Tingi following its elevation to colony status during the Roman Empire, it is sometimes known as Boughaz. The nicknames "Bride of the North" and "Door of Africa" reference its position in far northwestern Africa near the Strait of Gibraltar. Tangier was founded as a Phoenician colony as early as the 10th century BCE and certainly by the 8th century BCE; the majority of Berber tombs around Tangier had Punic jewelry by the 6th century BCE, speaking to abundant trade by that time.
The Carthaginians developed it as an important port of their empire by the 5th century BCE. It was involved with the expeditions of Hanno the Navigator along the West African coast; the city long preserved its Phoenician traditions, issuing bronze coins under the Mauretanian kings with Punic script and others under the Romans bearing Augustus and Agrippa's heads and Latin script obverse but an image of the Canaanite god Baal reverse. Some editions of Procopius place his Punic stelae in Tingis rather than Tigisis; the Greeks knew this town as Tingis and, with some modification, record the Berber legends of its founding. Tinjis, daughter of Atlas and widow of Antaeus, slept with Hercules and bore him the son Syphax. After Tinjis' death, Syphax founded the port and named it in her honour; the gigantic skeleton and tomb of Antaeus were tourist attractions for ancient visitors. The Caves of Hercules, where he rested on Cape Spartel during his labors, remain one today. Tingis came under the control of the Roman ally Mauretania during the Punic Wars.
Q. Sertorius, in his war against Sulla's regime in Rome and held Tingis for a number of years in the 70s BCE, it was subsequently returned to the Mauretanians but established as a republican free city during the reign of Bocchus III in 38 BCE. Tingis received certain municipal privileges under Augustus and became a Roman colony under Claudius, who made it the provincial capital of Mauretania Tingitana. Under Diocletian's 291 reforms, it became the seat of Tingitana's governor. At the same time, the province itself shrank to little more than the ports along the coast and, owing to the Great Persecution, Tingis was the scene of the martyrdoms by beheading of Saints Marcellus and Cassian in 298. Tingis remained the largest settlement in its province in the 4th century and was developed. Invited by Count Boniface, who feared war with the empress dowager, tens of thousands of Vandals under Gaiseric crossed into North Africa in 429 and occupied Tingis and Mauretania as far east as Calama; when Boniface learned that he and the empress had been manipulated against each other by Aetius, he attempted to compel the Vandals to return to Spain but was instead defeated at Calama in 431.
The Vandals lost the rest of Mauretania in various Berber uprisings. Tingis was reconquered by Belisarius, the general of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, in 533 as part of the Vandalic War; the new provincial administration was moved, however, to the more defensible base at Septem. Byzantine control yielded to pressure from Visigoth Spain around 618. Count Julian of Ceuta led the last defences of Tangier against the Muslim invasion of North Africa. Medieval romance made his betrayal of Christendom a personal vendetta against the Visigoth king Roderic over the honour of his daughter, but Tangier at least fell to a siege by the forces of the Arabian convert Musa bin Nusayr sometime between 707 and 711. While he moved south through central Morocco, he had his deputy at Tangier Tariq ibn Zayid launch the beginning of the Muslim invasion of Spain. Under the Umayyads, Tangier served as the capital of the Moroccan district (Maghr
Casablanca, located in the central-western part of Morocco and bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco. It is the largest city in the Maghreb region, as well as one of the largest and most important cities in Africa, both economically and demographically. Casablanca is one of the largest financial centers on the continent. According to the 2014 population estimate, the city has a population of about 3.35 million in the urban area and over 6.8 million in the Casablanca-Settat region. Casablanca is considered the economic and business center of Morocco, although the national political capital is Rabat; the leading Moroccan companies and many international corporations doing business in the country have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Casablanca. Recent industrial statistics show Casablanca retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country; the Port of Casablanca is one of the largest artificial ports in the world, the second largest port of North Africa, after Tanger-Med 40 km east of Tangier.
Casablanca hosts the primary naval base for the Royal Moroccan Navy. The original name of Casablanca was Anfa, in Berber language, by at least the seventh century BC. After the Portuguese took control of the city in the 15th century AD, they rebuilt it, changing the name to Casa Branca, it derives from the Portuguese word combination meaning "White House". The present name, the Spanish version, came when the Portuguese kingdom was integrated in personal union to the Spanish kingdom. During the French protectorate in Morocco, the name remained Casablanca. In 1755 an earthquake destroyed most of the town, it was rebuilt by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah who changed the name into the local Arabic, Ad-dar Al Baidaa', although Arabic has its own version of Casablanca. The city is still nicknamed Casa by many outsiders to the city. In many other cities with a different dialect, it is called Ad-dar Al-Bida, instead; the area, today Casablanca was founded and settled by Berbers by at least the seventh century BC.
It was used as a port by the Phoenicians and the Romans. In his book Description of Africa, Leo Africanus refers to ancient Casablanca as "Anfa", a great city founded in the Berber kingdom of Barghawata in 744 AD, he believed Anfa was the most "prosperous city on the Atlantic Coast because of its fertile land." Barghawata rose as an independent state around this time, continued until it was conquered by the Almoravids in 1068. Following the defeat of the Barghawata in the 12th century, Arab tribes of Hilal and Sulaym descent settled in the region, mixing with the local Berbers, which led to widespread Arabization. During the 14th century, under the Merinids, Anfa rose in importance as a port; the last of the Merinids were ousted by a popular revolt in 1465. In the early 15th century, the town became an independent state once again, emerged as a safe harbour for pirates and privateers, leading to it being targeted by the Portuguese, who bombarded the town which led to its destruction in 1468; the Portuguese used the ruins of Anfa to build a military fortress in 1515.
The town that grew up around it was called meaning "white house" in Portuguese. Between 1580 and 1640, the Crown of Portugal was integrated to the Crown of Spain, so Casablanca and all other areas occupied by the Portuguese were under Spanish control, though maintaining an autonomous Portuguese administration; as Portugal broke ties with Spain in 1640, Casablanca came under Portuguese control once again. The Europeans abandoned the area in 1755 following an earthquake which destroyed most of the town; the town was reconstructed by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah, the grandson of Moulay Ismail and an ally of George Washington, with the help of Spaniards from the nearby emporium. The town was called الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ, the Arabic translation of the Spanish Casa Blanca. In the 19th century, the area's population began to grow as it became a major supplier of wool to the booming textile industry in Britain and shipping traffic increased. By the 1860s, around 5,000 residents were there, the population grew to around 10,000 by the late 1880s.
Casablanca remained a modestly sized port, with a population reaching around 12,000 within a few years of the French conquest and arrival of French colonialists in the town, at first administrators within a sovereign sultanate, in 1906. By 1921, this rose to 110,000 through the development of shanty towns. In June 1907, the French attempted to build a light railway near the port and passing through a graveyard; as an act of resistance and protestation, the locals attacked the French, riots ensued, causing a few soldiers to be wounded and one general to be killed. In response, the French attacked by ship, bombarding the city from the coast, landing troops inside the town, which caused severe damage to the town and 15,000 dead and wounded bodies; the French claimed. This began the process of colonization, although French control of Casablanca was not formalised until 1910. Under the French rule, Muslim anti-Jewish riots occurred in 1908; the famous 1942 film Casablanca, although filmed in Los Angeles, is supposed to have been set in Casablanca.
The film underlined the city's colonial status at the time—depicting it as the scene of a power s