Cai Yuanpei was a Chinese educator, president of Peking University, and founder of the Academia Sinica. He was known for his evaluation of Chinese culture and synthesis of Chinese. At Peking University he assembled influential figures in the New Culture, born in Shānyīn County, Shaoxing prefecture, Cai was appointed to the Hanlin Imperial Academy at 26. Subsequently, he returned to Germany, and went to France, Cai returned to China in 1916 and served as the President of Peking University the following year. There he resumed his support, begun in his Paris years with Li Shizeng, for the Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement, in 1919, after the student leaders of the May Fourth demonstrators were jailed, Cai resigned in protest. Meanwhile, he and Xu Beihong wrote regularly for the Daily University of Peking University that dealt with wider issues just campus politics, Xu addressed issues of Art and Art History and in 1920 a university art journal called Painting Miscellany was published. After resigning again in 1922, he spent a period of withdrawal in France, returning in 1926, he supported his fellow-provincial Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang Partys efforts to unite the country.
Along with Wu Zhihui, Li Shizeng, and Zhang Renjie, he was known as one of the Four Elders of the Party, and he was appointed president of the Control Yuan, but soon resigned. He and a circle of colleagues founded the China League for Civil Rights which criticized the national government. The situation worsened, the League could not attain the release from jail of Chen Duxiu, Cais former dean at Peking University, for instance. In June 1933, the Academia Sinicas academic administrator and co-founder of the League, Yang Quan, was shot, after a period of shock and reflection, Cai retired from public view in a statement denouncing the political repression of the Nanjing government. After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, partly because of declining health, instead of accompanying the national government to Sichuan and he lived there in seclusion until his death in March 1940 at the age of 72. Cai advocated the importance of five ways of life — Virtue, Health and Beauty — core values that are still taught in schools today in Taiwan, Hong Kong.
He was a proponent of womens right to divorce and remarry, Cai Yuanpei, Gelehrter und Mittler zwischen Ost und West. Wilhelm von Humboldt und Cai Yuanpei, eine vergleichende Analyse zweier klassischer Bildungskonzepte in der deutschen Aufklärung und in der ersten chinesischen Republik, Tsai Yuan-pei, in Howard L. Boorman, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Republican China Volume 3 pp. 295–299. The Power of Position, Beijing University and Chinese Political Culture, education in China les jean Jacques Rousseau en Chine, Cai Yuan Pei et John Dewey CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform Tsai Yuan-pei 蔡元培 from Biographies of Prominent Chinese c.1925
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Korea, Singapore and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or lineage names, and shi or clan names, Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children. Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong, traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous. The colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean ordinary folks, prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was a difference between clan names or xing and lineages names or shi, Xing were surnames held by the noble clans. They generally are composed of a nü radical which has taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou, the female radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe.
This combination seems to designate specifically a female and could mean lady of such or such clan, prior to the Qin Dynasty China was largely a fengjian society. In this way, a nobleman would hold a shi and a xing, after the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames gradually spread to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred. Many shi surnames survive to the present day, according to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24. The following are some of the sources, These were usually reserved for the central lineage of the royal family. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their form to modern days as frequently occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang, state name, Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity. These are some of the most common Chinese surnames, name of a fief or place of origin, Fiefdoms were often granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used.
An example is Di, Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang, there are some two hundred examples of this identified, often of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor, Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples,200 of which are two-character surnames, often an ancestors courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the character of his grandfathers courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames, seniority within the family, In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family
Li Peng is a Chinese politician. For much of the 1990s Li was ranked second in the Communist Party of China hierarchy behind Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin and he retained his seat on the CPC Politburo Standing Committee until 2002. Li was the son of an early Communist revolutionary, but was orphaned as a child when his father was executed by the Kuomintang, after meeting Zhou Enlai in Sichuan Li was raised by Zhou and his wife, Deng Yingchao. Li was trained to be an engineer in the USSR and worked at an important national power company after he returned to China and he escaped the political turmoil of the 1950s, 60s, and 70s due to his political connections and his employment in the company. After Deng Xiaoping became Chinas leader in the late 1970s, Li took a number of important and powerful political positions. As Premier, Li was the most visible representative of Chinas government who backed the use of force to quell the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Li advocated a conservative approach to Chinese economic reform, which placed him at odds with General Secretary Zhao Ziyang.
