Labis is town and a mukim in Segamat District in northern Johor, Malaysia. A main trunk road that runs north-south Peninsular Malaysia passes through it, as well as the KTM railway line that connects it with the state's capital in the south, Johor Bahru. Labis started as a small village known as Kampung Paya Merah; the village got its name from a type of river grass which became the favorite food for river terrapins. In early 20th century, British officers came to the villages to survey for new areas to be developed in Segamat district; the British officers were surprised to see the river terrapins since they had not seen those animals before. They asked the villagers the name of those animals and the villagers answered, "Labi-labi, tuan,"; because they didn't know the name of those animals, the British officers referred to them as labis in the plural form. Therefore, the British officers decided to name the settlement Labis. Another theory is that in the 17th century, a member of the Malaccan royal family was travelling through the area.
He saw something. He called out to his advisors to tell him what it was, he went "Habis? Habis?" Thus accidentally blurting out the name Labis. Labis covers an area of 422 km2. Labis town, along with the adjacent commune of Bekok and cha'ah, are granted autonomy from Segamat and administered by the Labis District Council. There is a waterfall known as Taka Melor famous among locals situated 15 km from the town near Pekan Air Panas and Kampung Tenang. Labis is an agricultural town; as of 2010, Labis has a total population of 36,053 people. It has a large Chinese community; the town is accessible from Labis railway station. National Highway. Pekan Air Panas
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, transports it to another location. This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, ice, air, plants and humans. In accordance with these agents, erosion is sometimes divided into water erosion, glacial erosion, snow erosion, wind erosion, zoogenic erosion, anthropogenic erosion; the particulate breakdown of rock or soil into clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion. Eroded sediment or solutes may be transported just a few millimetres, or for thousands of kilometres. Natural rates of erosion are controlled by the action of geological weathering geomorphic drivers, such as rainfall; the rates at which such processes act control. Physical erosion proceeds fastest on steeply sloping surfaces, rates may be sensitive to some climatically-controlled properties including amounts of water supplied, wind speed, wave fetch, or atmospheric temperature.
Feedbacks are possible between rates of erosion and the amount of eroded material, carried by, for example, a river or glacier. Processes of erosion that produce sediment or solutes from a place contrast with those of deposition, which control the arrival and emplacement of material at a new location. While erosion is a natural process, human activities have increased by 10-40 times the rate at which erosion is occurring globally. At well-known agriculture sites such as the Appalachian Mountains, intensive farming practices have caused erosion up to 100x the speed of the natural rate of erosion in the region. Excessive erosion causes both "on-site" and "off-site" problems. On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers. In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification. Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses.
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation. Intensive agriculture, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils. Rainfall, the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion. Splash erosion is seen as the first and least severe stage in the soil erosion process, followed by sheet erosion rill erosion and gully erosion. In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles; the distance these soil particles travel can be as much as 0.6 m vertically and 1.5 m horizontally on level ground. If the soil is saturated, or if the rainfall rate is greater than the rate at which water can infiltrate into the soil, surface runoff occurs.
If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles down the slope. Sheet erosion is the transport of loosened soil particles by overland flow. Rill erosion refers to the development of small, ephemeral concentrated flow paths which function as both sediment source and sediment delivery systems for erosion on hillslopes. Where water erosion rates on disturbed upland areas are greatest, rills are active. Flow depths in rills are of the order of a few centimetres or less and along-channel slopes may be quite steep; this means that rills exhibit hydraulic physics different from water flowing through the deeper, wider channels of streams and rivers. Gully erosion occurs when runoff water accumulates and flows in narrow channels during or after heavy rains or melting snow, removing soil to a considerable depth. Valley or stream erosion occurs with continued water flow along a linear feature; the erosion is both downward, deepening the valley, headward, extending the valley into the hillside, creating head cuts and steep banks.
