The Garibaldi Ranges are the next-to-southwesternmost subdivision of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains. They lie between the valley formed by the pass between the Cheakamus River and Green River on the west and the valley of the Lillooet River on the east, extend south into Maple Ridge, an eastern suburb of Vancouver, the northern District of Mission. To their south are the North Shore Mountains overlooking Vancouver while to their southeast are the Douglas Ranges, they take their name indirectly from Mount Garibaldi on the western side of the range, the namesake of Garibaldi Provincial Park. Their southern end between the upper Stave River and Pitt Lake is north of the municipality of Maple Ridge, forms Golden Ears Provincial Park, their most famous mountain, The Black Tusk, is not among the highest in the range. The highest peak in the range is just north of Wedge Mountain 2892 m a.k.a.. Wedgemont and "The Wedge"; the northern part of the range, consisting of Garibaldi Provincial Park, is alpine in character, with large icefields and a sea of high peaks.
The southern part of the range, north of Stave Lake and between the upper Pitt River and the lower Lillooet River, has no major icefields because of the precipitous character of the network of plunging U-shaped valleys - many well over 5000' deep, with individual peaks with near-vertical flanks up to 7000'. At the core of this set of ridges decorated with sharp, spiny peaks, is the highest - Mount Judge Howay 2262 m; the southernmost major peaks of the Garibaldi Ranges are in Golden Ears Provincial Park just north of Haney, whose cluster of sugarloafs resemble a donkey's ears and, on the day of naming, were gleaming in the sunset. Garibaldi Névé Fitzsimmons Range Musical Bumps McBride Range Spearhead Range Golden Ears Misty Icefield Bastion Range Garibaldi Ranges in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Whistler, British Columbia
Whistler is a resort municipality in the southern Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in the province of British Columbia, Canada 125 km north of Vancouver and 36 km south of the town of Pemberton. Incorporated as the Resort Municipality of Whistler, it has a permanent population of 11,854, plus a larger but rotating population of seasonal workers younger people from beyond British Columbia, notably from Australia and Europe. Over two million people visit Whistler annually for alpine skiing and snowboarding and, in summer, mountain biking at Whistler Blackcomb, its pedestrian village has won numerous design awards and Whistler has been voted among the top destinations in North America by major ski magazines since the mid-1990s. During the 2010 Winter Olympics, Whistler hosted most of the alpine, luge and bobsled events; the Whistler Valley is located around the pass between the headwaters of the Green River and the upper-middle reaches of the Cheakamus. It is flanked by glaciated mountains on both sides.
Although there are a few other routes through the maze of mountains between the basin of the Lillooet River just east, the Cheakamus-Green divide is the lowest and most direct and was the main trading route of the Squamish and Lil'wat First Nations long before the arrival of Europeans. One Lil ` wat legend of the Great Flood says; the first British survey by the Royal Navy took place in the 1860s. These surveyors named the mountain London Mountain because of the heavy fog and cloud gathering around the mountain, but the area informally acquired the name "Whistler" due to the call of the hoary marmot. In the late 19th century, a trail was cut through the valley, linking Lillooet via Pemberton with Burrard Inlet via a pass from Squamish to the Seymour River; the trail was completed in 1877, but because of the difficult and unforgiving terrain, it was only used once for its intended purpose, to drive cattle. The area began to attract trappers and prospectors who established small camps in the area in the early 20th century.
The area began to gain recognition with the arrival of Myrtle and Alex Philip, who in 1914 purchased 10 acres of land on Alta Lake and established the Rainbow Lodge. The Philips had relocated from Maine to Vancouver in 1910, had heard rumours of the natural beauty of the area from Pemberton pioneer John Millar. After an exploratory journey, the couple was convinced. Rainbow Lodge and other railway-dependent tourist resorts were collectively known as Alta Lake. Along with the rest of the valley bridging the Cheakamus and Green River basins, they became part of British Columbia's first Resort Municipality in 1975. Completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in 1914 reduced the travel time from three days, providing ease of access from Vancouver, the Rainbow Lodge gained a reputation as the most popular vacation destination west of the Rockies; the lodge was a summer destination, with boating and hiking among the most popular activities, soon other lodges began to open not just on Alta Lake, but on other valley lakes as well.
Appreciation of the outdoors was not the only activity in the valley, however. Logging was a boom industry. During the first half of the 20th century, most of the lower slopes of the surrounding mountains were cleared of old growth. At its peak, four mills were in operation, most located around Green Lake. Prospecting and trapping were pursued as well, though no claims of great value were staked. Whistler is well known for its skiing and snowboarding in the winter and mountain biking in the summer. There are many other smaller activities such as donating/Tubing; the different run difficulties: Green, Black, Double Black. Locals consider some runs to be considered "Triple Balck" these runs aren't labelled on maps. Throughout the year each run's difficulty stays the same; until the 1960s, this quiet area was without basic infrastructure. There were no sewage facilities, water, or electricity, no road from Squamish or Vancouver. In 1962, four Vancouver businessmen began to explore the area with the intent of building a ski resort and bidding for the 1968 Winter Olympics.
Garibaldi Lift Company was formed, shares were sold, in 1966, Whistler Mountain opened to the public. The town still known as Alta Lake, was offered the 1976 Winter Olympics after the selected host city Denver declined the games due to funding issues. Alta Lake Whistler declined as well, after elections ushered in a local government less enthusiastic about the Olympics; the 1976 Winter Olympics were held in Innsbruck, Austria. Whistler was the Host Mountain Resort of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympic Games, the first time the IOC has bestowed that designation on a community. Whistler hosted the alpine technical and speed events, the sliding events at Fitzsimmons Creek, the Nordic events in the nearby Callaghan Valley and all the Paralympic events except the opening ceremonies, sledge hockey and wheelchair curling; the Whistler Olympic and Paralympic Village housed around 2,400 athletes, coaches and officials. Post-games, the site has been turned into a new residential neighbourhood Cheakamus Crossing.
Whistler is located on British Columbia Highway 99, al
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Hades, in the ancient Greek religion and myth, is the god of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous. Hades was the eldest son of Rhea, although the last son regurgitated by his father, he and his brothers and Poseidon, defeated their father's generation of gods, the Titans, claimed rulership over the cosmos. Hades received the underworld, Zeus the sky, Poseidon the sea, with the solid earth, long the province of Gaia, available to all three concurrently. Hades was portrayed with his three-headed guard dog Cerberus; the Etruscan god Aita and the Roman gods Dis Pater and Orcus were taken as equivalent to Hades and merged into Pluto, a Latinization of Plouton, itself a euphemistic title given to Hades. The origin of Hades' name is uncertain, but has been seen as meaning "the unseen one" since antiquity. An extensive section of Plato's dialogue Cratylus is devoted to the etymology of the god's name, in which Socrates is arguing for a folk etymology not from "unseen" but from "his knowledge of all noble things".
Modern linguists have proposed the Proto-Greek form *Awides. The earliest attested form is Aḯdēs. West argues instead for an original meaning of "the one who presides over meeting up" from the universality of death. In Homeric and Ionic Greek, he was known as Áïdēs. Other poetic variations of the name include Aïdōneús and the inflected forms Áïdos, Áïdi, Áïda, whose reconstructed nominative case *Áïs is, not attested; the name as it came to be known in classical times was Háidēs. The iota became silent a subscript marking, omitted entirely. From fear of pronouncing his name, around the 5th century BC, the Greeks started referring to Hades as Plouton, with a root meaning "wealthy", considering that from the abode below come riches. Plouton became the Roman god who both distributed riches from below; this deity was a mixture of the Greek god Hades and the Eleusinian icon Ploutos, from this he received a priestess, not practiced in Greece. More elaborate names of the same genre were Ploutodótēs or Ploutodotḗr, meaning "giver of wealth".
Epithets of Hades include Agesander and Agesilaos, both from ágō and anḗr or laos, describing Hades as the god who carries away all. Nicander uses the form Hegesilaus, he was referred to as Zeus katachthonios, meaning "the Zeus of the Underworld", by those avoiding his actual name, as he had complete control over the Underworld. In Greek mythology, the god of the underworld, was the first-born son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea, he had three older sisters, Hestia and Hera, as well as a younger brother, all of whom had been swallowed whole by their father as soon as they were born. Zeus was the youngest child and through the machinations of their mother, Rhea, he was the only one that had escaped this fate. Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war; the war ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad and his two brothers and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule.
Zeus received the sky, Poseidon received the seas, Hades received the underworld, the unseen realm to which the souls of the dead go upon leaving the world as well as any and all things beneath the earth. Some myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his turnout, but had no choice and moved to his new realm. Hades obtained his wife and queen, through abduction at the behest of Zeus; this myth is the most important one. Helios told the grieving Demeter that Hades was not unworthy as a consort for Persephone: Aidoneus, the Ruler of Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless gods for your child, being your own brother and born of the same stock: for honor, he has that third share which he received when division was made at the first, is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells. Despite modern connotations of death as evil, Hades was more altruistically inclined in mythology. Hades was portrayed as passive rather than evil; that said, he was depicted as cold and stern, he held all of his subjects accountable to his laws.
Any other individual aspects of his personality are not given, as Greeks refrained from giving him much thought to avoid attracting his attention. Hades ruled the dead, assisted by others over; the House of Hades was described as full of "guests," though he left the Underworld. He cared little about what happened in the world above, as his primary attention was ensuring none of his subjects left, he forbade his subjects to leave his domain and would become quite enraged when anyone tried to leave, or if someone tried to steal the souls from his realm. His wrath was terri
Mount Cayley massif
The Mount Cayley massif is a group of mountains in the Pacific Ranges of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Located 45 km north of Squamish and 24 km west of Whistler, the massif resides on the edge of the Powder Mountain Icefield, it consists of an eroded but active stratovolcano that towers over the Cheakamus and Squamish river valleys. All major summits have elevations greater than 2,000 m, Mount Cayley being the highest at 2,385 m; the surrounding area has been inhabited by indigenous peoples for more than 7,000 years while geothermal exploration has taken place there for the last four decades. Part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, the Mount Cayley massif was formed by subduction zone volcanism along the western margin of North America. Eruptive activity began about 4,000,000 years ago and has since undergone three stages of growth, the first two of which built most of the massif; the latest eruptive period occurred sometime in the last 400,000 years with lesser activity continuing into the present day.
Future eruptions are to threaten neighbouring communities with pyroclastic flows and floods. To monitor this threat, the volcano and its surroundings are monitored by the Geological Survey of Canada. Eruption impact would be a result of the concentration of vulnerable infrastructure in nearby valleys; the massif resides in the middle of a north–south trending zone of volcanism called the Mount Cayley volcanic field. It consists predominantly of volcanoes that formed subglacially during the Late Pleistocene age, such as Pali Dome, Slag Hill, Ring Mountain and Ember Ridge, but activity continued at Pali Dome and Slag Hill into the Holocene epoch; the Mount Cayley volcanic field is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, which in turn represents a northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. Volcanism of the Cascade Arc is a result of the Juan de Fuca Plate sliding under the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. Three main summits comprise the Mount Cayley massif; the highest and northernmost is Mount Cayley with an elevation of 2,385 m.
Its northeastern flank abuts the southern end of the Powder Mountain Icefield. This is a 9 km long and 5 km wide irregularly-shaped glacier that trends to the northwest. Just southwest of Mount Cayley lies 2,341 m in elevation, it contains a jagged summit ridge of many slender rock pinnacles, the largest of, known as the Vulcan's Thumb. Wizard Peak with an elevation of 2,240 m is east of Pyroclastic Peak and is the lowest of the three main summits; as a stratovolcano, the Mount Cayley massif is built up of solidified lava and ash from successive volcanic eruptions. It is predominantly dacitic in composition, although rhyodacite is common, its original and current volumes remain uncertain. It may have had a volume as large as 13 km3, but erosion has since reduced it to glacially eroded crags; the modern volcano has an estimated volume of 8 km3 and is only a modest fraction of its total output of silicic eruptive products. It has a proximal relief of 550 m and a draping relief of 2,070 m, with a nearly vertical cliff more than 500 m high above the Turbid Creek valley.
Turbid Creek, Dusty Creek, Avalanche Creek and Shovelnose Creek flow from the slopes of the Mount Cayley massif. Deep seismic profiling 12.5 to 13 km below the massif has identified a large bright spot, a reflector interpreted to be a mid-crustal magma chamber or body of hot rock. Similar mid-crustal reflectors have been identified under subduction zone volcanoes in Japan; the Mount Cayley massif has experienced volcanic eruptions sporadically for the last 4,000,000 years, making it one of the most persistent eruptive centres in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt. Three primary eruptive stages in the history of the massif have been identified; the Mount Cayley and Vulcan's Thumb stages occurred between 4,000,000 and 600,000 years ago with the construction of the stratovolcano and plug domes. A 300,000-year-long period of quiescence followed, during which prolonged erosion destroyed much of the original volcanic structure; this was followed by the third and final Shovelnose stage about 300,000 to 200,000 years ago with the emplacement of parasitic lava domes and flows.
Although one of the Shovelnose domes has been potassium-argon dated at 310,000 years old, this date may be in error from excess argon. The Shovelnose stage rocks could be much younger less than 15,000 years old. Eruptions during the three stages produced volcanic rocks of felsic and intermediate compositions, including andesite and rhyodacite; the lack of evidence for volcano-ice interactions at the Mount Cayley massif implies that all eruptive stages most took place prior to glacial periods. This contrasts with many neighbouring volcanoes, which contain abundant volcanic glass and fine-scale columnar jointing from contact with ice during eruptions. Initial volcanic activity of the Mount Cayley massif 4,000,000 years ago corresponded with changes to the regional plate tectonics; this involved the separation of the Explorer and Juan de Fuca plates off the British Columbia Coast, which had some significant ramifications for regional geologic evolution. After this reorganization ceased, volcanism shifted westward from the Pemberton Volcanic Belt to establish the younger and active Garibaldi Volcanic Belt.
