Tamponade is the closure or blockage by or as if by a tampon to stop bleeding. Tamponade is a useful method of stopping a hemorrhage; this can be achieved by applying an absorbent dressing directly into a wound, thereby absorbing excess blood and creating a blockage, or by applying direct pressure with a hand or a tourniquet. There can, however, be disastrous consequences when tamponade occurs as a result of health problems, as in the case of cardiac tamponade. In this situation, fluid collects inside the pericardial sac; the pressure within the pericardium prevents the heart from expanding and filling the ventricles, with the result that a reduced amount of blood circulates within the body. If left unchecked, this condition will result in death. Bladder tamponade is obstruction of the urinary bladder outlet due to heavy blood clot formation within it, it requires surgery. Such heavy bleeding is due to bladder cancer. Pressing Bone Wax into bleeding bone is considered hemostasis by tamponade, as opposed to methods which physically or biochemically activate the clotting cascade.
Gas tamponade has been used for retinal detachment surgery, helping reduce the rate of fluid flow through retinal tears. Research suggests that patients undergoing surgery with tamponade agents of C3F8 gas and standard silicone oil had the best visual and anatomic outcomes, over other tamponade agents
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire. His De Re Rustica in twelve volumes has been preserved and forms an important source on Roman agriculture, together with the works of Cato the Elder and Varro, both of which he cites. A smaller book on trees, De arboribus, is attributed to him. In 1794 the Spanish botanists Jose Antonio Pavón y Jimenez and Hipólito Ruiz López named a genus of Peruvian asterid Columellia in his honour. Little is known of Columella's life, he was born in Gades, Hispania Baetica to Roman parents. After a career in the army, he turned to farming his estates at Ardea and Alba in Latium. In ancient times, Columella's work "appears to have been but little read", cited only by Pliny the Elder, Servius and Isidorus, having fallen "into complete neglect" after Palladius published an abridgement of it; this book is presented as advice to a certain Publius Silvinus. Known only in fragments, the complete book was among those discovered in monastery libraries in Switzerland and France by Poggio Bracciolini and his assistant Bartolomeo di Montepulciano during the Council of Constance, between 1414 and 1418.
Structure of De Re Rustica: soils viticulture fruits olive trees big animals: cattle and mules small animals: asses, goats, dogs fish and fowl: chickens, thrushes, Numidian chicken and guinea fowl, ducks, fish ponds wild animals: enclosures for wild animals, bee-keeping, production of honey and wax gardens personnel management calendars household managementBook 10 is written in dactylic hexameter verse, in imitation of or homage to, Virgil. It may have been intended to be the concluding volume, books 11 and 12 being an addition to the original scheme. A complete but anonymous translation into English was published by Millar in 1745. Excerpts had been translated by Bradley; the short work De arboribus, "On Trees", is in manuscripts and early editions of Columella considered as book 3 of De Re Rustica. However it is clear from the opening sentences that it is part of a separate and earlier work; as the anonymous translator of the Millar edition notes, there is in De arboribus no mention of the Publius Silvinus to whom the De Re Rustica is addressed.
A recent critical edition of the Latin text of the De Re Rustica of Columella includes it, but as incerti auctoris, by an unknown hand. Cassiodorus mentions sixteen books of Columella, which has led to the suggestion that De arboribus formed part of a work in four volumes. In addition to Cato the Elder and Varro, Columella used many sources that are no longer extant and for which he is one of the few references; these include works by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, the Carthaginian writer Mago, Tremellius Scrofa, many Greek sources. His uncle Marcus Columella, "a clever man and an exceptional farmer", had conducted experiments in sheep breeding, crossing colourful wild rams, introduced from Africa for gladiatorial games, with domestic sheep, may have influenced his nephew's interests. Columella owned farms in Italy; the earliest editions of Columella group his works with those on agriculture of Cato the Elder, Varro Reatinus and Palladius. Some modern library catalogues follow Brunet in listing these under "Rei rusticae scriptores" or "Scriptores rei rusticae".
Iunii Moderati Columellae hortulus Georgius Merula, Franciscus Colucia De re rustica Opera et impensa Nicolai Ienson: Venetiis, 1472. Lucii Iunii Moderati Columellae de Cultu hortorum Liber.xi. Quem. Pub. Virgilius. M. I Georgicis Posteris edendum dimisit.: D S, Opera Agricolationum: Columellæ: Varronis: Catonisque: nec non Palladii: cū excriptionibus. D. Philippi Beroaldi: & commentariis quæ in aliis impressionibus non extāt. Impensis Benedicti hectoris: Bonon. Xiii. calen. Octob. 1494 Beroaldo, Filippo "il vecchio" Oratio de felicitate habita in enarratione Georgicon Virgilii et Columellae Bononiae: per Ioannemantonium De Benedictis, 1507 Lucii Junii moderati Columell de cultu hortorum carme: Necno Palladius de arboru insitione una cu Nicolai Barptholomaei Lochensis hortulo. Parisiis: Venundantur parisiis in aedibus Radulphi Laliseau, Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella De cultu ortorum. Interprete Pio Bononiensi. Impressum Bononiae: a Hieronymo de Benedictis bibliopola et calcographo, 1520 mense Augusto Libri De Re Rustica...
Additis Nuper Commentariis Iunii Pompo. Fortunati in Librum De Cultu Hortorum, Cum Adnotationibus Philippi Beroaldi... Florence: Filippo Giunta, 1521 De re rustica libri XII. Euisdem de Arboris liber, separatus ab aliis. Lyon, Sébastien Gryphe, 1541 Columella, Lucius Iunius Moderatus De l'agricoltura libri XII. / Lutio Giunio Moderato Columella. Trattato de gli alberi, tradotto nuouamente di latino in lingua italiana per Pietro Lauro Modonese In Venetia:, 1544 Les Douze livres des choses rustiques. Traduicts de Latin en François, par feu maistre Claude Cotereau Chanoine de Paris. La traduction duquel ha esté soingneusement reveue & en la plupart corrigée, & illustrée de doctes annotations par maistre Jean Thierry de Beauvoisis Paris: Jacques Kerver, 1551, 1555 Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus Les douze liures... des choses rustiques, tr. par C. Cotereau. La tr. corrigée & illustrée de doctes annotations par J. Thiery de Beauoisis Paris, 155
A spread is a food, spread with a knife, onto foods such as bread and crackers. Spreads are added to food to enhance the flavor or texture of the food, which may be considered bland without it. Butter and soft cheeses are typical spreads. A sandwich spread is a spreadable condiment used in a sandwich, in addition to more solid ingredients. Butter, prepared mustard, ketchup are typical sandwich spreads, along with their variants such as Thousand Island dressing, Tartar sauce, Russian dressing. Spreads are different from dips, such as salsa, which are not applied to spread onto food, but have food dipped into them, instead. Common spreads include dairy spreads, honey, plant-derived spreads, yeast spreads, meat-based spreads. Cheese spread List of spreads List of dips Lists of foods Food portal Media related to Spreads at Wikimedia Commons
Mortar and pestle
Mortar and pestle are implements used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder in the kitchen and pharmacy. The mortar is a bowl made of hard wood, ceramic, or hard stone, such as granite; the pestle is a blunt club-shaped object. The substance to be ground, which may be wet or dry, is placed in the mortar, where the pestle is pressed and rotated onto it until the desired texture is achieved. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to 35000 BC; the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, "receptacle for pounding" and "product of grinding or pounding". The classical Latin pistillum, meaning "pounder", led to English pestle; the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary. The antiquity of these tools is well documented in early writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BC and the Old Testament.
Mortars and pestles were traditionally used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Green Cross, others, is one of the most pervasive symbols of pharmacology, along with the show globe. For pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood; this is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759. Today the act of reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested, or in preparation for insufflation. To finely ground drugs, not available in liquid dosage form is used if patients need artificial nutrition such as parenteral nutrition or by nasogastric tube. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare wet or oily ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, as well as grinding spices into powder.
The molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to other nuts. Many such depressions can be found in their territories. In Japan large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi. A regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as India. In India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and pestle has decreased, it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung. Large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha.
In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and pestle is known as Ulekan or Oelekan. It is used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle, it is used to grind peanut and other ingredients to make peanut sauce for gado-gado. Large mortars and pestles are used in developing countries to husk and dehull grain; these are made of wood, operated by one or more persons. Good mortar and pestle-making materials must be hard enough to crush the substance rather than be worn away by it, they can not be too brittle either. The material should be cohesive, so that small bits of the mortar or pestle do not mix in with the ingredients. Smooth and non-porous materials are trap the substances being ground. In food preparation, a rough or absorbent material may cause the strong flavour of a past ingredient to be tasted in food prepared later; the food particles left in the mortar and on the pestle may support the growth of microorganisms.
When dealing with medications, the prepared drugs may interact or mix, contaminating the used ingredients. Rough ceramic mortar and pestle sets can be used to reduce substances to fine powders, but stain and are brittle. Porcelain mortars are sometimes conditioned for use by grinding some sand to give them a rougher surface which helps to reduce the particle size. Glass mortars and pestles are fragile, but suitable for use with liquids. However, they do not grind as finely as the ceramic type. Other materials used include stone marble or agate, bamboo, steel and basalt. Mortar and pestle sets made from the wood of old grape vines have proved reliable for grinding salt and pepper at the dinner table. Uncooked rice is sometimes ground in mortars to clean them; this process must be repeated until the rice comes out white. Some stones, such as molcajete, need to be seasoned first before use. Metal mortars are kept oiled. Since the results obtained with hand grinding are neither reproducible nor reliable, most laboratories work with automatic mortar grinders.
Grinding time and pressure of the mortar can be adjusted and fixed, saving time and labor. The first automatic Mortar Grinder was invented by F. Kurt
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food, though she wrote about French cuisine, she and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive and the grape, yielding olive oil and pasta, wine. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid; the region spans a wide variety of cultures with distinct cuisines, in particular the Maghrebi, Levantine, Greek, Provençal, Spanish. However, the historical connections of the region, as well as the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the region's climate and economy, mean that these cuisines share dishes beyond the core trio of oil and wine, such as roast lamb or mutton, meat stews with vegetables and tomato, the salted cured fish roe, found across the region.
Spirits based on anise are drunk in many countries around the Mediterranean. The cooking of the area is not to be confused with the Mediterranean diet, made popular because of the apparent health benefits of a diet rich in olive oil and other grains, vegetables, a certain amount of seafood, but low in meat and dairy products. Mediterranean cuisine encompasses the ways that these and other ingredients, including meat, are dealt with in the kitchen, whether they are health-giving or not; the cookery writer Elizabeth David's introduction to A Book of Mediterranean Food defines her scope as "the cooking of the Mediterranean shores". She sketches out the geographical limits as from Gibraltar to the Bosphorus, down the Rhone Valley, through the great seaports of Marseilles and Genoa, across to Tunis and Alexandria, embracing all the Mediterranean islands, Sicily, Crete, the Cyclades, Cyprus, to the mainland of Greece and the much disputed territories of Syria, the Lebanon and Smyrna. David defines the region as coextensive with the range of the olive tree: "those blessed lands of sun and sea and olive trees".
The olive's natural distribution is limited by availability of water. It is therefore constrained to a more or less narrow zone around the Mediterranean Sea, except in the Maghreb and in Spain, where it is distributed more and on the islands of the Mediterranean, where it is widespread; the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid defines the region by the olive's presence, along with bread and the grape as the "basic products of Mediterranean folk cuisine": Mediterranean cuisine is defined by the presence of fundamental elements which are said to play a more important role than others, reflecting a community of beliefs and practices which transcend religions and societies. The olive tree, the emblematic tree on more than one account, traces the bounds of a frontier of landscapes and lives on either side of which the Mediterranean begins or ends. Above Montelimar, nicknamed "Gates of Provence", is the limit of the olive. Essid, as mentioned, identifies the "trinity" of basic ingredients of traditional Mediterranean cuisine as the olive and the grape, yielding oil and wine respectively.
The archaeologist Colin Renfrew calls this the "Mediterranean triad". The olive appears to come from the region of Mesopotamia, at least 6,000 years ago, it spread from there to nearby areas, has been cultivated since the early Bronze Age in southern Turkey, the Levant, Crete. The ten countries with the largest harvests are all near the Mediterranean: together, they produce 95% of the world's olives; the olive yields bitter fruits, made edible by curing and fermentation, olive oil. Some 90% of the fruit production goes into olive oil; the Mediterranean region accounts for the world's highest consumption of olive oil: in 2014, the highest-consuming country, used 17 kg per head. Wheat was domesticated in and near the Levant some 10,000 years ago, its ancestors include wild emmer wheat. It had been spread across the Mediterranean region as far as Spain by 5,000 BC. Wheat is a staple food in the Mediterranean region. Wheat bread was critically important in the empire of Ancient Rome, which included the entire region.
Other staple wheat-based Mediterranean foods include pasta and semolina products such as couscous and burgul. In turn, these are made into dishes such as the Greek dessert galaktoboureko, consisting of filo pastry parcels around a custard made with semolina. A widespread wheat dish from Turkey and the Levant to Iran and India is halva, a dessert of sweetened semolina with butter and pine kernels; the grape was domesticated between 4,000 BC between the Black Sea and Persia. Winemaking started in Italy in the ninth century BC, in France around 60
The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to South Asia North eastern India. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses; the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie; the origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, northern Burma or China. A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not cultivated, they were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century; the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds, it was used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were planted in Florida and California. In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known as an important dietary ingredient; the origin of the word lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, a cognate of Sanskrit. The'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, thin-skinned and seedless; these are grown in San Diego County, USA.
The'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon known as'Four Seasons' because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year; this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers. There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green and yellow variegated outer skin. The'Femminello St. Teresa', or'Sorrento' is native to Italy; this fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar. Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving. Other essential nutrients, have insignificant content. Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols and tannins. Lemon juice contains more citric acid than lime juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Lemon juice and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks; the whole lemon is used to make lemon curd and lemon liqueur.
Lemon slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings and other dishes. Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, cocktails, it is used in marinades for fish, where its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts. In meat, the acid hydrolyzes tough collagen fibers, tenderizing the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked. In the United Kingdom, lemon juice is added to pancakes on Shrove Tuesday. Lemon juice is used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced, such as apples and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes. In Morocco, lemons are preserved in barrels of salt; the salt penetrates the peel and rind, softening them, curing them so that they last indefinitely. The preserved lemon is used in a wide variety of dishes. Preserved lemons can be found in Sicilian, Italian and French dishes.
The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked seafoods. Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation-based processes; the juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware; the acid dissolves the tarnish, the abrasives assist the cleaning. As a kitchen cleaning agent the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, disinfect; the oil of the lemon's peel has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax and grime. Lemon oil and orange oil are used as a nontoxic insecticide treatment. Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon oil aroma may contribute to relaxation. One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch; these experiments work with other fruits and vegetables.
Lemon juice may
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae. Most species are found in marine waters, but several will enter brackish water and some in South America are restricted to fresh water; the more than 140 species are placed in 17 genera. Anchovies are classified as oily fish. Anchovies are small, green fish with blue reflections due to a silver-colored longitudinal stripe that runs from the base of the caudal fin, they range from 2 to 40 cm in adult length, their body shapes are variable with more slender fish in northern populations. The snout is blunt with sharp teeth in both jaws; the snout contains a unique rostral organ, believed to be sensory in nature, although its exact function is unknown. The mouth is larger than that of herrings and silversides, two fish which anchovies resemble in other respects; the anchovy eats plankton and hatched fish. Anchovies are found in scattered areas throughout the world's oceans, but are concentrated in temperate waters, are rare or absent in cold or warm seas.
They are very accepting of a wide range of temperatures and salinity. Large schools can be found in brackish areas with muddy bottoms, as in estuaries and bays; the European anchovy is abundant in the Mediterranean in the Alboran Sea, Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. This species is caught along the coasts of Crete, Sicily, France, Turkey and Spain, they are found on the coast of northern Africa. The range of the species extends along the Atlantic coast of Europe to the south of Norway. Spawning occurs between October and March, but not in water colder than 12 °C; the anchovy appears to spawn at least 100 km near the surface of the water. The anchovy is a significant food source for every predatory fish in its environment, including the California halibut, rock fish, shark and coho salmon, it is extremely important to marine mammals and birds. Anchovies, like most clupeoids, are filter-feeders; as water passes through the mouth and out the gills, food particles are sieved by gill rakers and transferred into the esophagus.
* Type species On average, the Turkish commercial fishing fleet catches around 300,000 tons per year in winter. The largest catch is in December; the Peruvian anchovy fishery is one of the largest in the world, far exceeding catches of the other anchovy species. In 1973 it collapsed catastrophically due to the combined effects of overfishing and El Niño and did not recover for two decades. A traditional method of processing and preserving anchovies is to gut and salt them in brine, allow them to cure, pack them in oil or salt; this results in a characteristic strong flavor and the flesh turns deep grey. Pickled in vinegar, as with Spanish boquerones, anchovies are milder and the flesh retains a white color. In Roman times, anchovies were the base for the fermented fish sauce garum. Garum had a sufficiently long shelf life for long-distance commerce, was produced in industrial quantities. Anchovies were eaten raw as an aphrodisiac. Today, they are used in small quantities to flavor many dishes; because of the strong flavor, they are an ingredient in several sauces and condiments, including Worcestershire sauce, Caesar salad dressing, Gentleman's Relish, many fish sauces, in some versions of Café de Paris butter.
For domestic use, anchovy fillets are packed in oil or salt in small tins or jars, sometimes rolled around capers. Anchovy paste is available. Fishermen use anchovies as bait for larger fish, such as tuna and sea bass; the strong taste people associate with anchovies is due to the curing process. Fresh anchovies, known in Italy as alici, have a much milder flavor. In Sweden and Finland, the name anchovies is related to a traditional seasoning, hence the product "anchovies" is made of sprats and herring can be sold as "anchovy-spiced". Fish from the family Engraulidae are instead known as sardell in Sweden and sardelli in Finland, leading to confusion when translating recipes. Anchovies portal Sardine Chavez FP, Ryan J, Lluch-Cota SE and Ñiquen CM From Anchovies to Sardines and Back: Multidecadal Change in the Pacific Ocean Science 229217–221. Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Engraulidae" in FishBase. January 2006 version. Miller DJ "Anchovy" CalCOFI Reports, 5: 20–26. Nizinski MS and Munroe TA FAO species catalogue, volume 2: Clupeoid Fishes of the World, Anchovies Pages 764–780, FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125, Rome.
ISBN 92-5-102340-9. Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission Northern Anchovy The dictionary definition of anchovy at Wiktionary Fisheries Ebb and Flow in 50-Year Cycle National Geographic News. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Anchovy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press