Cochise County, Arizona
Cochise County is located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. The population was 131,346 at the 2010 census; the county seat is Bisbee. Cochise County includes Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders southwestern New northeastern Sonora in Mexico. In 1528 Spanish Explorers: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Fray Marcos de Niza survived a shipwreck off Texas coast. Captured by Native Americans they spent 8 years finding their way back to Mexico City, via the San Pedro Valley, their journals and stories lead to the Cibola, seven cities of gold myth. The Expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1539 using it as his route north through what they called the Guachuca Mountains of Pima lands and part of the mission routes north, but was occupied by the Sobaipuri descendants of the Hohokam, they found a large Pueblo between Benson and Whetstone, several smaller satellite villages and smaller pueblos including ones on Fort Huachuca, Huachuca City and North Eastern Fry.
About 1657 Father Kino visited the Sobaipuris just before the Apache forced most from the valley, as they were struggling to survive due to increasing Chiricahua Apache attacks as they moved into the area of Texas Canyon in the Dragoon Mountains. In 1776 The Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrante was founded on the West bank of the San Pedro River, to protect the natives as well as the Spanish settlers who supplied the mission stations, but it was chronically short on provisions from raids, lack of personnel to adequately patrol the eastern route due to wars with France and England, so the main route north shifted west to the Santa Cruz valley, farther from the Chiricahua Apache's ranges who exclusively controlled the area by 1821. Cochise County was created on February 1881, out of the eastern portion of Pima County, it took its name from the legendary Chiricahua Apache war chief Cochise. The county seat was Tombstone until 1929. Notable men who once held the position of County Sheriff were Johnny Behan, who served as the first sheriff of the new county, and, one of the main characters during the events leading to and following the Gunfight at the O.
K. Corral. In 1886, Texas John Slaughter became sheriff. Lawman Jeff Milton and lawman/outlaw Burt Alvord both served as deputies under Slaughter. A syndicated television series which aired from 1956 to 1958, Sheriff of Cochise starring John Bromfield, was filmed in Bisbee; the Jimmy Stewart movie Broken Arrow and subsequent television show of the same name starring John Lupton, which aired from 1956 to 1958, took place in Cochise County. J. A. Jance's Joanna Brady mystery series takes place in Cochise County, with Brady being the sheriff. Beginning in the late 1950s, the small community of Miracle Valley was the site of a series of bible colleges and similar religious organizations, founded by television evangelist A. A. Allen. In 1982, Miracle Valley and neighboring Palominas were the site of a series of escalating conflicts between a newly arrived religious community and the county sheriff and deputies that culminated in the Miracle Valley shootout. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,219 square miles, of which 6,166 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water.
Cochise County is close to the size of the States of Rhode Connecticut combined. Chiricahua National Monument Coronado National Forest Coronado National Memorial Fort Bowie National Historic Site Kartchner Caverns State Park Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area As of the 2000 census, there were 117,755 people, 43,893 households, 30,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 51,126 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.66% White, 4.52% Black or African American, 1.15% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 12.05% from other races, 3.72% from two or more races. 30.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.35 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 43,893 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families.
25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,105, the median income for a family was $38,005. Males had a median income of $30,533 versus $22,252 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,988. About 13.50% of families and 17.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.80% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was Evangelical Protestants; the largest religious bodies were The Southern Baptist Convention.
As of the 2010 census, there were 131,346 people, 50,865 households, 33,653 families residing in the county
Black River (Arizona)
The Black River is a 114-mile-long river in the White Mountains of the U. S. state of Arizona. It forms southwest of Alpine and flows southwest northwest to meet the White River west of Fort Apache; the merged streams form a major tributary of the Gila River. James Ohio Pattie named the river in 1826. From source to mouth, the river flows through Apache, Graham and Gila counties, it forms a boundary between Apache and Greenlee counties between Apache and Graham counties, further downstream, between Graham and Navajo counties. Along its lower reaches, the Black River is the boundary between the Fort Apache Indian Reservation on the north and the San Carlos Indian Reservation on the south; the river passes near the Bear Wallow Wilderness, through which flows one of the river's tributaries, Bear Wallow Creek. Some of the places along the lower river are difficult to reach. Many of the roads in the area are unmarked on major maps; the "Black River AZ Map" and "Lower Black River guide book" show more details.