In the earliest stage of stream erosion, the erosive activity is dominantly vertical, the valleys have a typical V cross-section and the stream gradient is steep. When some base level is reached, the erosive activity switches to lateral erosion, which widens the valley floor and creates a narrow floodplain; the stream gradient becomes nearly flat, lateral deposition of sediments becomes important as the stream meanders across the valley floor. In all stages of stream erosion, by far the most erosion occurs during times of flood when more and faster-moving water is available to carry a larger sediment load. In such processes, it is not the water alone
Straits of Johor
The Johore Strait is an international strait in Southeast Asia, between Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. The strait separates the Malaysian state of Johor on the mainland Malay Peninsula to the north, from Singapore and its islands on the south, it connects to the Strait of Malacca on the west, the Singapore Strait on the southeast. The mouth and delta of the Johor River is on its northeast side in Malaysia. There are two bridges crossing the strait; the Johor–Singapore Causeway, known as "The Causeway", links Johor Bahru and Woodlands in Singapore. The Malaysia–Singapore Second Link bridge is further west over the strait, links Iskandar Puteri in Malaysia and Tuas in Singapore. In 2003, Malaysia wanted to build a bridge across the strait to replace the existing causeway, but negotiations with Singapore were not successful; the main reasons cited for the change were: a bridge would allow free flow of water across both sides of the strait which were artificially cut in two with the building of the causeway before.
A bridge would help ease congestion in Johor Bahru. In August 2003, Malaysia announced that it was going ahead with a plan to build a sloping, curved bridge that would join up with Singapore's half of the existing causeway; the plans included a swing bridge for the railway line. However, plans to build the bridge have been called off by Malaysia as of 2006 after Singapore said it was amenable to the bridge if the negotiations include other bilateral matters such as the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore's air force, buying of water and sand resources from Malaysia. Malaysia viewed Singapore's proposal as a compromise on its sovereignty. Major tributaries which empty into the Strait of Johore include: In the Malay language, Sungai is the word for river. Pollution along the Johore Strait is notable; the area is a source of environmental contention between Malaysia and Singapore, due to land reclamation projects on both sides of the Causeway. There have been suggestions that the ongoing land reclamation projects may impact the maritime boundary, shipping lanes, water ecology of the Malaysian side.
Environmental Impact Assessments are requested before any reclamation is carried out such as the Forest City project. Reclamation projects may endanger the habitat and food source of dugongs, which are native to the strait; the straights are not shark infested. None of the locals go paddling; the Johore Strait is the location of two Victoria Cross deeds. The award was for Lieutenant Ian Edward Fraser and Acting Leading Seaman James Joseph Magennis for the sinking of the 9,850-tonne Japanese cruiser Takao on 31 July. A well known tourist attraction of the Strait of Johore's is Lido Beach, located on the Malaysian side in Johor Bahru. Here, visitors can cycle along the 2 km stretch of the beach. There are numerous restaurants and food stalls. Media related to Straits of Johor at Wikimedia Commons
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics between latitudes 25° N and 25° S; the total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres, spanning 118 countries and territories. Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees called halophytes, are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions, they contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud; the word is used in at least three senses: most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal, for which the terms mangrove forest biome, mangrove swamp are used, to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or more just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.
The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater, to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater; the term "mangrove" comes to English from Spanish, is to originate from Guarani. It was earlier "mangrow", but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word "grove". Mangrove swamps are found in subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangals occur include marine shorelines; the intertidal existence to which these trees are adapted represents the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their habitat. High tide brings in salt water, when the tide recedes, solar evaporation of the seawater in the soil leads to further increases in salinity; the return of tide can flush out these soils, bringing them back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater.
At low tide, organisms are exposed to increases in temperature and desiccation, are cooled and flooded by the tide. Thus, for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad ranges of salinity and moisture, as well as a number of other key environmental factors—thus only a select few species make up the mangrove tree community. About 110 species are considered "mangroves", in the sense of being a tree that grows in such a saline swamp, though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp features only a small number of tree species, it is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome contains thousands of tree species, but this is not to say mangrove forests lack diversity. Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home for a great variety of other species. Mangrove plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation.
Each species has its own solutions to these problems. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to differing methods for coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species is determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as tidal inundation and salinity, but may be influenced by other factors, such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs. Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is occurring; the fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy metals which colloidal particles in the sediments have scavenged from the water. Mangrove removal disturbs these underlying sediments creating problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge, tsunamis; the mangroves' massive root systems are efficient at dissipating wave energy. They slow down tidal water enough so its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs.
In this way, mangroves build their own environments. Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion they provide, they are the object of conservation programs, including national biodiversity action plans. Mangrove swamps' effectiveness in terms of erosion control can sometimes be overstated. Wave energy is low in areas where mangroves grow, so their effect on erosion is measured over long periods, their capacity to limit high-energy wave erosion is in relation to events such as storm surges and tsunamis. The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In areas where roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include algae, oysters and bryozoans, which all require a hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home. Mangrove crabs munch on the mangrove leaves, adding nutrients to the mangal muds for other bottom feeders.
