The Stratford Festival is an internationally renowned repertory theatre festival which operates from April to October in the city of Stratford, Canada. Founded by local journalist-turned-producer Tom Patterson, the festival was known as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival, the Shakespeare Festival and Stratford Shakespeare Festival before changing to the current name. Theatre-goers and playwrights flock to Stratford to take part — many of the greatest Canadian and American actors play roles at the Stratford festival, it was one of the first and is still one of the most prominent arts festivals in Canada and is recognized worldwide for its productions of Shakespearean plays. The Festival's primary mandate is to present productions of William Shakespeare's plays, but it produces a wide variety of theatre from Greek tragedy to Broadway style musicals and contemporary works. For some years, Shakespeare's work represented about a third of the offerings in the largest venue, the Festival Theatre.
By 2017 however, only three of the 14 productions were Shakespeare's works. The success of the festival changed the image of Stratford into one of a city where the arts and tourism play important roles in its economy; the festival attracts many tourists from outside Canada those British and American, is seen as a important part of Stratford's tourism sector. The Festival was founded as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival of Canada, due to Tom Patterson, a Stratford-native journalist who wanted to revitalize his town's economy by creating a theatre festival dedicated to the works of William Shakespeare, as the town shares the name of Shakespeare's birthplace, Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Stratford was a railway junction and major locomotive shop, was facing a disastrous loss of employment with the imminent elimination of steam power. Patterson achieved his goal after gaining encouragement from Mayor David Simpson and the local council, the Stratford Shakespearean Festival became a legal entity on October 31, 1952.
Established in Canadian theatre, Dora Mavor Moore helped put Patterson in touch with British actor and director Tyrone Guthrie, first with a transatlantic telephone call. On July 13, 1953, actor Alec Guinness spoke the first lines of the first play produced by the festival, a production of Richard III: "Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this son of York." Alec Guinness and Irene Worth were among the cast of Stratford's inaugural performance of Richard III, working for expenses only. This first performances took place in a concrete amphitheatre covered by giant canvas tent on the banks of the River Avon; the first of many years of Stratford Shakespeare Festival production history started with a six-week season opening on 13 July 1953 with Richard III and All's Well That Ends Well both starring Alec Guinness. The 1954 season ran for nine weeks and included Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and two Shakespeare plays, Measure for Measure and The Taming of the Shrew. Young actors during the first four seasons included several who went on to great success in subsequent years, Douglas Campbell, Timothy Findley, Don Harron, William Hutt and Douglas Rain.
Fund raising to build a permanent theatre was slow but was helped by donations from Governor General Vincent Massey and the Perth Mutual Insurance Company. The new Festival Theatre was dedicated on 30 June 1957, with seating for over 1,800 people; the design was deliberately intended to resemble a huge tent. That season's productions included Hamlet, Twelfth Night, the satirical My Fur Lady, The Turn of the Screw and Ibsen's Peer Gynt; the Festival Theatre's thrust stage was designed by British designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch to resemble both a classic Greek amphitheatre and Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, has become a model for other stages in North America and Great Britain. Tony Award-nominee Scott Wentworth has performed within the festival's stage productions on numerous occasions since 1985, beginning with The Glass Menagerie, the festival has helped Sara Topham found herself with a career in acting, performing from 2000 to 2011, a young, unknown Christopher Walken appeared in Stratford's 1968 stage productions of Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream, portraying Romeo and Lysander respectively.
Long-serving Artistic Director Richard Monette retired in 2007 after holding the position for fourteen seasons. He was replaced with an artistic team consisting of General Director Antoni Cimolino and Artistic Directors Marti Maraden, Des McAnuff, Don Shipley. On March 12, 2008 it was announced that Shipley and Maraden would be stepping down, leaving Des McAnuff as sole Artistic Director. In 2013 Des McAnuff was replaced by Antoni Cimolino as Artistic DirectorAs of 2012, the Festival was in a deficit of $3.4 million, but had a surplus of $3.1 million by 2015, under the control of Cimolino and executive director Anita Gaffney. They had not yet reached the target of a half million ticket sales for the season but had achieved a significant increase in the number of new patrons to the theatres; the 2018 season offers a wide range of productions. Those at the Festival Theatre include The Tempest, Julius Caesar, To Kill a Mockingbird and The Music Man. Two other Shakespeare plays and The Comedy of Errors are joined by Oscar Wilde's An Ideal Husband and Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night.
