Perry K. Generating Station
Perry K. Generating Station is a small multi-fired power station producing steam for one of the largest central district steam heating systems in the United States; the plant is located on the south side of downtown Indianapolis, at the intersection of Kentucky Avenue and West Street. Its coal-fired units being converted to natural gas, are among the oldest operating power plants in the United States. Perry K. is owned by a division of Citizens Energy Group. In 1892–1893, the Indianapolis Light and Power Company, a predecessor of the Indianapolis Power and Light Company, constructed a generating plant on Kentucky Avenue near the intersection with West Street; the $300,000 plant known as the "Kentucky Avenue Plant", had a capacity of 1,120 kilowatts. Its output was used for street and commercial lighting, but in 1905 the plant was modified to provide steam for the district heating of a number of downtown businesses. A plant expansion in 1937 included the installation of 650 psig boilers and the use of pulverized coal.
That same year the Kentucky Avenue plant and the nearby West plant at 744 West Washington Street were renamed as Sections K and W of the Charles C. Perry Plant. In 2000, IPL sold the district heating system and the Perry K plant to Citizens Gas and Coke Utility. List of power stations in Indiana
The Cincinnati Enquirer
The Cincinnati Enquirer is a morning daily newspaper published by Gannett Company in Cincinnati, United States. First published in 1841, the Enquirer is the last remaining daily newspaper in Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky, although the daily Journal-News competes with the Enquirer in the northern suburbs; the Enquirer has the highest circulation of any print publication in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. A daily local edition for Northern Kentucky is published as The Kentucky Enquirer; the Enquirer won the 2018 Pulitzer Prize for local reporting for its project titled "Seven Days of Heroin."In addition to the Cincinnati Enquirer and Kentucky Enquirer, Gannett publishes a variety of print and electronic periodicals in the Cincinnati area, including 16 Community Press weekly newspapers, 10 Community Recorder weekly newspapers, OurTown magazine. The Enquirer is available online at the Cincinnati.com website. The Enquirer is regarded as a conservative, Republican-leaning newspaper, in contrast to The Cincinnati Post, a former competing daily.
From 1920 to 2012, the editorial board endorsed every Republican candidate for United States president. By contrast, the current editorial board claims to take a pragmatic editorial stance. According to editor Peter Bhatia, "It is made up of pragmatic, solution-driven members who, don’t have much use for extreme ideologies from the right or the left.... The board’s mantra in our editorials has been about problem-solving and improving the quality of life for everyone in greater Cincinnati." On September 24, 2016, the Enquirer endorsed Hillary Clinton for president, its first endorsement of a Democrat for president since Woodrow Wilson in 1916. The Kentucky Enquirer consists of an additional section wrapped around the Cincinnati Enquirer and a remade Local section; the front page is remade from the Ohio edition. Reader-submitted content is featured in six zoned editions of Your HomeTown Enquirer, a local news insert published twice-weekly on Thursdays and Saturdays in Hamilton, Butler and Clermont counties.
Since September 2015, the Enquirer and local Fox affiliate WXIX-TV have partnered on news gathering and have shared news coverage and video among the paper and online media. In 2016, the Enquirer launched a true crime podcast called Accused that reached the top of iTunes' podcasts chart. Under then-editor Peter Bhatia, the Enquirer became the first newsroom in the nation to dedicate a reporter to covering the heroin epidemic full time; that reporter, Terry DeMio, reporter Dan Horn helped lead a staff of about 60 journalists to report the heroin project that won the newspaper its second Pulitzer Prize. The award was the first the newsroom won for its reporting; the first Pulitzer win was awarded to Jim Borgman for editorial cartoons in 1991. The Enquirer's predecessor was the Phoenix, edited by Moses Dawson as early as 1828, it became the Commercial Advertiser and in 1838 the Cincinnati Advertiser and Journal. By the time John and Charles Brough purchased it and renamed it the Daily Cincinnati Enquirer, it was considered a newspaper of record for the city.