In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is imp
Kota Tinggi is a town and capital of Kota Tinggi District, Malaysia, located around 42 kilometers north-east of Johor Bahru, on the road to Mersing. Kota Tinggi is the name of the district, Kota Tinggi District, where the town is situated. Kuala Sedili or Tanjung Sedili, a small fishing town located 37 km north-east of Kota Tinggi town, is the second largest fishing port in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Kota Tinggi was hardest hit in the flood that devastated Johor and some parts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Nearly 100,000 people had to be evacuated to rescue centres; the first flood wave started on 19 December 2006 and sunk the whole town of Kota Tinggi. With a height of 4.90 metres, it broke the previous record flood level. The second wave, which began on 11 January 2007, at 5.45 metres exceeded the height of the first wave. Kota Tinggi town was underwater for nearly two weeks and was isolated from other towns due to landslides and flooding; the town spans over an area of 17 km2. Kota Tinggi town and other settlement of Kuala Sedili, Sungai Rengit and Pengerang are administered by Kota Tinggi District Council, based in Kota Tinggi town.
The higher administrator of this town called Pegawai Daerah, which being changed every 5 – 6 years as being promoted by the city council. His official home can be seen nearby the field of the city called Padang Kerajaan Kota Tinggi, near the highest building in Kota Tinggi, The Bangunan Sultan Iskandar; the building houses the district council offices. Kota Tinggi is represented in the Dewan Rakyat of the Malaysian Parliament by Dato' Noor Ehsanuddin Mohd Harun Narrashid from UMNO, part of the federal ruling alliance Barisan Nasional. On the state level, Kota Tinggi constituency contributes two seats to the Johor State Legislative Assembly: Sedili. Kota Tinggi is known as a historical town. Many historical tombs are found here including the Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Di Julang Mausoleum, Makam Bendahara Tun Habib Abdul Majid and Makam Tauhid in Kampung Makam. Makam Laksamana Bentan is located in Kampung Kelantan; the Kota Tinggi Waterfalls at Lombong, 16 kilometres north-west of town, are local tourist destinations.
The waterfalls are 36 meters high, are located at the base of the 634 meter high Gunung Muntahak mountain. The river water drains through a series of shallow pools used for swimming; the natural environment of some parts of the location has somewhat been spoiled by resort development with artificial landscaping. There are many beaches along the coastal part of Kota Tinggi; the most popular beaches are Tanjung Balau and Batu Layar, which are 58 km, 55 km, 62 km from Kota Tinggi town respectively. Chalets and hotels offering reasonable rates can be found along the beach. Teluk Sengat, located 25 km east of Kota Tinggi town, is a village visited by tourists for its seafood. Museums in Kota Tinggi is Kota Tinggi Museum; the town is accessible by bus from Johor Bahru Sentral, Larkin Sentral. or by Causeway Link route 6B. Highways 3, 91 and 92 intersect at Kota Tinggi. Highway is the main highway linking Johor Bahru to the east coast cities of Kuantan, Kuala Terengganu and Kota Bharu. Highway connects Kota Tinggi to the railway town of Kluang while highway joins Kota Tinggi to Pengerang.
Kota Tinggi WIFI List Official website of the Kota Tinggi District Council The Kota Tinggi waterfalls
Simpang Renggam is a town in the southern half of Kluang District, Malaysia. It lies on the old main trunk road that used to take the majority of the north–south traffic going through Johor before the opening of the North–South Expressway. Simpang Renggam houses the 5th Battalion Royal Malaysian Police General Operation Force; the Simpang Renggam Prison, built in 1986, is located near the town. Under the prison administration is the Simpang Renggam Behavioural Rehabilitation Centre, the largest drug rehabilitation centre in the country. In 2004 over 1,500 tons of toxic waste were found stored in an abandoned brick factory; the toxic waste had been illegally imported from Taiwan. As of 2006 the toxic waste still had not been taken care of; the town is accessible by bus from Larkin Sentral in Johor Bahru. Renggam 12 km northeast
The Segamat is a town located in the Segamat District, Malaysia. It is 95 km travel distance via North–South Expressway from Johor Bahru to Yong Peng, another 77 km from Federal Route 1. Strategically situated between Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru, Segamat is a fast-growing agricultural oil palm and rubber district, famous for its delicious durians, hence its recent slogan to attract tourists: Selamat Datang ke Segamat - Tanah Raja Buah-buahan; the eponymous town is a typical medium size town with a blend of new cultures. A mere 45 minute drive from town offers a variety of hiking and swimming sites namely the famous Gunung Ledang, Air Panas Waterfall and Bekok Waterfall which make an enjoyable weekend getaway. According to local historian, Hassan bin Muhammad, the area used to be known as Rantau Panjang. In around 1511, a Bendahara of Malacca, Bendahara Tepok and his troops were retreating to Johor after the fall of Melaka to the invading Portuguese forces led by Afonso de Albuquerque; the Bendahara and his troops stopped and rested by a river in the area and drank water from the river.