On 17 February 2015, AP News reported that the Stratford Shakespeare Festival plans to film all of Shakespeare's plays. Well known actors who have participated in the festival include Alan Bates, Brian Bedford, Martha Burns, Jackie Burroughs, Zoe Caldwell, Douglas Campbell, Len Cariou, Brent Carver, P
The Abbey Theatre known as the National Theatre of Ireland, in Dublin, Ireland, is one of the country's leading cultural institutions. First opening to the public on 27 December 1904, despite losing its original building to a fire in 1951, it has remained active to the present day; the Abbey was the first state-subsidized theatre in the English-speaking world. Since July 1966, the Abbey has been located at 26 Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1. In its early years, the theatre was associated with the writers of the Irish Literary Revival, many of whom were involved in its founding and most of whom had plays staged there; the Abbey served as a nursery for many of leading Irish playwrights, including William Butler Yeats, Lady Gregory, Seán O'Casey and John Millington Synge, as well as leading actors. In addition, through its extensive programme of touring abroad and its high visibility to foreign American, audiences, it has become an important part of the Irish cultural brand; the Abbey arose from three distinct bases.
The first was the seminal Irish Literary Theatre. Founded by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and W. B. Yeats in 1899—with assistance from George Moore—it presented plays in the Antient Concert Rooms and the Gaiety Theatre, which brought critical approval but limited public interest. Lady Gregory envisioned a society promoting "ancient idealism" dedicated to crafting works of Irish theatre pairing Irish culture with European theatrical methods; the second base involved the work of two Dublin directors and Frank Fay. William worked in the 1890s with a touring company in Ireland and Wales, while his brother Frank was involved in amateur dramatics in Dublin. After William returned to Dublin, the Fay brothers staged productions in halls around the city and formed W. G. Fay's Irish National Dramatic Company, focused on the development of Irish acting talent. In April 1902, the Fays gave three performances of Æ's play Deirdre and Yeats' Cathleen Ní Houlihan in St Theresa's Hall on Clarendon Street; the performances played to a working-class audience rather than the usual middle-class Dublin theatregoers.
The run was a great success, thanks in part to the beauty and force of Maud Gonne, who played the lead in Yeats' play. The company continued at the Antient Concert Rooms, producing works by Seumas O'Cuisin, Fred Ryan and Yeats; the third base was the financial support and experience of Annie Horniman, a middle-class Englishwoman with previous experience of theatre production, having been involved in the presentation of George Bernard Shaw's Arms and the Man in London in 1894. An acquaintance of Yeats from London circles, including the Order of the Golden Dawn, she came to Dublin in 1903 to act as Yeats' unpaid secretary and to make costumes for a production of his play The King's Threshold, her money helped found the Abbey Theatre and, according to the critic Adrian Frazier, would "make the rich feel at home, the poor—on a first visit—out of place."The founding of the Theatre is connected with a broader wave of change found in European drama at the end of the nineteenth century. The founding of Théâtre Libre in Paris in 1887 and the work of the Moscow Art Theatre in 1895 represented a challenge to a “stale metropolitanism".
This movement echoes Lady Gregory's commitment and determination to make the Abbey Theatre a theatre for the people. Encouraged by the St Theresa's Hall success, Lady Gregory, Æ, John Millington Synge founded the Irish National Theatre Society in 1903 with funding from Horniman, they were joined by playwrights from Fay's company. At first, they staged performances in the Molesworth Hall; when the Mechanics' Theatre in Lower Abbey Street and an adjacent building in Marlborough Street became available after fire safety authorities closed it, Horniman and William Fay agreed to buy and refit the space to meet the society's needs. On 11 May 1904, the Society formally accepted Horniman's offer of the use of the building; as Horniman did not reside in Ireland, the royal letters patent required were granted in the name of Lady Gregory, although paid for by Horniman. The founders appointed William Fay theatre manager, responsible for training the actors in the newly established repertory company, they commissioned Yeats' brother Jack to paint portraits of all the leading figures in the society for the foyer, hired Sarah Purser to design stained glass for the same space.