The Enquirer's first issue, on April 10, 1841, consisted of "just four pages of squint-inducing text that was, at times, as ugly in tone as it was in appearance". It declared its staunch support for the Democratic Party, in contrast to the three Whig papers and two ostensibly independent papers in circulation. A weekly digest edition for regional farmers, the Weekly Cincinnati Enquirer, began publishing on April 14 and would continue until November 25, 1843, as The Cincinnati Weekly Enquirer. In November 1843, the Enquirer merged with the Daily Morning Message to become the Enquirer and Message. In January 1845, the paper dropped the Message name. In May 1849, the paper became The Cincinnati Enquirer. On April 20, 1848, the Enquirer became one of the first newspapers in the United States to publish a Sunday edition. In 1844, James J. Faran took an interest in the Enquirer. In 1848, Washington McLean and his brother S. B. Wiley McLean acquired an interest in the Enquirer. On March 22, 1866, a gas leak caused Pike's Opera House to explode, taking with it the Enquirer offices next door.
A competitor, the Cincinnati Daily Times, allowed the Enquirer to print on its presses in the wake of the disaster. As a result, the Enquirer missed only one day of publication. However, archives of the paper's first 25 years were lost. Washington McLean was a leading Copperhead whose editorial policies led to the suppression of the paper by the United States government during the Civil War. After the war, McLean pursued an anti-Republican stance. One of his star writers was Lafcadio Hearn, who wrote for the paper from 1872 to 1875. James W. Faulkner served as the paper's political correspondent, covering the Ohio State Legislature and Statehouse, from 1887 until his death in 1923; the Faulkner Letter was a well-known column carried in regional newspapers. In the 1860s, Washington McLean bought out Faran's interest in the Enquirer. In 1872, he sold a half interest in the newspaper to his son, John Roll McLean, who assumed full ownership of the paper in 1881, he owned the paper until his death in 1916.
Having little faith in his only child, John Roll McLean put the Enquirer and another paper he owned, The Washington Post, in trust with the American Security and Trust Company of Washington, D. C. as trustee. Ned broke the trust regarding The Post, an action that led to its bankruptcy and eventual sale to Eugene Meyer in 1933; the Enquirer, continued to be held in trust until 1952. In the 1910s, the Enquirer was known for an attention-getting style of headlin
Port of Indiana
The Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor is an industrial area, founded in 1965 and located on the Lake Michigan shore of Indiana at the intersection of U. S. Highway 12 and Indiana 249; the primary work done in the area is the manufacturing of steel, the port area is dominated by steel mills. The port is divided between the municipalities of Burns Portage. Construction of the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor was controversial, with conservationists fighting to preserve a segment of the Indiana Dunes that occupied the site of the future port; the port and its steel mills were constructed on top of what was once the Central Dunes region of the Indiana Dunes and site of some of the hanggliding experiments carried out by a crew led by pioneer aviator Octave Chanute. Authorization of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, which borders the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor on three sides, was part of a political compromise that involved the construction of the port; the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor, as of 2015, is dominated by three extensive industrial plants: Gary Works-Midwest Plant, a unit of the U.
S. Steel Corporation; the Burns Harbor works of ArcelorMittal constructed by the former Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The Northern Indiana Public Service Bailly coal-fired power plant owned by NiSource; when Bethlehem Steel and advocates for preservation of the Central Dunes crossed swords in Congress in the early 1960s, the steel company won. Two key arguments used by Bethlehem in their successful campaign were increased national security from the production of American steel, the creation of well-paid jobs in a field, dominated by the United Steelworkers union. Two arguments advanced by the people opposed to the project were that the mill could have been located directly east of Gary, in a less sensitive and strategic ecological zone, that large infrastructure projects, which would amount to a tax subsidy, were needed to construct a mill in this area. Making steel in the Burns Harbor area required support from the federal government because of the shallow waters of Lake Michigan offshore from the sand dunes.
In order to make it possible for lake freighters to bring iron ore and limestone to the steel mills, extensive dredging and engineering work was necessary. This work linked the Little Calumet River to Lake Michigan via Burns Ditch. Congress, as part of the River and Harbor Act of 1965, instructed the Army Corps of Engineers to carry out the necessary work to create and maintain the artificial harbor that would become the Port of Indiana. In line with overall Great Lakes standards, the docking areas are dredged to a depth of at least 27 feet; the port is protected by 8,230 feet of rubblemound breakwaters. In addition to the federal help, the state of Indiana showed its support for the Port of Indiana project by constructing two roads, Indiana 149 and Indiana 249, to serve the new industrial area; the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor contains the Burns Waterway Small Boat Harbor, a 5,540-foot -long canal, dredged to a depth of 6 feet, extending inland from Lake Michigan to south of U. S. Highway 12.
