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Tank corps (Soviet Union)

A tank corps was a Soviet armoured formation used during World War II. In Soviet Russia, the so-called armored forces preceded the Tank Corps, they consisted of the motorised armored units made of armored trains. The country did not have its own tanks during the Civil War of 1918–1920. In January 1918, the Red Army established the Soviet of Armored Units renamed to Central Armored Directorate and once again to Chief Armored Directorate. In December 1920, the Red Army received its first light tanks, assembled at the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory. In 1928, it began the production of the MS-1 tanks. In 1929, it established the Central Directorate for Mechanization and Motorization of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army. Tanks became a part of the mechanised corps at this point. During this time, based on the experience of the Civil War with its sweeping movements of horse-mobile formations, Soviet military theorists such as Vladimir Triandafillov and Konstantin Kalinovsky elaborated the principles of combat use of armored units, which envisioned a large-scale use of tanks in different situations in cooperation with various army units.

In the mid-1930s, these ideas found their reflection in the so-called Deep Operation and deep combat theories. From the second half of the 1920s, tank warfare development took place at Kazan, where the German Reichswehr was allowed to participate. In 1930, the First Mechanised Brigade had its own tank regiment of 110 tanks. In 1932, the first Mechanised Corps had over 500 tanks, it was the first armoured unit of operational significance anywhere in the world; that same year, the Red Army established the Military Academy of Mechanisation and Motorisation of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army. In 1931–1935, the Red Army adopted light and heavy tanks of different types. By the beginning of the 1936, it had had four mechanised corps, six separate mechanised brigades, six separate tank regiments, fifteen mechanised regiments within cavalry divisions and considerable number of tank battalions and companies; the creation of mechanised and tank units marked the dawn of a new branch of armed forces, which would be called armored forces.

In 1937, the Central Directorate of Mechanisation and Motorisation was renamed to Directorate of Automated Armored Units and to Chief Directorate of Automated Armored Units. Soviet armored units gained some combat experience during the Battle of Lake Khasan, Battle of Khalkhin Gol and Winter War with Finland. In August 1938, the four mechanised corps were converted into tank corps; each was authorized 12,710 men, between 560 and 600 tanks, 118 artillery pieces. The corps included two light tank brigades, a motor rifle and machine gun brigade, a communications battalion; the 5th Mechanized Corps became the 15th Tank Corps, the 7th Mechanized Corps became the 10th Tank Corps, the 11th Mechanized Corps became the 20th Tank Corps, the 45th Mechanized Corps became the 25th Tank Corps. In the summer of 1939, all three brigades of the 20th Tank Corps were detached from the corps and sent into combat during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol; the 15th and 25th Tank Corps fought in the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939.

As a result of the Soviet assessment of the tank corps as being unwieldy and difficult to control, shown by repeated traffic jams caused by the tank corps in Poland, the Main Military Council ordered their disbandment on 21 November, replacing the tank corps with 15 motorized divisions, each with two motorized rifle regiments, an artillery regiment, a tank regiment. The tank corps were not disbanded until January 1940, by which time the 10th Tank Corps had seen brief service in the Winter War in December 1939. Besides the operational armoured and mechanised formations, separate tank battalions within rifle divisions existed; these were meant to reinforce rifle units for the purpose of breaching enemy defenses. They had to act in cooperation with the infantry without breaking away from it and were called tanks for immediate infantry support. On 31 March 1942, orders were given for the reformation of the tank corps, as a result of the Soviet need for massed armored units so that the small tank brigades, which were now the basic armored formation, could be capable of decisive actions.

The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Tank Corps were to consist of a headquarters, two tank brigades, a motor rifle brigade, authorized a total of 5,603 men with 20 KV heavy tanks, 40 T-34 medium tanks, 40 T-60 or T-70 light tanks. The new tank corps lacked artillery and engineer units, rear support elements, although its component brigades included such formations, they were the equivalent of small Western armored divisions. The motor rifle brigade was a new unit type intended to retain captured positions and to neutralize enemy infantry and anti-tank weapons, it was determined that this was too weak, a third tank brigade was added to increase the offensive power. The final organisation as published in 1944 included an additional heavy tank or heavy self-propelled gun regiment, plus a medium and a light self-propelled gun regiment. A total of 31 tank corps were formed during the war, with 12 of them earning the designation of a Guards Tank Corps. Due to the destruction of the 21st Tank Corps at the

Joseph Delafield

Joseph Delafield was an American soldier and diplomat. Delafield was born in New York City on August 22, 1790, he was the second oldest of the surviving sons and four daughters born to Anne Delafield and John Delafield, a merchant who emigrated to New York from England in 1788 and was a founder and director of the Mutual Insurance Company, becoming one of the wealthiest men in the country. His father's summer residence, built in 1791 on the East River opposite Blackwell's Island, was known as" Sunswick" and was one of the largest and best appointed private houses around New York. Among his many siblings were brothers John Delafield, Henry Delafield, William Delafield, Maj. Gen. Richard Delafield, Dr. Edward Delafield, Rufus King Delafield, his younger sister, Susan Maria Delafield, was married to Henry Parish. Joseph, his father, four of his brothers were painted by Morton H. Bly, today owned by the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, his maternal grandparents were Joseph Hallett and Elizabeth Hallett and his aunt, Mary Hallett, was the second wife of U.

S. Representative Benjamin Tallmadge, his paternal grandparents were John Delafield and Martha Delafield, a daughter of John Dell of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England. His nephew, Dr. Francis Delafield, was married to Katherine Van Rensselaer, was the father of Connecticut representative Edward Henry Delafield. After preliminary education from the Rev. Smith on Pine Street in New York, Delafield prepared for college at a school in Stamford, Connecticut along with Herman LeRoy, William Wilkes and William Backhouse Astor Sr. After graduating from Yale College in 1808, Delafield studied law with the former Attorney General of New York, Josiah Ogden Hoffman, was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of New York on October 29, 1811. In 1810, he was appointed lieutenant in New York State Militia. On February 2, 1812, he was promoted to captain and when the War of 1812 broke out, he raised a full company of volunteers. By the end of 1812, he was commissioned as a Captain in Hawkins' Regiment, promoted to be Major of the 46th Infantry on April 15, 1814, resigned at the close of the war.

In 1817, he attached to the commission under the Treaty of Ghent for setting off the northern-western boundary of the United States. On January 1, 1821, he was appointed a full U. S. Agent under the 6th and 7th Articles, serving until June 1828, he was responsible for establishing the line between St. Regis on the St. Lawrence River and the Lake of the Woods. During his travels north, he began to form his collection of minerals, considered one of the best in private hands in the country for many years. Delafield was a member of many scientific associations, both in Europe. From 1827 to 1866, when he declined a re-election, he served as president of the New York Lyceum of Natural History where he was a member for fifty-two years. On December 12, 1833, Delafield was married to Julia Livingston, his wife was a daughter of Margret Livingston and Maturin Livingston, twice the Recorder of New York City. Her uncle was Speaker Peter R. Livingston and her paternal grandparents were Robert James Livingston and Susanna Livingston.

Julia's mother was sole heiress of Gov. Morgan Lewis and Gertrude Lewis. Together, they were the parents of four children: Lewis Livingston Delafield, who married Emily Prime, a granddaughter of banker Nathaniel Prime. Maturin Livingston Delafield, who married Mary Coleman Livingston, a daughter of Eugene Augustus Livingston. Julia Livingston Delafield, who did not marry. Joseph Delafield Jr. who died young. In 1829, he purchased around 256 acres of land to build a country seat, known as "Fieldston", on the Hudson River, between the southern part of Yonkers and the Spuyten Duyvil, where he built a lime kiln in 1830, providing him with a large income for several years. In 1965, Delafield's grandson, Edward Coleman Delafield, donated the remaining 13-acre remnant in Riverdale, known as Fieldston Hill, to Columbia University, which renamed it the Delafield Botanical Garden at Columbia University. Delafield died of acute pneumonia on February 12, 1875 at 475 Fifth Avenue, his home in New York City.

Through his son Lewis, he was the grandfather of Lewis Livingston Delafield Jr. Robert Hare Delafield, Frederick Prime Delafield. Through his son Maturin, he was the grandfather of Maturin Livingston Delafield Jr. Joseph Livingston Delafield, John Ross Delafield, Julia Livingston Longfellow, Edward Coleman Delafield, Mary Livingston Finch, Harriet Coleman Carter, Eugene Livingston Delafield. Notes Sources Joseph Delafield at Find a Grave

Dolores Piperno

Dolores Piperno is an American archaeologist specializing in archaeobotany. She is a senior scientist emeritus of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Balboa and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington. Piperno began her work career as a medical technician, used her training and experience in this field when she moved into archaeology, her education includes a B. S. in Medical Technology, an M. A. in Anthropology, a Ph. D.in Anthropology. Her research interests include the study of phytoliths, starch grains, pollen at archaeological sites near the beginning of the domestication of various crops such as cucurbits and peanuts, her geographical areas of research, besides Panama and Central America in general, include Peru and Israel. She has developed some of the procedures used in phytolith studies in archaeology and is one of the pioneers in the archaeological study of starch grains, has built up a reference collection of over 400 species. In 2009 Piperno received the Pomerance Award for Scientific Contributions to Archaeology from the Archaeological Institute of America.

In 2005 Piperno was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2011 Piperno received the National Museum of Natural History Science Achievement Award. "Dolores Piperno, Staff Scientist Emeritus". Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2010-07-12