On 27 December, the curtains went up on opening night. The bill consisted of three one-act plays, On Baile's Strand and Cathleen Ní Houlihan by Yeats, Spreading the News by Lady Gregory. On the second night, In the Shadow of the Glen by Synge replaced the second Yeats play; these two bills alternated over a five-night run. Frank Fay, playing Cúchulainn in On Baile's Strand, was the first actor on the Abbey stage. Although Horniman had designed the costumes, neither she nor Lady Gregory was present, as Horniman had returned to England. In addition to providing funding, her chief role with the Abbey over the coming years was to organise publicity and bookings for their touring productions in London and provincial England. In 1905 without properly consulting Horniman, Lady Gregory and Synge decided to turn the theatre into a limited liability company, the National Theatre Society Ltd. Annoyed by this treatment, Horniman hired Ben Iden Payne, a former Abbey employee, to help run a new repertory company which she founded in Manchester.
Leading actors Máire Nic Shiubhlaigh, Honor Lavelle, Emma Vernon, Máire Garvey, Frank Walker, Seamus O'Sullivan, Pádraic Colum and George Roberts left the Abbey. The press w
Cyrano de Bergerac (play)
Cyrano de Bergerac is a play written in 1897 by Edmond Rostand. There was a real Cyrano de Bergerac, the play is a fictionalisation following the broad outlines of his life; the entire play is written in verse, in rhyming couplets of twelve syllables per line close to the classical alexandrine form, but the verses sometimes lack a caesura. It is meticulously researched, down to the names of the members of the Académie française and the dames précieuses glimpsed before the performance in the first scene; the play has been translated and performed many times, is responsible for introducing the word "panache" into the English language. Cyrano is in fact famed for his panache, he himself makes reference to "my panache" in the play; the two most famous English translations are those by Anthony Burgess. Hercule Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, a cadet in the French Army, is a brash, strong-willed man of many talents. In addition to being a remarkable duelist, he is a gifted, joyful poet and is a musician.
However, he has an large nose, which causes him to doubt himself. This doubt prevents him from expressing his love for his distant cousin, the beautiful and intellectual Roxane, as he believes that his ugliness would prevent him the "dream of being loved by an ugly woman." The play opens in 1640, In the theatre of the Hôtel Burgundy. Members of the audience arrive, representing a cross-section of Parisian society from pickpockets to nobility. Christian de Neuvillette, a handsome new cadet, arrives with Lignière, a drunkard whom he hopes will identify the young woman with whom he has fallen in love. Lignière recognizes her as Roxane, tells Christian about her and the Count de Guiche's scheme to marry her off to the compliant Viscount Valvert. Meanwhile, Ragueneau and Le Bret are expecting Cyrano de Bergerac, who has banished the actor Montfleury from the stage for a month. After Lignière leaves, Christian intercepts a pickpocket and, in return for his freedom, the pickpocket tells Christian of a plot against Lignière.
Christian departs to try to warn him. The play "Clorise" begins with Montfleury's entrance. Cyrano disrupts the play, forces Montfleury off stage, compensates the manager for the loss of admission fees; the crowd is going to disperse when Cyrano lashes out at a pesky busybody is confronted by Valvert and duels with him while composing a ballade, wounding him as he ends the refrain When the crowd has cleared the theater, Cyrano and Le Bret remain behind, Cyrano confesses his love for Roxane. Roxane's duenna arrives, asks where Roxane may meet Cyrano privately. Lignière is brought to Cyrano, having learned that one hundred hired thugs are waiting to ambush him on his way home. Cyrano, now emboldened, vows to take on the entire mob single-handed, he leads a procession of officers and musicians to the Porte de Nesle; the next morning, at Ragueneau's bake shop, Ragueneau supervises various apprentice cooks in their preparations. Cyrano anxious about his meeting with Roxane, he is followed by a musketeer, a paramour of Ragueneau's domineering wife Lise the regular gathering of impoverished poets who take advantage of Ragueneau's hospitality.
Cyrano composes a letter to Roxane expressing his deep and unconditional love for her, warns Lise about her indiscretion with the musketeer, when Roxane arrives he signals Ragueneau to leave them alone. Roxane and Cyrano talk as she bandages his hand. Cyrano thinks that she is talking about him at first, is ecstatic, but Roxane describes her beloved as "handsome," and tells him that she is in love with Christian de Neuvillette. Roxane fears for Christian's safety in the predominantly Gascon company of Cadets, so she asks Cyrano to befriend and protect him; this he agrees to do. After she leaves, Cyrano's captain arrives with the cadets to congratulate him on his victory from the night before, they are followed by a huge crowd, including de Guiche and his entourage, but Cyrano soon drives them away. Le Bret takes him aside and chastises him for his behavior; the Cadets press him to tell the story of the fight. When Cyrano recounts the tale, Christian displays his own form of courage by interjecting several times with references to Cyrano's nose.