It is located west of Burns Waterway Harbor, at 41.633°N 87.177°W / 41.633. This boat harbor provides access to the inland Portage Marina and Marina Shores, a private, 300-boat marina/condominium complex under development as of 2011; the marina is successful. Other than the small boat harbor, much of the Port of Indiana-Burns Harbor is a "restricted area" as of 2012, the public is not admitted within most of the port area. Link to National Park Service map of the Port of Indiana U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Port of Indiana
Benton County Wind Farm
The Benton County Wind Farm consists of 87 model sl/sle Gen4 GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near Earl Park, Indiana in northern Benton County, Indiana. The farm's nameplate capacity is 130.5 MW. The farm was developed by Orion Energy Group, LLC and Vision Energy, LLC beginning in 2003, it began commercial operation in April 2008. At the time of its construction, it was Indiana's only commercial-scale wind farm. Duke Energy purchases electricity from the wind farm and sells it to customers through its GoGreen program. In August 2006, Duke Energy Indiana finalized its agreement to buy the output of 54 of the wind farm's 87 wind turbines for 20 years; this was the first significant long-term wind power purchase agreement in Indiana. The remaining 33 wind turbines in the wind farm sell their electricity to Vectren; the owner of the project is Benton County Wind Farm LLC, owned by subsidiaries of Orion Energy Group LLC and other investors. The project is managed by Orion Energy Group LLC. In early 2009, the nearby Fowler Ridge Wind Farm was Indiana's second wind farm to open, became Indiana's largest wind farm.
Other wind farms developed by Orion and Vision include the Camp Grove Wind Farm and the Fowler Ridge Wind Farm. Wind power in Indiana Fowler Ridge Wind Farm - Benton County, Indiana Meadow Lake Wind Farm - White and Benton Counties
Clifty Creek Power Plant
Clifty Creek Power Plant is a 1.3 gigawatt, 1,300 coal-fired power station located in Madison, Indiana. Clifty Creek is operated by the Ohio Valley Electric Corporation, it is named after Clifty Creek, the naming feature for the power plant, which enters the Ohio River nearby. Five of its six identical units began operating in 1955, the sixth unit was launched in 1956, its six units supplied electricity for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio along with its sister plant, Kyger Creek Power Plant in Gallia County, Ohio. It has two of the tallest chimneys in the world, at 980 feet with another completed dual-flue chimney that stands at around 935 feet. Pollution control systems were installed at Clifty Creek in 2001 to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by 80%. With all of its units dating back to mid-1950s, the plant ranked 49th on the United States list of dirtiest power plants in terms of sulfur dioxide emissions per megawatt-hour of electrical energy produced in 2006. However, with the addition of two jet bubbling reactor flue gas desulfurization systems in 2013, 98% of sulfur dioxide is now removed.
The plant is connected to the power grid by 3 138kv lines. 1 345kv line goes to the Trimble County Power Plant, an interconnection with Louisville Gas & Electric. 1 short 345kv line connects with the nearby American Electric Power Jefferson 765kv Station. 2 double-circuit 345 lines connect with the Pierce Substation in Ohio. List of power stations in Indiana Clifty Falls State Park Chimney Diagram Aerial view of the surrounding area
Bailly Generating Station
The Bailly Generating Station was a 604 megawatt coal power plant located in Burns Harbor, Indiana, on the shore of Lake Michigan adjacent to the Port of Indiana. The plant, which began operation in 1962 and tripled its capacity in 1968, is owned and operated by the Northern Indiana Public Service Company, an electric-utility operating division of the energy holding company NiSource; the plant ceased coal-fired electrical generation on May 31, 2018. The Bailly Station is named in honor of Joseph Bailly, a fur trader and pioneer settler of the Indiana Dunes, it is located in an industrial park sited within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The plant's 300-acre site reflects a belief, held by the state of Indiana and the United States Congress in the early 1960s, that the Dunes-Lake Michigan shoreline should be shared between environmental preservation and heavy industry. Since January 2011, Bailly has operated under the terms of a legal settlement between NIPSCO and the United States Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with the Clean Air Act.
Under the terms of the settlement, NiSource will be required to invest $200 million in new capital infrastructure to be retrofitted onto Bailly to capture sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Citing growing environmental and regulatory burdens, NIPSCO announced plans in August 2016 to shut down the Bailly Generating Plant; the Midcontinent Independent System Operator approved of the shut down in December 2016 after it was determined the plant's future closure would not affect the grid's reliability. The plant shut down electrical generation from coal on May 31, 2018; the site will continue to operate a natural gas peaker plant. Bailly Nuclear Power Plant
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17