Bear encounters are possible along this river. Rainbow and brown trout and smallmouth bass are among the 13 species of fish found in the Black River. Major fishes in this river system include channel catfish, desert suckers, fathead minnows, among others; the East Fork Black River and West Fork Black River, which merge to form the mainstem, have populations of brown trout and Apache trout. The headwaters tributaries support many aquatic insects, including more than 30 species of caddisflies; some of the state's best sports fisheries are found in the Black River watershed. Special permits are required to fish on either reservation. Plants in the riparian zones include several kinds of willows and cottonwoods, as well as alders and saltcedar. Beaver, great blue herons and osprey are among the vertebrates found in or near the river. List of rivers of Arizona Benke, Arthur C. ed. and Cushing, Colbert E. ed.. "Chapter 11: Colorado River Basin" in Rivers of North America. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Academic Press.
ISBN 0-12-088253-1. OCLC 59003378. HookedAZ Fishing Community | The Black River Arizona Boating Locations Facilities Map White Mountain Apache Tribe Wildlife and Outdoor Recreation Division San Carlos Apache Tribe Recreation and Wildlife Angler Guide Arizona Fishing Report
Algae is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms that are not closely related, is thus polyphyletic. Including organisms ranging from unicellular microalgae genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata and phloem, which are found in land plants; the largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example and the stoneworts. No definition of algae is accepted. One definition is that algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells". Although cyanobacteria are referred to as "blue-green algae", most authorities exclude all prokaryotes from the definition of algae.
Algae constitute a polyphyletic group since they do not include a common ancestor, although their plastids seem to have a single origin, from cyanobacteria, they were acquired in different ways. Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants, the roots and other organs found in tracheophytes. Most are phototrophic, although some are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy; some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids and other algae have become heterotrophs, sometimes parasitic, relying on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus.
Some other heterotrophic organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are derived from cells whose ancestors possessed plastids, but are not traditionally considered as algae. Algae have photosynthetic machinery derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago. The singular alga retains that meaning in English; the etymology is obscure. Although some speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, "be cold", no reason is known to associate seaweed with temperature. A more source is alliga, "binding, entwining"; the Ancient Greek word for seaweed was φῦκος, which could mean either the seaweed or a red dye derived from it. The Latinization, fūcus, meant the cosmetic rouge; the etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has long been some word related to the Biblical פוך, "paint", a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean.
It could be any color: black, green, or blue. Accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin root is used; the name Fucus appears in a number of taxa. The algae contain chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in cyanobacteria and are interpreted as representing reduced endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events; the table below describes the composition of the three major groups of algae. Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper right. Many of these groups contain some members; some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts. Phylogeny based on plastid not nucleocytoplasmic genealogy: Linnaeus, in Species Plantarum, the starting point for modern botanical nomenclature, recognized 14 genera of algae, of which only four are considered among algae.
In Systema Naturae, Linnaeus described the genera Volvox and Corallina, a species of Acetabularia, among the animals. In 1768, Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin published the Historia Fucorum, the first work dedicated to marine algae and the first book on marine biology to use the new binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus, it included elaborate illustrations of seaweed and marine algae on folded leaves. W. H. Harvey and Lamouroux were the first to divide macroscopic algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation; this is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: red algae, brown algae, green algae, Diatomaceae. At this time, microscopic algae were discovered and reported by a different group of workers studying the Infusoria. Unlike macroalgae, which were viewed as plants, microalgae were considered animals because they are motile; the nonmotile microalgae were sometimes seen as stages of the lifecycle of plants, macroalgae, or animals. Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-D
The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile; the canyon and adjacent rim are contained within Grand Canyon National Park, the Kaibab National Forest, Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, the Hualapai Indian Reservation, the Havasupai Indian Reservation and the Navajo Nation. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, visited it on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery. Nearly two billion years of Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. While some aspects about the history of incision of the canyon are debated by geologists, several recent studies support the hypothesis that the Colorado River established its course through the area about 5 to 6 million years ago.
Since that time, the Colorado River has driven the down-cutting of the tributaries and retreat of the cliffs deepening and widening the canyon. For thousands of years, the area has been continuously inhabited by Native Americans, who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves; the Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon a holy site, made pilgrimages to it. The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540; the Grand Canyon is a river valley in the Colorado Plateau that exposes uplifted Proterozoic and Paleozoic strata, is one of the six distinct physiographic sections of the Colorado Plateau province. It is not the deepest canyon in the world. However, the Grand Canyon is known for its visually overwhelming size and its intricate and colorful landscape. Geologically, it is significant because of the thick sequence of ancient rocks that are well preserved and exposed in the walls of the canyon; these rock layers record much of the early geologic history of the North American continent.
