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Tannaim

Tannaim were the rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from 10-220 CE. The period of the Tannaim referred to as the Mishnaic period, lasted about 210 years, it came after the period of the Zugot, was followed by the period of the Amoraim. The root tanna is the Talmudic Aramaic equivalent for the Hebrew root shanah, the root-word of Mishnah; the verb shanah means "to repeat " and is used to mean "to learn". The Mishnaic period is divided up into five periods according to generations. There are 120 known Tannaim; the Tannaim lived in several areas of the Land of Israel. The spiritual center of Judaism at that time was Jerusalem, but after the destruction of the city and the Second Temple, Yohanan ben Zakkai and his students founded a new religious center in Yavne. Other places of Judaic learning were founded by his students in Bnei Brak; some Tannaim worked as laborers in addition to their positions as legislators. They were leaders of the people and negotiators with the Roman Empire.

The Tannaim operated under the occupation of the Roman Empire. During this time, the Kohanim of the Temple became corrupt and were seen by the Jews as collaborators with the Romans, whose mismanagement of Iudaea province led to riots and general resentment; until the days of Hillel and Shammai, there were few disagreements among Rabbinic scholars. After this period, the "House of Hillel" and the "House of Shammai" came to represent two distinct perspectives on Jewish law, disagreements between the two schools of thought are found throughout the Mishnah, see Hillel and Shammai; the Tannaim, as teachers of the Oral Law, are said to be direct transmitters of an oral tradition passed from teacher to student, written and codified as the basis for the Mishnah and tannaitic teachings of the Talmud. According to rabbinic tradition, the Tannaim were the last generation in a long sequence of oral teachers that began with Moses. Early rabbinic Bible exegesis was preserved in tannaitic texts compiled in the second century CE or but is to contain much earlier material.

It contains some interpretations that can be traced back explicitly to the first century CE because of parallels with motifs found in the writings of Josephus or Philo, such as the legend of the extraordinary beauty of Moses as a child. The language in which the Tannaim of Palestine and Babylonia wrote is referred to as Mishnaic Hebrew, or in Hebrew Lešon hakhamim, meaning ‘‘the language of the Sages.’’ Texts were written in MH between 70 CE and 500 CE. Tannaitic literature, which includes the Mishnah, the Tosefta, the halachic midrashim, Seder ‘olam Rabba was redacted between 70 CE to 250 CE. Research has demonstrated that Hebrew was spoken in Palestine until about 200 CE, it is agreed that tannaitic literature reflects the language and speech used in various regions of Palestine during that time period; the Nasi presided over the Sanhedrin. Rabban was a higher title than Rabbi, it was given to the Nasi starting with Rabban Gamaliel Hazaken; the title Rabban was limited to the descendants of Hillel, the sole exception being Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai, the leader in Jerusalem during the siege, who safeguarded the future of the Jewish people after the Great Revolt by pleading with Vespasian.

Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah, Nasi, was not given the title Rabban because he only held the position of Nasi for a short while and it reverted to the descendants of Hillel. Prior to Rabban Gamliel Hazaken, no titles were used before someone's name, which gave rise to the Talmudic adage "Gadol miRabban shmo"; this is seen as the reason that Hillel has no title before his name: his name in itself is his title, just as Moses and Abraham have no titles before their names. Starting with Rabbi Judah haNasi referred to as "Rabbi", not the Nasi is given the title Rabban, but instead, Judah haNasi is given the lofty title Rabbeinu HaKadosh; the Mishnaic period is divided into five generations: First Generation before and shortly after the Destruction of the Temple:Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai, Shimon ben Gamliel and Judah ben Baba Second Generation between the destruction of the Temple and Bar Kokhba's revolt:Rabban Gamaliel II of Yavneh, Rabbi Joshua ben Hananiah ben Hannania and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hurcanus, the teachers of Rabbi Akiva, as well as Gamaliel of Yavne and Eleazar ben Arach Third Generation around Bar Kochba's revolt:Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Tarfon, Ishmael ben Elisha, Eleazar ben Azariah, Jose the Galilean, Nathan the Babylonian and Elisha ben Abuyah Fourth Generation after the revolt:Shimon ben Gamliel of Yavne, Rabbi Meir, Shimon bar Yochai, Jose ben Halafta, Yehuda ben Ilai and Rabbi Nehemiah Fifth Generation: the generation of Rabbi Judah haNasi, who compiled the Mishnah.

Sixth Generation, an interim generation between the Mishnah and the Talmud:Rabbis Rabbi Hiyya, Shimon ben Judah HaNasi and Yehoshua ben Levi

Fukuroi Station

Fukuroi Station is a railway station on the Tōkaidō Main Line of Central Japan Railway Company in the city of Fukuroi, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Fukuroi Station is served by the JR Tōkai Tōkaidō Main Line, is located 238.1 kilometers from the official starting point of the line at Tokyo. Fukuroi Station has two island platforms, connected by a footbridge with an elevated station building above the tracks; the outside tracks, Track 1 and Track 4, are not in regular use, except during peak times in the summer festival season. The station building has automated ticket machines, TOICA automated turnstiles and a manned "Midori no Madoguchi" service counter. Fukuroi Station was opened on April 16, 1889 when the section of the Tōkaidō Main Line connecting Shizuoka with Hamamatsu was completed. From 1902-1962, it was an interchange station which served the Akiha Line of the Shizuoka Railway. Scheduled freight service was discontinued on January 21, 1984. In fiscal 2017, the station was used by an average of 5324 passengers daily.

Fukuroi City Hall List of Railway Stations in Japan Yoshikawa, Fumio. Tokaido-sen 130-nen no ayumi. Grand-Prix Publishing ISBN 4-87687-234-1. Official home page

Armeesportvereinigung Vorwärts

The Armeesportvereinigung Vorwärts ASV Vorwärts, was the sport organisation of the German Democratic Republic's National People's Army and its predecessor, the Barracked People's Police. Together with the sport clubs and the Sportvereinigung Dynamo, the ASV was one of the most important supports of the GDR's achievement sport system. From their clubs in Potsdam, Neubrandenburg, Stralsund or Rostock emerged well-known sportsmen like the boxer Henry Maske or the canoeist Birgit Fischer. In every city with barracks or other army installations the ASV kept a training center. Apart from providing the training equipment, the most important task of the local sections was the promotion of youth sports; the uniform ASV tracksuit, brown polyamide with yellow and red stripes on the arms and the oval ASV emblem on the left chest, attained popular cult status amongst youth after the German reunification. Ft Book: "Kämpfer in rot-gelb".