Arani Municipality is the first municipal section of the Arani Province in the Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Its seat is Arani. At the time of census 2001 the municipality had 11,542 inhabitants, it is bordered to the north by the Tiraque Province, to the east by the Vacas Municipality, to the south by the Mizque Province and to the west by the Punata Province. The municipality consists of the following three cantons: The people are predominantly indigenous citizens of Quechua descent; every year on August 24 the population of Arani celebrates one of its most important Catholic festivities, Virgen La Bella, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, whose image is venerated with much devotion by the residents and people from abroad. K'illi K'illi Arani Municipality: Population data and map
Cercado Province (Cochabamba)
Cercado is a province in the Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Its capital is Cochabamba, the capital of the department; the province consists of Cochabamba Municipality. It is identical to the province; the people are predominantly indigenous citizens of Aymaran descent. Ref.: obd.descentralizacion.gov.bo The languages spoken in the Cercado Province are Spanish, Quechua and Guaraní. The following table shows the number of those belonging to the recognized group of speakers. Ref.: obd.descentralizacion.gov.bo Tunari National Park Laguna Alalay www.ine.gov.bo Population data and map of Cercado Province
Arani is a province in Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. Its capital is Arani, situated about 53 km from Cochabamba. Arani is known for its bread but for the town's artisan wickerwork; some of the highest mountains of the province are listed below: The province is divided into two municipalities which are further subdivided into four cantons. Arani Municipality consists of three cantons, Arani and Collpaciaco. Vacas Municipality is not further subdivided, so Vacas Canton and Vacas Municipality are identical; the people in the Arani Province are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. The languages spoken in the Arani Province are Quechua and Spanish; the following table shows the number of those belonging to the recognized group of speakers. Festivals and Fairs: August 14–15: Saint Isidore the Laborer in Qullpayaku, 2 days August 24–25: Virgen la Bella in Arani, 2 days September 20: Farmers' fair in Tacopaya, 1 day 3rd week in November: Bread fair in Arani, 1 day December 4: Saint Barbara in VacasOther tourist attractions include the church of Saint Bartholomew in Arani, built in 1610, dedicated to the Virgen la Bella, the lakes in Vacas Municipality: Parqu Qucha, Asiru Qucha, Junt'utuyu, Pilawit'u, Qullpa Qucha and Yanatama.
Ismael Montes Teacher Training College www.bolivia-online.net Map of Arani Province
Punata is a province in the middle of the Cochabamba Department, located about 45 km south of the city of Cochabamba. Its capital is Punata; the province is limited to the north by the Chapare Province, to the north-east by the Tiraque Province, to the east by the Arani Province, to the south-east by the Mizque Province, to the south by the Esteban Arze Province and to the west by the Germán Jordán Province. Its archaeological and historical sites are the main interest for foreign tourists. Punata Province is divided into five municipalities which are further subdivided into cantons; the people are predominantly indigenous citizens of Quechuan descent. By 2001 census was counted 47735 inhabitants and it rose to 54409 inhabitants by the 2012 census; the economic center is the city of Punata with 28707 inhabitants. Ref: obd.descentralizacion.gov.bo The languages spoken in the Punata Province are Quechua and Spanish. The following table shows the number of those belonging to the recognized group of speakers.
Reference: The Punata-Tiraque irrigation project near Cochabamba, BoliviaThe alluvial fan of Punata in the Valle Alto is fed by The Rio Paracaya river with a high average discharge. The fan is flat; the region of Punata, at the upper end of the Valle Alto, at about 2800 m altitude, has a summer rainfall of 400 to 450 mm starting in the second half of November end ending in March. Maize is here the most important food crop, followed by potatoes. Alfalfa is the dominant fodder crop, followed by maize straw.. These crops could, of old, only be planted because of the existence of additional water resources like runoff, river base-flow and groundwater. In the winter months, crop growth is restricted due to the occurrence of night frosts in June and July, absence of rains; the total rural population in Punata is estimated at 25 000. There are about 4000 families of; the farms are small. The average size is 1.3 ha. The modal size of farm is smaller, about 0.7 ha. The rainfall distribution in Punata is characterized by a wet season from December to March, a dry season from May to October, transition months in April and November.
The average yearly total is 428 mm. The rainfall with a probability of exceedance of 75% on a year basis is 360 mm. Rainfall is not reliable: in the period from 1966 to 1983, the yearly total varied between 246 mm to 591 mm; the river floods during the rainy summer period can be used for irrigation by anyone. When the river flow recedes, the stream can only be used for rotational irrigation by those who are entitled to take part in it. By the month of May the river base-flow becomes reduced, a drought period sets in, lasting into November. Irrigation is considered desirable to start the cropping season in August/September, so that an early harvest can be obtained; the early harvest reduces peak labor requirements. Further, the irrigation reduces the risk of crop failure and it permits diversification of agricultural produce. There are some farming communities that have refrained in the past from the extra effort to obtain additional irrigation water and who seemed to be content with purely rain-fed cropping.
At a modest scale, irrigation from deep-wells is practiced. In order to satisfy the needs of the majority of the farmers who wish to have additional irrigation water, the irrigation project Punata-Tiraque began to be developed from 1970 onwards; the project entailed the construction of a complicated system of dams and reservoirs up in the Andean mountains. The gross area of the Punata projects is estimated at 4600 ha, 90% of which can be used for agriculture or animal husbandry. About 1150 ha of this presently receive irrigation water, either surface water derived from the Laguna Robada or Lluska Kocha dam, or water pumped from the 16 deep wells in the project area. In addition there are a few hundred hectares; the traditional irrigation method is based on handling large irrigation flows per farm at large intervals. The intake structures in the Pucara Mayu river, at the place where it enters the alluvial fan of Punata, would alternately pass water from each of the reservoir systems and the natural mita water.
The new system has been designed for smaller flows with shorter rotation intervals, but it works continuously for the whole area, so that there is no need anymore to separate the various sources of water. It covers a much larger area than the traditional system and it incorporates the associations of the mita systems, the associations of tube-well systems as well as the persons who had no previous water rights. Hence, the new irrigation system makes it necessary to replace the traditional water rights by a new set of rights. In addition, the farmers will have to get used to new water distribution methods and new field irrigation techniques; because the new irrigation zones do not correspond to the boundaries of the existing, Comité’s de Riego, not only the water management but the organizational structure will have to be adjusted to the new situation. Illustrations of the Punata alluvial fan Atuq Wachana K'illi K'illi Wila Jaqhi Map of Punata Province www.ine.gov.bo Informe sobre Desarollo Humano, Cochabamba
Provinces of Bolivia
A province is the second largest administrative division in Bolivia, after a department. Each department is divided into provinces. There are 112 provinces; the country's provinces are further divided into 337 municipalities which are administered by an alcalde and municipal council. Departments of Bolivia Municipalities of Bolivia Instituto Nacional de Estadística - Bolivia
Municipalities of Bolivia
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections. Municipalities are the third level of administrative divisions, below provinces; some of the provinces consist of only one municipality. In these cases the municipalities are identical to the provinces. Municipalities in Bolivia are each led by an executive office. Mayors were appointed by the national government from 1878 to 1942 and from 1949 to 1987. Local elections were held under the 1942 municipal code, in force until 1991; the 1985 Organic Law of Municipalities restored local elections for mayor and created a legislative body, the municipal council. In 1994, the entire territory of Bolivia was merged into municipalities, where only urban areas were organized as municipalities; as an effect of decentralization through the 1994 Law of Popular Participation the number of municipalities in Bolivia has risen from an initial twenty-four to 327, to 337, to 339. Of the 327 municipalities existing after 2005, 187 are inhabited by indigenous population.
New municipalities must have 5,000 in the case of border areas. The municipalities are as follows ordered by department: Baures Municipality Exaltación Municipality Guayaramerín Municipality Huacaraje Municipality Loreto Municipality, Beni Magdalena Municipality, Beni Puerto Siles Municipality Reyes Municipality Riberalta Municipality Rurrenabaque Municipality San Andrés Municipality, Beni San Borja Municipality San Ignacio Municipality, Beni San Javier Municipality, Beni San Joaquín Municipality, Beni San Ramón Municipality, Beni Santa Ana Municipality, Beni Santa Rosa Municipality, Beni Trinidad Municipality, Beni Aiquile Municipality Alalay Municipality Anzaldo Municipality Arani Municipality Arbieto Municipality Arque Municipality Ayopaya Municipality Bolívar Municipality, Cochabamba Capinota Municipality Chimoré Municipality Cliza Municipality Cocapata Municipality Cochabamba Municipality Colcapirhua Municipality Colomi Municipality Cuchumuela Municipality Entre Ríos Municipality, Cochabamba Mizque Municipality Morochata Municipality Muela Municipality Omereque Municipality Pasorapa Municipality Pocona Municipality Pojo Municipality Puerto Villarroel Municipality Punata Municipality Quillacollo Municipality Sacaba Municipality Sacabamba Municipality San Benito Municipality Santivañez Municipality Shinahota Municipality / Shinaota Municipality / Sinahota Municipality Sicaya Municipality Sipe Sipe Municipality Tacachi Municipality Tacopaya Municipality Tapacarí Municipality Tarata Municipality Tiquipaya Municipality Tiraque Municipality Toco Municipality Tolata Municipality Totora Municipality Tunari Municipality Vacas Municipality Vila Vila Municipality Vinto Municipality Azurduy Municipality Camargo Municipality, Chuquisaca Culpina Municipality El Villar Municipality Huacareta Municipality Huacaya Municipality Icla Municipality Incahuasi Municipality Mojocoya Municipality Camataqui Municipality Las Carreras Municipality Macharetí Municipality Monteagudo Municipality Padilla Municipality Poroma Municipality Presto Municipality San Lucas Municipality Sopachuy Municipality Sucre Municipality, Bolivia Tarabuco Municipality Tomina Municipality Villa Alcalá Municipality Villa Charcas Municipality Villa Serrano Municipality Villa Vaca Guzmán Municipality Villa Zudañez Municipality Tarvita Municipality Yotala Municipality Yamparáez Municipality Achacachi Municipality Achocalla Municipality Alto Beni Municipality Ancoraimes Municipality Apolo Municipality Aucapata Municipality Ayata Municipality Ayo Ayo Municipality Batallas Municipality Cairoma Municipality Cajuata Municipality Calacoto Municipality Calamarca Municipality Caquiaviri Municipality Caranavi Municipality Catacora Municipality Chacarilla Municipality Charaña Municipality Chúa Cocani Municipality Chulumani Municipality Chuma Municipality Collana Municipality Colquencha Municipality Colquiri Municipality Comanche Municipality Combaya Municipality Copacabana Municipality, La Paz Coripata Municipality Coro Coro Municipality Coroico Municipality Curva Municipality Desaguadero Municipality El Alto Municipality, La Paz Escoma Municipality General Juan José Pérez Municipality Guanay Municipality Guaqui Municipality Huatajata Municipality Huarina Municipality Humanata Municipality Ichoca Municipality Inquisivi Municipality Irupana Municipality Ixiamas Municipality La Asunta Municipality La Paz Municipality Laja Municipality Licoma Pampa Municipality Luribay Municipality Malla Municipality Mecapaca Municipality Mocomoco Municipality Nazacara de Pacajes Municipality Palca Municipality Palos Blancos Municipality Papel Pampa Municipality Patacamaya Municipality Pelechuco Municipality Pucarani Municipality Puerto Acosta Municipality Puerto Carabuco Municipality Puerto Pérez Municipality Quiabaya Municipality Quime Municipality San Buenaventura Municipality, La Paz San Pedro de Curahuara Municipality San Pedro de Tiquina Municipality Santiago de Callapa Municipality Santiago de Huata Municipality Santiago de Machaca Municipality Sapahaqui Municipality Sica Sica Municipality Sorata Municipality Tacacoma Municipality Tiwanaku Municipality Tipuani Municipality Tito Yupanqui Municipality Umala Municipality Viacha Municipality Waldo Ballivián Municipality Yaco Municipality Yanacachi Municipality Andamarca Municipality Antequera Municipality Belén de Andamarca Municipality Caracollo Municipality Carangas Municipality Challapata Municipality Chipaya Municipality Choquecota Municipality Coipasa Municipality Corque Municipality Cruz de Machacamarca Municipality Curahuara de Carangas Municipality El Choro Municipalit
Rubén Vargas Ugarte
Rubén Vargas Ugarte was a jesuit priest and Peruvian historian. He was the third president of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, was ordained a priest in the Society of Jesus in 1921, he was the Director of the National Library of Peru. General History of Peru. Edition 12 Vol. Milla Batres, Lima 1971-1984; the first five volumes are devoted to the times of the Viceroyalty and Emancipation, the other to the Republic until 1980. The last volume the completed historian Margarita Guerra. Church History of Peru. 5 Vol Imp of Aldecoa, 1953-1962. This story only reaches to the late nineteenth century. Dictionary of Artificers Colonial Lima, 1937-1944 Life of Santa Rosa de Santa María. Lima, 1945; the Viceregal Peru. Editor Peruvian Typography. Lima, 1962 History of the Society of Jesus in Peru. 4 Vol Imp of Aldecoa, Burgos 1963-1965. It covers the period from the arrival of the *Jesuits and their expulsion in 1767. History of Santo Cristo de los Milagros, Printing Sanmartí, 3ra. Edición Lima 1966; the Real Convictorio Carolino and their two luminaries.
Editor Carlos Milla Batres, Lima, 1970 General history of the Pacific War. Edit Milla Batres, Lima 1979 Roman Catholicism in Peru