Uplift associated with mountain formation moved these sediments thousands of feet upward and created the Colorado Plateau. The higher elevation has resulted in greater precipitation in the Colorado River drainage area, but not enough to change the Grand Canyon area from being semi-arid; the uplift of the Colorado Plateau is uneven, the Kaibab Plateau that Grand Canyon bisects is over one thousand feet higher at the North Rim than at the South Rim. All runoff from the North Rim flows toward the Grand Canyon, while much of the runoff on the plateau behind the South Rim flows away from the canyon; the result is deeper and longer tributary washes and canyons on the north side and shorter and steeper side canyons on the south side. Temperatures on the North Rim are lower than those on the South Rim because of the greater elevation. Heavy rains are common on both rims during the summer months. Access to the North Rim via the primary route leading to the canyon is limited during the winter season due to road closures.
The Grand Canyon is part of the Colorado River basin which has developed over the past 70 million years, in part based on apatite /He thermochronometry showing that Grand Canyon reached a depth near to the modern depth by 20 Ma. A recent study examining caves near Grand Canyon places their origins beginning about 17 million years ago. Previous estimates had placed the age of the canyon at 5–6 million years; the study, published in the journal Science in 2008, used uranium-lead dating to analyze calcite deposits found on the walls of nine caves throughout the canyon. There is a substantial amount of controversy because this research suggests such a substantial departure from prior supported scientific consensus. In December 2012, a study published in the journal Science claimed new tests had suggested the Grand Canyon could be as old as 70 million years. However, this study has been criticized by those who support the "young canyon" age of around six million years as " attempt to push the interpretation of their new data to their limits without consideration of the whole range of other geologic data sets."The canyon is the result of erosion which exposes one of the most complete geologic columns on the planet.
The major geologic exposures in the Grand Canyon range in age from the 2-billion-year-old Vishnu Schist at the bottom of the Inner Gorge to the 230-million-year-old Kaibab Limestone on the Rim. There is a gap of about a billion years between the 500-million-year-old stratum and the level below it, which dates to about 1.5 billion years ago. This large unconformity indicates a long period. Many of the formations were deposited in warm shallow seas, near-shore environments, swamps as the seashore advanced and retreated over the edge of a proto-North America. Major exceptions include the Permian Coconino Sandstone, which contains abundant geological evidence of aeolian sand dune deposition. Several parts of the Supai Group were deposited in non–marine environments; the great depth of the Grand Canyon and the height of its strata can be attributed to 5–10 thousand feet of uplift of the Colorado Plateau, starting about 65 million years ago. This uplift has steepened the stream gradient of the Colorado River
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
University of California, Davis
The University of California, Davis, is a public research university and land-grant university adjacent to Davis, California. It is part of the University of California system and has the third-largest enrollment in the UC System after UCLA and UC Berkeley; the institution was founded as a branch in 1909 and became its own separate entity in 1959. It has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies", a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League; the Carnegie Foundation classifies UC Davis as a comprehensive doctoral research university with a medical program, high research activity. The UC Davis faculty includes 23 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 30 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 17 members of the American Law Institute, 14 members of the Institute of Medicine, 14 members of the National Academy of Engineering. Among other honors, university faculty and researchers have won the Nobel Peace Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize, MacArthur Fellowship, National Medal of Science, Blue Planet Prize, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
Founded as an agricultural campus, the university has expanded over the past century to include graduate and professional programs in medicine, veterinary medicine, education and business management, in addition to 90 research programs offered by UC Davis Graduate Studies. The UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine is the largest in the United States and has been ranked first in the world for four consecutive years, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018; the UC Davis Aggies athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I level in the Big West Conference as well as the Big Sky Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. In its first year of full Division I status, 11 UC Davis teams qualified for NCAA post-season competition. UC Davis was ranked as the 29th best national university, as the 42nd best world university according to the 2018-2019 CWUR rankings. UC Davis was named the 5th best public university in the nation according to Times/WSJ in the 2019 version. In 1905, the California legislature passed the University Farm Bill, which called for the establishment of a farm school for the University of California.
The commission took a year to select a site for the campus, a tiny town known as Davisville. UC Davis opened its doors as the "University Farm" to 40 degree students from UC Berkeley in January 1909; the Farm was established the result of the vision and perseverance of Peter J. Shields, secretary of the State Agricultural Society; the Peter J. Shields Library at UC Davis was named in his honor. Shields began to champion the cause of a University Farm to teach agriculture after learning that California students were going to out-of-state universities to pursue such education. After two failed bills, a law authorizing the creation of a University Farm was passed on March 18, 1905. Yolo County, home to some of California's prime farmland, was chosen as the site. A committee appointed by the Regents purchased land near Davisville in 1906; the Regents took control of the property in September 1906 and constructed four buildings in 1907. Short courses were first offered in 1908 and a three-year non-degree program set up in 1909.
In 1911, the first class graduated from the University Farm. The Farm accepted its first female students in 1914 from Berkeley; the three-year non-degree program continued until 1923. At that time, a two-year non-degree program began, continuing until 1958. In 1922, a four-year undergraduate general academic program was established, with the first class graduating in 1926. Renamed in 1922 as the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture, the institution continued growing at a breakneck pace: in 1916 the Farm's 314 students occupied the original 778 acres campus. By 1951 it had expanded to a size of 3,000 acres. In 1959, the campus was declared by the Regents of the University of California as the seventh general campus in the University of California system. Davis' Graduate Division was established in 1961 followed by the College of Engineering in 1962; the law school opened for classes in fall 1966, the School of Medicine began instruction in fall 1968. In a period of increasing activism, a Native American studies program was started in 1969, one of the first at a major university.
During a protest against tuition hikes on November 18, 2011, a campus police officer, Lieutenant John Pike, used pepper spray on a group of seated demonstrators when they refused to disperse, another officer pepper sprayed demonstrators at Pike's direction. The incident drew international attention and led to further demonstrations, a formal investigation, Pike's departure in July 2012. Documents released in 2016 through a public records request showed that the university had spent at least $175,000 to attempt to "scrub the Internet of negative postings" about the incident, in efforts that started in 2013. California newspaper The Sacramento Bee obtained a document outlining the public relations strategy, which stated: "Nevins and Associates is prepared to create and execute an online branding campaign designed to clean up the negative attention the University of California and Chancellor Katehi have received related to the events that transpired in November 2011"; the strategy included an "aggressive and comprehensive on
Black Creek (Arizona)
Black Creek of Arizona is a 55-mi long north tributary of the Puerco River, in northeast Arizona and northwest New Mexico. The Black Creek flows south along an southeast perimeter section of the Defiance Plateau. Red Lake is located at the north of the river valley, Black Creek Valley, which extends south to Window Rock, Arizona. Fort Defiance, Arizona, is at a northwest section of Black Creek. Other sources of the creek are from the east in New Mexico; the Chuska Mountains, of Arizona and New Mexico, trend southeasterly, form the east border of Black Creek Valley. Black Creek continues south, south of Window Rock the Black Creek Valley ends south of St. Michaels, Arizona. 6-mi south of St. Michaels, the smaller Oak Springs Valley begins. Bear Creek exits the valley southwest, through a 4-mi long canyon to enter a due-south flowing stretch to Houck and its confluence with the Puerco River. Black Creek and Black Creek Valley are due-north, south trending, paralleling the New Mexico border; the origin of the Puerco River, on the other hand, is east of Gallup, New Mexico, at the Continental Divide south of Crownpoint, New Mexico.
Mouth Confluence with the Puerco River, Apache County, Arizona: 35°16′00″N 109°14′02″W Source McKinley County, New Mexico: 35°54′55″N 109°01′50″W List of townsites/roadways/etc. The townsites north of Window Rock are Fort Navajo. Sawmill, Arizona, on Indian Route 7 from Fort Defiance, lies northwest on the Defiance Plateau, which had an operational sawmill industry; the Black Creek and rivercourse Black Creek Valley is traversed by the north–south IR-12. South of Oak Springs, Arizona, IR-12 traverses south-southeasterly out of Oak Springs Valley to Interstate 40, about 8-mi distant. At Window Rock, IR-12 traverses due-north at the east bank of Black Creek. At Fort Defiance, IR-12 enters New Mexico to reach Navajo, New Mexico, at the southeast corner of Red Lake. IR-12 becomes New Mexico State Road 134 and turns northeast to meet a north-traversing stretch of U. S. Route 491 in New Mexico. Arizona Road & Recreation Atlas, Benchmark Maps, 2nd Edition, c. 1998, 112 pages. Arizona DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer, 5th Edition, c.
2002, 76 pages. New Mexico DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer, 5th Edition, c. 2009, 72 pages. List of rivers of Arizona List of rivers of New Mexico List of tributaries of the Colorado River