After the drink, the Bendahara exclaimed, "Segar amat!", named the river Segar Amat, in which over time evolved into Segamat. The name Segamat was applied only to the river, whereas the settlement nearby was still called Rantau Panjang; the town assumed the river's name only at the turn of the 20th century. By the end of the 19th century, the four original districts have several minor subdistricts, for example the previous Muar District has 4 minor districts - Parit Jawa, Chohong and Segamat; the first District Officer of Segamat Minor District was Encik Menthol bin Haji Ahmad. In 1933, the district of Segamat was formed after a major district boundary realignment was made by the government of Johor to split the original 4 districts into 8 districts. After the formation of Segamat District, the government began to develop Segamat with agricultural activities to boost the economy of Segamat; this included the construction of the national railroad system passing the town of Segamat and the construction of the main road known today as Federal Route 1.
In the 1970s, Tun Razak Highway was constructed to boost the economy of Segamat as an agricultural hub, to shorten the travelling time to Kuantan and to speed up the development progress of the poorly developed areas in southern Pahang. The Johor branch campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA was constructed at Jementah in the end of the 1980s and started its operation in 1991; the construction of UiTM campus in Segamat district turned Segamat into another important educational hub in Johor besides Skudai, which houses Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. In 1996, the Segamat Land Port was constructed to make Segamat an important transportational hub, like Nilai in Negeri Sembilan. By constructing the land port, manufacturers may just transport their goods to Segamat Land Port and the goods can be transported to the nearest sea ports such as Pasir Gudang by train and this will increase the transportation efficiency. However, the plan did not materialise as planned. In 1999, the second bridge of Segamat, funded by private developers, was constructed to reduce congestion at the main bridge.
The second bridge was included as a part of Segamat Inner Ring Road package consisting the road upgrade to 4-lane road at Jalan Pemuda, Jalan Hassan, Jalan Pee Kang Hai and Jalan Chia Chin Koon, completed in August 2005. The inner ring road package is useful to divert the traffic flow when the main roads at the town center are closed for special occasions and events such as National Day. Segamat experienced floods during the 1950s, 1984 and on 18 December 2006; the one in 2006, caused by Typhoon Utor in the Philippines, was considered to be the worst flood to have happened in Segamat and Johor. There is a conspiracy theory that the 2006 flood was caused by improper release of water from the upstream Bekok Dam; the theory is based on the fact that the water level of the Segamat River overflowed at a rate, believed impossible to have been caused by rain alone. In January 2011, severe flooding occurred in Segamat and other parts of upstate Johor and the neighbouring state of Melaka, with about 31,000 people evacuated and several deaths.
Segamat has been upgraded to Municipal Council since 1 January 2018 at Dataran Segamat. The town of Segamat is the fifth largest town in the state of Johor with about 80,000 residents. According to local residents of Segamat, the town centre of Segamat can be divided into two, where both neighbourhoods are separated by Segamat River:- Bandar Atas - The original town centre of Segamat; the official site of Segamat town centre today is Segamat Square. Bandar Seberang - Located at the other side across Segamat river; this neighbourhood is known as Bandar Seberang because of its location across Segamat river. This area houses most of the supermarkets and shopping centres in Segamat. In addition to the town centre, the urban area of Segamat covers some villages and towns namely Pekan Jabi, Bukit Siput, Segamat Baru and Bandar Putra Segamat, which makes up the overall population of Segamat urban area to 100,000 residents; the cost of living in Segamat is affordable. Accommodation is available at the housing areas in Segamat town.
Shophouses, supermarkets and hawker centres in the proximity offer various and inexpensive choices for shopping, chilling out and eating out