The westward shift in volcanism may have been related to steepening of the Juan de Fuca slab after the formation of the Explorer Plate. The early Mount Cayley stage was characterized by the eruption of felsic lava flows and pyroclastic rocks onto a crystalline bas
Mount Meager massif
The Mount Meager massif is a group of volcanic peaks in the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc of western North America, it is located 150 km north of Vancouver at the northern end of the Pemberton Valley and reaches a maximum elevation of 2,680 m; the massif is capped by several eroded volcanic edifices, including lava domes, volcanic plugs and overlapping piles of lava flows. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt has a long history of eruptions and poses a threat to the surrounding region. Any volcanic hazard ranging from landslides to eruptions could pose a significant risk to humans and wildlife. Although the massif has not erupted for more than 2,000 years, it could produce a major eruption. Teams such as the Interagency Volcanic Event Notification Plan are prepared to notify people threatened by volcanic eruptions in Canada; the Mount Meager massif produced the largest volcanic eruption in Canada in the last 10,000 years.
About 2,400 years ago, an explosive eruption formed a volcanic crater on its northeastern flank and sent avalanches of hot ash, rock fragments and volcanic gases down the northern flank of the volcano. Evidence for more recent volcanic activity has been documented at the volcano, such as hot springs and earthquakes; the Mount Meager massif has been the source of several large landslides in the past, including a massive debris flow in 2010 that swept down Meager Creek and the Lillooet River. The Mount Meager massif lies in the Coast Mountains, which extend from Vancouver to the Alaskan Panhandle for 1,600 km, it is about 300 cut by fjords, narrow inlets with steep cliffs created by glacial erosion. The Coast Mountains have a profound effect on British Columbia's climate. Lying just east of the Pacific Ocean, they shear off moisture-laden air coming off the ocean, causing heavy rainfall on their western slopes; this precipitation is among the most extreme in North America, feeding lush forests on the mountain range's western slopes.
Valleys surrounding the massif contain old-growth forests. The area features wetland habitats, plants of the cottonwood-willow-thimbleberry association and glaucous willowherbs. Wildlife such as wolves, moose, black-tailed deer, mountain goats and waterfowl inhabit the area as well as grizzly and black bears; the Mount Meager massif is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, the northernmost segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This volcanic belt includes cinder cones, calderas and subglacial volcanoes that have been active in the last 10,000 years; the latest explosive eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt occurred at a crater on the northeastern slope of the massif about 2,400 years ago, which forms a defined depression. The GVB extends north from the Watts Point volcano to at least as far as the Meager massif; because little is known about the volcanoes north of the massif, such as the Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier volcanic complexes, experts disagree about their nature. Some scientists regard the Silverthrone Caldera as the northernmost volcano of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, while others contend that the geology of the massif more matches that of the GVB.
It is unclear whether the Milbanke Sound Cones are part of the Garibaldi Belt or formed by different tectonic processes. However, there is evidence the Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier complexes are related to activity at the Cascadia subduction zone. Geologically these two volcanoes contain the same rock types as those found elsewhere in the Cascade Arc, including rhyolites, dacites and basaltic andesites; such rock types are produced by subduction zone volcanism indicating volcanism at Silverthrone and Franklin Glacier is related to subduction. If these two volcanoes are true Cascade Arc volcanoes, the Mount Meager massif is not the northernmost volcano of the Garibaldi Belt or the Cascade Arc. Volcanism in the Cascade Volcanic Arc is caused by subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone; this is a 1,094 km long fault zone lying 80 km off the Pacific Northwest from Northern California to southwestern British Columbia. The plates move at a relative rate of more than 10 mm per year at an oblique angle to the subduction zone.
Because of the huge fault area, the Cascadia subduction zone can produce large earthquakes of magnitude 7.0 or greater. The interface between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates remains locked for periods of 500 years. During these periods, stress builds up on the interface between the plates and causes tectonic uplift of the North American margin; when the plate slips, it releases 500 years of stored energy in a massive earthquake. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no deep oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia; the mouth of the Columbia River empties directly into the subduction zone and deposits silt at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, burying this large depression, or area of sunken land. Massive floods from prehistoric Glacial Lake Missoula during the Late Pleistocene deposited large amounts of sediment into the trench. However, as with other subduction zones the outer margin is being compressed like a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create enormous earthquakes such as the magnitude 9.0 Cascadia earthquake on January 26, 1700.
However earthquakes along the Cascadia