Cyrano is angry. Cyrano explodes, the shop is evacuated, Cyrano reveals his identity as Roxane's cousin. Christian confesses his love for Roxane but his inability to woo because of his lack of intellect and wit; when Cyrano tells Christian that Roxane expects a letter from him, Christian is despondent, having no eloquence in such matters. Cyrano offers his services, including his own unsigned letter to Roxane; the Cadets and others return to find the two men embracing, are flabbergasted. The musketeer from before, thinking it was safe to do so, teases Cyrano about his huge nose and receives a slap in the face, there was much rejoicing. Outside Roxane's house Ragueneau is conversing with Roxane's duenna; when Cyrano arrives, Roxane comes down and they talk about Christian: Roxane says that Christian's letters have been breathtaking—he is more intellectual than Cyrano, she declares. She says that she loves Christian; when de Guiche arrives, Cyrano hides inside Roxane's house. De Guiche tells Roxane.
He has been made a colonel of an army regiment that is
Benno Moiseiwitsch CBE was a Russian/Ukrainian born British pianist. Born in Odessa, Russian Empire, in present-day Ukraine, Moiseiwitsch began his studies at age seven with Dmitry Klimov at the Odessa Music Academy, he won the Anton Rubinstein Prize. He studied with Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna from 1904 to 1908 joined his own family in England, making his English debut at Reading in 1908, his London debut the following year, he toured the United States, India and South America. Moiseiwitsch was invited by Director Josef Hofmann to teach at the Curtis Institute of Music in 1927, he settled in England and took British citizenship in 1937. Moiseiwitsch was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1946, for his consistent contributions during the Second World War, performing hundreds of recitals to servicemen and charities, he married Daisy Kennedy, an Australian concert violinist, had two daughters and the set designer, Tanya Moiseiwitsch. He and his second wife Anita had a son, noted New Zealand National Radio broadcaster Boris Moiseiwitsch.
He was a friend of Nikolai Medtner and commissioned the Piano Concerto No. 3 "Ballade". Moiseiwitsch was known for his interpretations of the late Romantic repertoire the works of Sergei Rachmaninoff. At the piano, Moiseiwitsch was noted for his elegance, lyrical phrasing, rhythmic freedom, relaxed virtuosity, he made recordings for His Master's Voice starting in the 78RPM shellac era, continuing with long-playing records and into the early stereo era. His distinctive style can be heard in his recording of Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini and the Barcarolle, Ballade No. 4 and Nocturne, Op. 62 of Frédéric Chopin. In 1950 critic and musicologist Irving Kolodin said about the Ballade in F minor of Chopin played by Moiseiwitsch: "A featherweight touch in the opening section of this work, an apt feeling for its "once upon a time" narrative quality give Moiseiwitsch pre-eminence among present day interpreters...", thus summing up the sensitivity of the playing by Benno Moiseiwitsch.
He worked meticulously and amicably as a chamber musician, including in Rachmaninoff's Trio Élégiaque and Cello Sonata in G minor. American critic Harold C. Schonberg praised Moiseiwitsch's formidable technique and free approach to the music, adding that such freedom was "always tempered by impeccable musicality." There is no comprehensive reissue of Moiseiwitsch's entire discography, but much of his recorded output is available on CD. Although there are duplicates of recordings across the labels, they differ in sound quality because of the different restoration techniques employed by the companies. Vol. 1: SCHUMANN: Kinderszenen / MUSORGSKY: Pictures at an Exhibition Vol. 2: LISZT: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 / WEBER-TAUSIG: Rondo Brillante, etc. Vol. 3: TCHAIKOVSKY: Piano Concertos Nos. 1 and 2 Vol. 4: RACHMANINOV: Piano Concertos Nos. 1 and 2 and Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini Vol. 5: GRIEG / SAINT-SAENS: Piano Concertos / LISZT: Hungarian Fantasy Vol. 6: DELIUS: Piano Concerto / RAVEL: Jeux d'eau, etc.