During his time in office he was at the helm of the controversial Three Gorges Dam project and he and his family managed a large Chinese power monopoly, which the Chinese government broke up after his term as premier expired. Li was born as Li Yuanpeng in Shanghai, but with roots in Chengdu. He is the son of writer Li Shuoxun, one of the earliest CPC revolutionaries, in 1931 Li was orphaned at age three when his father was executed by the Kuomintang for treason and for support of armed splittism. It was generally believed that Li was adopted by Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao, according to Li, he met Deng in Chengdu in 1939, who took him to Changchun to meet Zhou. Zhou was in the Communist base of Yanan, and they did not meet until late 1940, in 1941, when Li was twelve, Zhou sent Li to Yanan, where Li studied until 1945. As a seventeen-year-old, in 1945, Li joined the Communist Party of China, like other Communist Party cadres of the third generation, Li gained a technical background. In 1941 he began studying at the Institute of Natural Science in Yanan, in 1948 he was sent to study at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, majoring in hydroelectric engineering.
A year later, in 1949, Zhou Enlai became Premier of the newly declared Peoples Republic of China, during his time in the USSR, Li was the Chairman of the Chinese Students Association in the Soviet Union. When Li returned to China in 1955, the country was firmly under the control of the Communist Party, from the time of his return until 1979, Li engineered and managed a number of major power projects across China, beginning his career in Manchuria. Li advanced politically after the ascent of Deng Xiaoping, and served as the Vice-Minister and Minister of Power between 1979 and 1983, in 1982–1983 Li served as the vice-minister of Water Conservancy and Power. Much of Lis rapid political promotion was due to the support of Party elder Chen Yun, Li joined the Central Committee at the Twelfth National Congress in 1982
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
His Marxist–Leninist theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Mao adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University and became a member of the Communist Party of China. On October 1,1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the Peoples Republic of China, in the following years Mao solidified his control through land reform campaigns against landlords, and perceived enemies of the state he termed as counter-revolutionaries. In 1957, he launched the Great Leap Forward campaign that aimed to rapidly transform Chinas economy from an economy to an industrial one. The campaign contributed to a famine, whose death toll is estimated at between 15 and 45 million. In 1972, Mao welcomed American President Richard Nixon in Beijing, signalling a policy of opening China, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976, and died in September, aged 82. He was succeeded as Paramount leader by Hua Guofeng, who was sidelined and replaced by Deng.
A controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history, Mao Zedong was born on December 26,1893 in Shaoshan village, Hunan Province, China. His father, Mao Yichang, was an impoverished peasant who had become one of the wealthiest farmers in Shaoshan. Growing up in rural Hunan, Mao Zedong described his father as a stern disciplinarian, Maos mother, Wen Qimei, was a devout Buddhist who tried to temper her husbands strict attitude. Zedong too became a Buddhist, but abandoned this faith in his mid-teenage years, at age 8, Mao was sent to Shaoshan Primary School. At age 13, Mao finished primary education, and his father united him in a marriage to the 17-year-old Luo Yigu. Mao refused to recognise her as his wife, becoming a critic of arranged marriage. Luo was locally disgraced and died in 1910, interested in history, Mao was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte. The famine spread to Shaoshan, where starving peasants seized his fathers grain and he disapproved of their actions as morally wrong, but claimed sympathy for their situation.
At age 16, Mao moved to a primary school in nearby Dongshan. In 1911, Mao began middle school in Changsha, Revolutionary sentiment was strong in the city, where there was widespread animosity towards Emperor Puyis absolute monarchy and many were advocating republicanism. The republicans figurehead was Sun Yat-sen, an American-educated Christian who led the Tongmenghui society, in Changsha, Mao was influenced by Suns newspaper, The Peoples Independence, and called for Sun to become president in a school essay
Nanjing Normal University
Nanjing Normal University is a normal university in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. The International Research And Training Centre For Rural Education is affiliated with the universitys Education Faculty, at present, NNU has three campuses, Xianlin Campus, Suiyuan Campus, and Zijin Campus, among which Suiyuan Campus is renowned as the most beautiful campus of the Orient. It has 7 programs that are ranked top 10 in China according to the China Discipline Ranking by the Ministry of Education, and 3 programs listed among top 1% of ESI. It embraces diverse branches of learning such as philosophy, law, humanities, science, agriculture, management, etc. The history of Nanjing Normal University can be traced back to 1902 with the establishment of Sanjiang Normal College, the other origin of Nanjing Normal University is the Nanking University which was established in 1888. And it developed into Private Ginling University in 1910, in 1951, Private Ginling University and Private Ginling Women Arts and Science College, which was known as Private Ginling Women University, were integrated to National Ginling University.
In 1984, Nanjing Normal College was renamed Nanjing Normal University, in 1996, it entered the list of key universities of Project 211. In 2000, Nanjing Power College was incorporated into the university, Nanjing Normal University is now ranked as one of the top 5 normal universities and top 50 comprehensive universities in China with a number of national top subjects. NNU was one of the first higher institutions in China which resumed graduate programs in 1978. There are 137 Ph. D. supervisors and 450 MA supervisors and its student enrollment is over 4,600. Since 1978, over 1,750 students have received masters degrees, the university has enrolled postgraduate students from all over the world including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Russia. Instructors and students have gone to abroad for joint education programs. In 2006, the Nanjing Normal University-Jiangsu Institute of Education joint training 4-years undergraduate program was permitted by the Ministry of Education of PRC. The university has three campuses, the National unit key cultural protection, which is called as The most beautiful campus in the East.
Zijin Xianlin Xianlin campus is the newest and largest campus of Nanjing Normal University, with a library and stadium. The library, subsidized by Zhu Jingwen, is the largest in terms of the building area in Jiangsu Province. The campus itself occupies an area of 5,200 mu, Xianlin campus is divided into four parts, west and south. Most of the Arts professional concentrated in Xianlin campus, most of the undergraduates are studying in this campus
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007.
Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments.
The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions
Zhou Enlai was the first Premier of the Peoples Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976. Zhou served under Chairman Mao Zedong and was instrumental in the Communist Partys rise to power, and in consolidating its control, forming foreign policy, a skilled and able diplomat, Zhou served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958. He helped devise policies regarding the disputes with the U. S. Taiwan. Zhou survived the purges of other top officials during the Cultural Revolution, while Mao dedicated most of his years to political struggle and ideological work, Zhou was the main driving force behind the affairs of state during much of the Cultural Revolution. His attempts at mitigating the Red Guards damage and his efforts to protect others from their wrath made him popular in the Cultural Revolutions stages. As Mao Zedongs health began to decline in 1971 and 1972, Zhous health was failing, and he died eight months before Mao on 8 January 1976. The massive public outpouring of grief in Beijing turned to anger towards the Gang of Four, although succeeded by Hua Guofeng, it was Deng Xiaoping, Zhous ally, who was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and eventually take Maos place as paramount leader by 1978.
Zhou Enlai was born in Huaian, Jiangsu province on 5 March 1898, the Zhou family was originally from Shaoxing in Zhejiang province. During the late Qing dynasty, Shaoxing was famous as the home of such as Zhous. To move up the ladder in civil service, the men in these often had to be transferred. Even after the move, the continued to view Shaoxing as its ancestral home. Zhous grandfather, Zhou Panlong, and his granduncle, Zhou Junang, were the first members of the family to move to Huaian, Panlong apparently passed the provincial examinations, and Zhou Enlai claimed that Panlong served as magistrate governing Huaian county. Zhous father, Zhou Yineng, was the second of Zhou Panlongs four sons, Zhous birth mother, surnamed Wan, was the daughter of a prominent Jiangsu official. Like many others, the fortunes of Zhous large family of scholar-officials were decimated by a great economic recession that China suffered in the late 19th century. Zhou Yineng had a reputation for honesty, gentleness and concern for others and he was unsuccessful in his personal life, and drifted across China doing various occupations, working in Beijing, Anhui, Inner Mongolia and Sichuan.
Zhou Enlai remembered his father as being away from home. Soon after birth, Zhou Enlai was adopted by his fathers youngest brother, Zhou Yigan, apparently the adoption was arranged because the family feared Yigan would die without an heir. Zhou Yigan died soon after the adoption, and Zhou Enlai was raised by Yigans widow, madame Chen was from a scholarly family and received a traditional literary education
Feng Yuxiang was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui. He served as Vice Premier of the Republic of China from 1928 to 1930 and he was known as the Christian General for his zeal to convert his troops and the Betrayal General for his penchant to break with the establishment. In 1911, he was an officer in the ranks of Yuan Shikais Beiyang Army and he rose to high rank within Wu Peifus Zhili warlord faction but launched the Beijing coup in 1924 that knocked Zhili out of power and brought Sun Yat-sen to Beijing. He spent his years supporting the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang. As the son of an officer in the Qing Imperial Army and he joined the Huai Army when he was 11, as a deputy soldier, the lowest rank in the army who only received uniform and food, but no salary like regular soldiers. By the age of 16, Feng had proved himself and became a regular, Feng was hard working and motivated, and in 1902, he was reassigned to Yuan Shikais newly established Beiyang Army.
During the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, Feng joined the Luanzhou Uprising against the Qing Court, the Uprising was suppressed by the Beiyang Army and Feng was imprisoned by Yuan Shikai. In 1914, he regained military rank and spent the four years defending Yuans regime. In July 1914, as commander, he participated in the suppression of the Bailang Peasant Uprising in Henan. During the National Protection War of 1915-16, he was sent to Sichuan to fight the Anti-Yuan National Protection Army, in April 1917, he was stripped of his military rank but still led his old troops in the campaign against Zhang Xun and was restored to his rank. The capture of Changde in June earned him back his titles, by August 1921, he was promoted to command a division and was based in Shaanxi. Feng, like many officers, was involved in revolutionary activity and was nearly executed for treason. He joined Yuan Shikais Beiyang Army and with the help and advice of Chinese diplomat Wang Zhengting, converted to Christianity in 1914, Fengs career as a warlord began soon after the collapse of the Yuan Shikai government in 1916.
Feng, distinguished himself from other regional militarists by governing his domains with a mixture of paternalistic Christian socialism and he forbade prostitution and the sale of opium and morphia. From 1919, he was known as the Christian General, in 1923, British Protestant Christian missionary Marshall B. He was reputed to have liked baptizing his troops with water from a fire hose, but no such incident is mentioned in Sheridens detailed biography, or in Broomhalls account. Both Broomhall and Sheriden say that baptism was taken very seriously, journalist John Gunther, in his 1939 book Inside Asia, specifically denied that such mass baptisms took place. In the early 1920s, Feng rose to prominence in the Zhili clique of warlords and this Zhili clique defeated the Fengtian clique, headed by Zhang Zuolin, father of Zhang Xueliang, in the First Zhili-Fengtian War in 1922
John Dewey was an American philosopher and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Dewey as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, a well-known public intellectual, he was a major voice of progressive education and liberalism. Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he wrote about many other topics, including epistemology, aesthetics, logic, social theory. He was an educational reformer for the 20th century. The overriding theme of Deweys works was his belief in democracy, be it in politics, education or communication. As Dewey himself stated in 1888, while still at the University of Michigan, John Dewey was born in Burlington, Vermont, to a family of modest means. Dewey was one of four born to Archibald Sprague Dewey.
The second born son and first John born to Archibald and Lucina died in an accident on January 17,1859. On October 20,1859 John Dewey was born, forty weeks after the death of his older brother. Like his older, surviving brother, Davis Rich Dewey, he attended the University of Vermont, where he was initiated into Delta Psi, and graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1879. A significant professor of Deweys at the University of Vermont was Henry A. P. Torrey, Dewey studied privately with Torrey between his graduation from Vermont and his enrollment at Johns Hopkins University. After studying with George Sylvester Morris, Charles Sanders Peirce, Herbert Baxter Adams, in 1884, he accepted a faculty position at the University of Michigan with the help of George Sylvester Morris. His unpublished and now lost dissertation was titled The Psychology of Kant, in 1894 Dewey joined the newly founded University of Chicago where he developed his belief in Rational Empiricism, becoming associated with the newly emerging Pragmatic philosophy.
Disagreements with the administration ultimately caused his resignation from the University, in 1899, Dewey was elected president of the American Psychological Association. From 1904 until his retirement in 1930 he was professor of philosophy at both Columbia University and Columbia Universitys Teachers College, in 1905 he became president of the American Philosophical Association. He was a member of the American Federation of Teachers. Along with the historians Charles A, beard and James Harvey Robinson, and the economist Thorstein Veblen, Dewey is one of the founders of The New School
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities