A variety of companies manufacture boPET and other polyester films under different brand names. In the UK and US, the most well-known trade names are Mylar, Melinex, BoPET film was developed in the mid-1950s, originally by DuPont, Imperial Chemical Industries and Hoechst. In 1964, NASA launched Echo II and it was a 40 m diameter balloon constructed from a 0. 35mil thick mylar film sandwiched between two layers of 0.18 mil thick aluminum foil and bonded together. The manufacturing process begins with a film of polyethylene terephthalate being extruded onto a chill roll. It is biaxially oriented by drawing and it is possible to draw the film in both directions simultaneously, although the equipment required for this is somewhat more elaborate. Draw ratios are typically around 3 to 4 in each direction, once the drawing is completed, the film is heat set or crystallized under tension in the oven at temperatures typically above 200 °C. The heat setting step prevents the film from shrinking back to its original unstretched shape, the orientation of the polymer chains is responsible for the high strength and stiffness of biaxially oriented PET film, which has a typical Youngs modulus of about 4 GPa.
Another important consequence of the orientation is that it induces the formation of many crystal nuclei. The crystallites that grow rapidly reach the boundary of the neighboring crystallite, as a result, biaxially oriented PET film has excellent clarity, despite its semicrystalline structure. To make handling possible, microscopic inert inorganic particles are embedded in the PET to roughen the surface of the film. Biaxially oriented PET film can be metallized by vapor deposition of a film of evaporated aluminium, gold. The result is less permeable to gases and reflects up to 99% of light. For some applications like food packaging, the aluminized boPET film can be laminated with a layer of polyethylene, the polyethylene side of such a laminate appears dull and the PET side shiny. Other coatings, such as indium tin oxide, can be applied to boPET film by sputter deposition. Uses for boPET polyester films include, but are not limited to, Laminates containing metallized boPET foil protect food against oxidation and aroma loss, examples are coffee foil packaging and pouches for convenience foods.
White boPET web substrate is used as lidding for dairy goods such as yogurt, clear boPET web substrate is used as lidding for fresh or frozen ready meals. Due to its excellent heat resistance, it can remain on the package during microwave or oven heating, for protecting the spine of important documents, such as medical records. Metallized boPET film emergency blankets conserve a shock victims body heat, as a thin strip to form an airtight seal between the control surfaces and adjacent structure of aircraft, especially gliders
VCU School of the Arts
Virginia Commonwealth Universitys School of the Arts, located in Richmond, comprises 16 programs and more than 3,000 students. With the inclusion of the campus in Qatar, come an additional five programs, as part of a large, urban public research university, VCUarts students have the opportunity to pursue cross-disciplinary collaborations and to study alongside scholars in different fields. The VCUarts graduate program has been the public university visual arts. VCUarts has the lowest annual tuition among the top 10 schools of arts, the first important step in the expansion of the curriculum into an entirely new field was the opening in 1928 of the School of Art in a studio constructed in the loft of an old stable. Around the 1940s and 1950s the School of Arts began acquiring some recognition nationwide, a brochure issued by Richmond Professional Institute about 1940 carried two photographs which had been published by Life magazine. The school has been for one of the largest at RPI and its successor.
By 1970, the faculty had increased to 72 full-time and 24 part-time teachers, in 1971, the Pollak Building--a studio and classroom space--was named for Theresa Pollak in honor of her selfless dedication to the school. Today at VCU Qatar you can earn a BFA in Fashion Design, Graphic Design, Interior Design, or Painting and Printmaking, the school offers MFA in Design Studies. Since VCUQatar opened, the school has been involved in the development of Qatar’s emerging design industry, VCUQatar regularly hosts Tasmeem Doha, the biennial international art and design conference, attracting speakers and artists from across the world for a week of innovation and dialogue. The AFO program exposes students to a vast forum of ideas, students are grouped in small, 18-person studios in which they experiment with new materials and ideas. More than half of first-year students change their major to a new field of study within VCUarts as a result of exposure they received in AFO. The Program has its own dedicated woodshop, two labs, a critique room, lecture hall and 24-hour studio access for its students.
Interdisciplinary study and collaboration is encouraged across VCUarts 16 departments and programs, some of these collaborations are forged through structures VCUarts has put in place to encourage interdisciplinary thought, such as the da Vinci Center and the Center for the Creative Economy. Other collaborations are pursued because of the interests of students or faculty members. Yacoe provided molds of the twins that assisted in their separation surgery. Yacoe has since run workshops for plastic surgery residents at VCU Medical Center, Yacoe received the Arts Innovator award at the 17th Annual Theresa Pollak Prizes in 2014. Rhodes and Yacoe did a TEDx Talk in 2014 about how art is informing and inspiring tomorrows surgeons. VCUarts Theatre department has forged a collaboration with the VCU Medical Center
A toothpick is a small stick of wood, bamboo, bone or other substance used to remove detritus from the teeth, usually after a meal. A toothpick usually has one or two ends to insert between teeth. They can come in wood and plastic, and can be used for picking up small appetizers or as a cocktail stick. American wooden toothpicks are cut from wood or made from plastic. Logs are first spiral cut into sheets, which are cut. Maine used to be the producer of toothpicks for the United States. The last wood toothpick plant in Maine closed in 2003, plastic toothpicks, called dental pics, are still made in America in Georgia, by Armonds Manufacturing. The Mayo Clinic recommends using a dental pic in lieu of a toothpick to clean ones teeth, as they clean more effectively. The toothpick is known to predate the arrival of modern humans. It is the oldest instrument for dental cleaning, the skulls of Neanderthals, as well as Homo sapiens, have shown clear signs of having teeth that were picked with a tool. In 1986, researchers in Florida discovered the 7500-year-old remains of ancient Native Americans, one of the researchers, David Dickel of Florida State University, said The enamel on teeth is quite tough, so they must have used the probes quite rigorously to make the grooves.
Toothpicks are well known in all cultures, before the toothbrush was invented, teeth were cleaned with hard and soft dental woods. Toothpicks made of bronze have been found as burial objects in prehistoric graves in Northern Italy, the use of toothpicks was well known in Mesopotamia. There are delicate, artistic examples made of silver in antiquity, in the 17th century, toothpicks were luxury objects similar to jewelry items. They were formed from metal and set with expensive stones. Frequently they were artistically stylized and enameled, the first toothpick-manufacturing machine was developed in 1869, by Marc Signorello. Another was patented in 1872, by Silas Noble and J. P. Cooley, nowadays other means of dental hygiene are preferred such as dental floss and toothbrushes. Toothpicks are used for occasions, and are commonly used to spear appetizers
Flushing is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. Flushings diversity is reflected by the ethnic groups that reside there, including people of Asian, Middle Eastern, European. It is part of the Fifth Congressional District, which encompasses the northeastern shore of Queens County. Flushing is served by five stations on the Long Island Rail Road Port Washington Branch, as well as the New York City Subways IRT Flushing Line. The intersection of Main Street and Roosevelt Avenue is the third busiest intersection in New York City, behind Times, ZIP codes beginning with 113 are administered from a sectional center at Flushing Post Office. The 113-prefixed area extends west into Jackson Heights, southwest into Ridgewood, south into Forest Hills, and east into Little Neck. On October 10,1645, Flushing was established by the Dutch on the bank of Flushing Creek under charter of the Dutch West India Company and was part of the New Netherland colony. The settlement was named after the city of Vlissingen, in the southwestern Netherlands, however, by 1657, the residents called the place Vlissing.
Eventually, the British name for Vlissingen was used, despite being a Dutch colony, many of the early inhabitants were British. Unlike all other towns in the region, the charter of Flushing allowed residents freedom of religion as practiced in Holland without the disturbance of any magistrate or ecclesiastical minister, New Amsterdam Director-General Peter Stuyvesant issued an edict prohibiting the harboring of Quakers. On December 27,1657, the inhabitants of Flushing approved a protest known as The Flushing Remonstrance and this contained religious arguments even mentioning freedom for Jews and Egyptians, but ended with a forceful declaration that any infringement of the town charter would not be tolerated. Subsequently, a farmer named John Bowne held Quaker meetings in his home and was arrested for this, eventually he persuaded the Dutch West India Company to allow Quakers and others to worship freely. As such, Flushing is claimed to be a birthplace of freedom in the new world. Landmarks remaining from the Dutch period in Flushing include the John Bowne House on Bowne Street, in 1664, the English took control of New Amsterdam, ending Dutch control of the colony, and renamed it the Province of New York.
When Queens County was established in 1683, the Town of Flushing was one of the five towns which comprised the county. The town was dissolved in 1898 when Queens became a borough of New York City, Flushing was the site of the first commercial tree nurseries in North America, the most prominent being the Prince and Parsons nurseries. Much of the section of Kissena Park, former site of the Parsons nursery. The naming of streets intersecting Kissena Boulevard on its way toward Kissena Park celebrates this fact, Flushing supplied trees to the Greensward project, now known as Central Park in Manhattan
Waiting staff are those who work at a restaurant or a bar, and sometimes in private homes, attending customers—supplying them with food and drink as requested. A server or waiting staff takes on an important role in a restaurant which is to always be attentive. Each waiter follows rules and guidelines that are developed by the manager, wait staff can abide by this rule by completing many different tasks throughout his or her shift. Such as food-running, polishing dishes and silverware, helping bus tables, waiting on tables is part of the service sector, and among the most common occupations in the United States. The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that, as of May 2008, many restaurants choose a specific uniform for their wait staff to wear. Waitstaff may receive tips as a minor or major part of their earnings, archaic terms such as serving girl, serving wench, or serving lad are generally used only within their historical context. The duties a waiter, wait staff or server partakes in can be tedious, in some higher-end restaurants, servers have a good knowledge of the wine list and can recommend food-wine pairings.
At more expensive restaurants, servers memorize the ingredient list for the dishes, for example, if the menu lists marinated beef, the customer might ask what the beef is marinated in, for how long, and what cut of beef is used in the dish. Silver service staff are trained to serve at banquets or high-end restaurants. These servers follow specific rules and service guidelines which makes it a skilled job and they generally wear black and white with a long, white apron. The head server is in charge of the staff, and is frequently responsible for assigning seating. The head server must insure that all staff does their duties accordingly, the functions of a head server can overlap to some degree with that of the Maître dhôtel. Emotional labour is required by waiting staff, particularly at many high-class restaurants. Restaurant serving positions require on the job training that would be held by an upper level server in the restaurant, the server will be trained to provide good customer service, learn food items and drinks and maintain a neat and tidy appearance.
Working, in a such as captain, in a top rated restaurant requires disciplined role-playing comparable to a theater performance. Individuals employed to handle food and beverages in the United States must obtain a food handlers card or permit, servers that do not have a permit or handlers card can not serve. The server can achieve a permit or handlers card online, no food certification requirements are needed in Canada. However, to alcoholic beverages in Canada servers must undergo their provinces online training course within a month of being hired
Appropriation in art is the use of pre-existing objects or images with little or no transformation applied to them. The use of appropriation has played a significant role in the history of the arts, in the visual arts, to appropriate means to properly adopt, recycle or sample aspects of human-made visual culture. Notable in this respect are the Readymades of Marcel Duchamp, inherent in our understanding of appropriation is the concept that the new work recontextualizes whatever it borrows to create the new work. In most cases the original thing remains accessible as the original, Appropriation has been defined as the taking over, into a work of art, of a real object or even an existing work of art. The Tate Gallery traces the practise back to Cubism and Dadaism and it returned to prominence in the 1980s with the Neo-Geo artists. In the early twentieth century Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque appropriated objects from a non-art context into their work, in 1912, Picasso pasted a piece of oil cloth onto the canvas.
Subsequent compositions, such as Guitar, Newspaper and Bottle in which Picasso used newspaper clippings to create forms, the two artists incorporated aspects of the real world into their canvases, opening up discussion of signification and artistic representation. In 1917, Duchamp formally submitted a readymade into the Society of Independent Artists exhibition under the pseudonym, entitled Fountain, it consisted of a porcelain urinal that was propped atop a pedestal and signed R. Mutt 1917. The work posed a challenge to traditional perceptions of fine art, ownership and plagiarism. Duchamp publicly defended Fountain, claiming whether Mr. Mutt with his own hands made the fountain or not has no importance. He took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title, the Dada movement continued with the appropriation of everyday objects. Dada works featured deliberate irrationality and the rejection of the standards of art. Kurt Schwitters, who produced art at the time as the Dadaists.
He constructed these from found objects, and they took the form of large constructions that generations would call installations, the Surrealists, coming after the Dada movement, incorporated the use of found objects such as Méret Oppenheims Object. These objects took on new meaning when combined with other unlikely, in 1938 Joseph Cornell produced what might be considered the first work of film appropriation in his randomly cut and reconstructed film Rose Hobart. In the 1950s Robert Rauschenberg used what he dubbed combines, literally combining readymade objects such as tires or beds, silk-screens, similarly, Jasper Johns, working at the same time as Rauschenberg, incorporated found objects into his work. The Fluxus art movement utilised appropriation, its members blended different artistic disciplines including visual art, throughout the 1960s and 1970s they staged action events and produced sculptural works featuring unconventional materials. Along with artists such as Claes Oldenburg and Andy Warhol appropriated images from commercial art, often called pop artists, they saw mass popular culture as the main vernacular culture, shared by all irrespective of education
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
The event began as an annual exhibition in 1932, the first biennial was in 1973. The Whitney show is regarded as one of the leading shows in the art world. It helped bring artists like Georgia O’Keeffe, Jackson Pollock and Jeff Koons to prominence, in 2010, for the first time a majority of the 55 artists included in that survey of contemporary American art were women. The 2012 exhibition featured 51 artists, the smallest number in the events history, the fifty-one artists for 2012 were selected by curator Elisabeth Sussman and freelance curator Jay Sanders. It was open for three months up to 27 May 2012 and presented for the first time heavy weight on dance and those performance art variations were open to spectators all day long in a separate floor. The Whitney Museum had a history beginning in 1932 of having a large group exhibition of invited American artists every year called the Whitney Annual. In the late sixties, it was decided to alternate between painting and sculpture, although by the 1970s the decision was to combine together in a biennial.
The first Biennial occurred in 1973, since then, the biennials have pursued a different curatorial approach to include all media. In the past the Whitney Museum has tried different ways to organize its biennial and it has used its own staff members and invited outside curators, including Europeans, to present the show. In 2010 it even asked a former art dealer, Jay Sanders, the Whitney Biennial often extends to sculpture exhibitions in Central Park. The 2008 edition took over the Park Avenue Armory as a space for performance, the 2014 Whitney Biennial is the last one in the museum’s Marcel Breuer building. The museum is leaving the Upper East Side for the meatpacking district, in 1987, the show was protested by the Guerrilla Girls for its alleged sexism and racism. ”The 1993 Whitney Biennial was the most diverse exhibit by a major American museum up until that time. In 1970 less than 1% of artists at the Whitney Museum were non-white, in 1991, only 10% of artists were non white. New York Times Art Critic, Roberta Smith called it “pious, a world made bad for blacks, gays and women in general.
”The largely shared sentiment was that the public felt alienated by the confrontational demands of the artwork. It was the first Whitney Biennial to treat video works with the attention to space as sculpture. Text-heavy Installations demanded attention and participation from the audience, the artists made it extremely difficult to take in the work as a passive viewer. Since 2000, the Bucksbaum Award has been awarded to an artist exhibiting at the Biennial and she was the only black female artist included in curator Michelle Grabner’s exhibition. And suggest this pieces treats “othered bodies subcontractable. ”Additionally, The YAMS Collective, yams Collective member and artist Sienna Shields said “Every Whitney Biennial I have ever been to, you can barely count the number of black artists in the show on one hand
Scotch Tape is a brand name used for pressure-sensitive tapes manufactured by 3M as part of the companys Scotch brand. Their magnetic recording tape products were sold under the Scotch brand. The precursor to the current tapes was developed in the 1930s in St. Paul, although it is a trademark and a brand name, Scotch tape is sometimes used as a generic term. The Scotch brand includes many different constructions and colors of tape, the use of the term Scotch in the name was a pejorative meaning stingy in the 1920s and 1930s. The brand name Scotch came about around 1925 while Richard Drew was testing his first masking tape to determine how much adhesive he needed to add. The bodyshop painter became frustrated with the masking tape and exclaimed, Take this tape back to those Scotch bosses of yours. The name was applied to the entire line of 3M tapes. Scotty McTape, a kilt-wearing cartoon boy, was the mascot for two decades, first appearing in 1944. The familiar tartan design, a take on the well-known Wallace tartan, was introduced in 1945, the Scotch brand and Scotch Tape are registered trademarks of 3M.
In 1996, 3M exited the magnetic tape business, selling its assets to Quantegy, in 1953, Soviet scientists showed that triboluminescence caused by peeling a roll of an unidentified Scotch brand tape in a vacuum can produce X-rays