Vol. 7: RACHMANINOV: Preludes / MEDTNER: Sonata, etc. Vol. 8: BEETHOVEN: Piano Concertos Nos. 3 and 5 Vol. 9: BEETHOVEN: Piano Sonatas Nos. 8, 14, 21 Vol. 10: MOISEIWITSCH, Benno: Acoustic Recordings 1916–1925 Vol. 11: CHOPIN: Piano Works Vol. 12: CHOPIN: 24 Preludes / Ballades / Fantaisie-Impromptu Vol. 13: CHOPIN: Recordings 1939–1952 BEETHOVEN/BRAHMS/FRANCK: Violin Sonatas — Moiseiwitsch accompanies Jascha Heifetz in Beethoven's Violin Sonata No. 9 in A major, Op. 47 The complete Rachmaninov recordings 1937–43 Benno Moiseiwitsch plays SAINT-SAENS Concerto 2 / GRIEG Concerto / LISZT Hungarian Fantasia Benno Moiseiwitsch plays Beethoven Volume 1 Benno Moiseiwitsch plays Beethoven Volume 2 Benno Moiseiwitsch plays Chopin Volume 1 Benno Moiseiwitsch plays Chopin Volume 2 Benno Moiseiwitsch plays Tchaikovsky Benno Moiseiwitsch – The Complete Acoustic Recordings Benno Moiseiwitsch Vol 1 – Brahms, Mendelssohn, et al. Moiseiwitsch In Recital Benno Moiseiwitsch Plays Schumann & Brahms Chopin, Weber, Medtner, et al. / Benno Moiseiwitsch Delius: Concertos for Violin and Piano, etc.
Moiseiwitsch – Schumann, Grieg: Piano Concertos Benno Moiseiwitsch 3-CD set – Beethoven Piano sonata No. 21 / Schumann – Kreisleriana Op. 16 / Mussorgsky – Pictures at an Exhibition / Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 5 in E flat, Op. 73 / Rachmaninov – Rhapsody on a theme of Paganini, Op. 43 /Chopin – Ballade No. 3 in A flat, Op. 47 / Moiseiwitsch in Interview Moisewitsch In Recital – Chopin, Liszt Rachmaninov Piano Concerto No.2, Beethoven Piano Concerto No.5 Benno Moiseiwitsch Benno Moiseiwitsch — Live recordings of Delius's Piano Concerto and Rachmaninov's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini from the Proms in 1955. Included is a studio recording of Rachmaninov's 2nd Piano Concerto from 1955. MOISEIWITSCH, Maurice. Moiseiwitsch, biography of a Concert Pianist, London: F. Muller, 1965. Georges Cziffra — Bonus footage of Moiseiwitsch playing Wagner-Liszt: Overture to Tannhauser The Art of Piano: Great Pianists of the 20th Century — Moiseiwitsch plays Rachmaninov's Piano Concerto No.2, Prelude in B min
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Central School of Art and Design
The Central School of Art and Design was a public school of fine and applied arts in London, England. It offered degree level courses, it was established in 1896 by the London County Council as the Central School of Crafts. Central became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with Saint Martin's School of Art to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design; the Central School of Arts and Crafts was established in 1896 by the London County Council. It grew directly from the Crafts movement of William Morris and John Ruskin; the first principal – from 1896 to 1900 as co-principal with George Frampton – was the architect William Richard Lethaby, from 1896 until 1912. He was succeeded in 1912 by Fred Burridge; the school was at first housed in rented from the Regent Street Polytechnic. In 1908 it moved to purpose-built premises in the London Borough of Camden. In the same year the Royal Female School of Art, established in 1842, was merged into the school; the Central School of Arts and Crafts was renamed the Central School of Art and Design on 1 May 1966.
It became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with Saint Martin's School of Art to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. The alumni of the Central School of Art and Design include: Terence Conran and writer, founder of Habitat Lucian Freud, painter Eric Gill and typographer Kathleen Hale and creator of Orlando the Marmalade Cat David Nightingale Hicks, interior decorator and designer Mike Leigh, film director, theatre director, writer Bill Moggridge, designer of the first laptop computer Victor Pasmore, abstract artist Gregoire Boonzaier, South African impressionist Vivian Stanshall, musician, of the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band Joe Strummer, musician, of The Clash Robert Collins, Stained-Glass Artist of Cincinnati, Ohio
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges