Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales. There are about 30 different genera. Kelp grows in "underwater forests" in shallow oceans, is thought to have appeared in the Miocene, 23 to 5 million years ago; the organisms require nutrient-rich water with temperatures between 6 and 14 °C. They are known for their high growth rate—the genera Macrocystis and Nereocystis can grow as fast as half a metre a day reaching 30 to 80 metres. Through the 19th century, the word "kelp" was associated with seaweeds that could be burned to obtain soda ash; the seaweeds used included species from both the orders Fucales. The word "kelp" was used directly to refer to these processed ashes. In most kelp, the thallus consists of leaf-like structures known as blades. Blades originate from the stipes; the holdfast, a root-like structure, anchors the kelp to the substrate of the ocean. Gas-filled bladders form at the base of blades of American species, such as Nereocystis lueteana, to hold the kelp blades close to the surface.
Growth occurs at the base of the meristem. Growth may be limited by grazing. Sea urchins, for example, can reduce entire areas to urchin barrens; the kelp life cycle involves a diploid haploid gametophyte stage. The haploid phase begins when the mature organism releases many spores, which germinate to become male or female gametophytes. Sexual reproduction results in the beginning of the diploid sporophyte stage, which will develop into a mature individual; the parenchymatous thalli are covered with a mucilage layer, rather than cuticle. Kelp may develop dense forests with high production and ecological function. Along the Norwegian coast these forests cover 5800 km2, they support large numbers of animals. Numerous sessile animals are found on kelp stipes and mobile invertebrate fauna are found in high densities on epiphytic algae on the kelp stipes and on kelp holdfasts. More than 100,000 mobile invertebrates per square meter are found on kelp stipes and holdfasts in well-developed kelp forests.
While larger invertebrates and in particular sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis are important secondary consumers controlling large barren ground areas on the Norwegian coast, they are scarce inside dense kelp forests. Giant kelp can be harvested easily because of its surface canopy and growth habit of staying in deeper water. Kelp ash is rich in alkali. In great amount, kelp ash can be used in glass production; until the Leblanc process was commercialized in the early 19th century, burning of kelp in Scotland was one of the principal industrial sources of soda ash. Alginate, a kelp-derived carbohydrate, is used to thicken products such as ice cream, salad dressing, toothpaste, as well as an ingredient in exotic dog food and in manufactured goods. Alginate powder is used in general dentistry and orthodontics for making impressions of the upper and lower arches. Kombu, several Pacific species of kelp, is a important ingredient in Chinese and Korean cuisines. Kombu is used to flavor broths and stews, as a savory garnish for rice and other dishes, as a vegetable, a primary ingredient in popular snacks.
Transparent sheets of kelp are used as an edible decorative wrapping for rice and other foods. Kombu can be used to soften beans during cooking, to help convert indigestible sugars and thus reduce flatulence; because of its high concentration of iodine, brown kelp has been used to treat goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a lack of iodine, since medieval times. In 2010, researchers found that alginate, the soluble fibre substance in sea kelp, was better at preventing fat absorption than most over-the-counter slimming treatments in laboratory trials; as a food additive, it may be used to reduce fat absorption and thus obesity. Kelp in its natural form has not yet been demonstrated to have such effects. Commercial production of kelp harvested from its natural habitat has taken place in Japan for over a century. Many countries today consume laminaria products. Laminaria japonica, the important commercial seaweed, was first introduced into China in the late 1920s from Hokkaido, Japan.
Yet mariculture of this alga on a large commercial scale was realized in China only in the 1950s. Between the 1950s and the 1980s, kelp production in China increased from about 60 to over 250,000 dry weight metric tons annually. Kelp has a high rate of growth and its decay is quite efficient in yielding methane, as well as sugars that can be converted to ethanol, it has been proposed. Unlike some biofuels such as corn ethanol, kelp energy avoids "food vs fuel" issues and does not require freshwater irrigation; some of the earliest evidence for human use of marine resources, coming from Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa, includes the harvesting of foods such as abalones and mussels associated with kelp forest habitats. In 2007, Erlandson et al. suggested that kelp forests around the Pacific Rim may have facilitated the dispersal of anatomically modern humans following a coastal route from Northeast Asia to the Americas. This "kelp highway hypothesis" suggested that productive kelp forests supported rich and dive
Māori mythology and Māori traditions are the two major categories into which the legends of the Māori of New Zealand may usefully be divided. The rituals and the world view of Māori society were based on an elaborate mythology, inherited from a Polynesian homeland and adapted and developed in the new setting. Few records survive of the extensive body of Māori mythology and tradition from the early years of European contact; the missionaries had the best opportunity to get the information, but failed to do so at first, in part because their knowledge of the language was imperfect. Most of the missionaries who did master the language were unsympathetic to Māori beliefs, regarding them as'puerile beliefs', or even'works of the devil'. Exceptions to this general rule were J. F. Wohlers of the South Island, Richard Taylor, who worked in the Taranaki and Wanganui River areas, William Colenso who lived at the Bay of Islands and in Hawke's Bay. "The writings of these men are among our best sources for the legends of the areas in which they worked".
In the 1840s Edward Shortland, Sir George Grey, other non-missionaries began to collect the myths and traditions. At that time many Māori were literate in their own language and the material collected was, in general, written by Māori themselves in the same style as they spoke; the new medium seems to have had minimal effect on the content of the stories. Genealogies and narratives were written out in full, just as if they were being recited or sung. Many of these early manuscripts have been published, as of 2012 scholars have access to a great body of material containing multiple versions of the great myth cycles known in the rest of Polynesia, as well as of the local traditions pertaining only to New Zealand. A great deal of the best material is found in two books, Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna, collected by Sir George Grey and translated as Polynesian Mythology; the three forms of expression prominent in Māori and Polynesian oral literature are genealogical recital and narrative prose. The reciting of genealogies was well developed in Māori oral literature, where it served several functions in the recounting of tradition.
Firstly it served to provide a kind of time scale which unified all Māori myth and history, from the distant past to the present. It linked living people to the legendary heroes. By quoting appropriate genealogical lines, a narrator emphasised his or her connection with the characters whose deeds were being described, that connection proved that the narrator had the right to speak of them. "In the cosmogonic genealogies, to be described genealogical recital is revealed as a true literary form. What appears at first sight to be a mere listing of names is in fact a cryptic account of the evolution of the universe"'. Māori poetry was always chanted. Rhyme or assonance were not devices used by the Māori; the lines are indicated by features of the music. The language of poetry tends to differ stylistically from prose. Typical features of poetic diction are the use of synonyms or contrastive opposites, the repetition of key words. "Archaic words are common, including many which have lost any specific meaning and acquired a religious mystique.
Abbreviated, sometimes cryptic utterances and the use of certain grammatical constructions not found in prose are common". Prose narrative forms the great bulk of Māori legendary material; some appears to have been sacred or esoteric, but many of the legends were well-known stories told as entertainment in the long nights of winter. "Nevertheless, they should not be regarded as fairy tales to be enjoyed only as stories. The Māui myth, for example, was important not only as entertainment but because it embodied the beliefs of the people concerning such things as the origin of fire, of death, of the land in which they lived; the ritual chants concerning firemaking, death, so on made reference to Māui and derived their power from such reference". Myths are set in the remote past and their content have to do with the supernatural, they present Māori ideas of people. The mythology accounts for natural phenomena, the weather, the stars and the moon, the fish of the sea, the birds of the forest, the forests themselves.
Much of the culturally institutioned behaviour of the people finds its sanctions in myth. "Perhaps the most distinctive feature of myth, as distinct from tradition, is its universality. Each of the major myths is known in some version not only throughout New Zealand but over much of Polynesia as well"; the Māori understanding of the development of the universe was expressed in genealogical form. These genealogies appear in many versions, in which several symbolic themes recur. "Evolution may be likened to a series of periods of darkness or voids, each numbered in sequence or qualified by some descriptive term. In some cases the periods of darkness are succeeded by periods of light. In other versions the evolution of the universe is likened to a tree, with its base, tap roots, branching roots, root hairs. Another theme likens evolution to the development of a child in the womb, as in the sequence “the seeking, the searching, the conception, the growth, the feeling, the thought, the mi
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere affecting its surface, implying severe weather. It may be marked by significant disruptions to normal conditions such as strong wind, hail and lightning, heavy precipitation, heavy freezing rain, strong winds, or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere as in a dust storm, sandstorm, etc. Storms have the potential to harm lives and property via storm surge, heavy rain or snow causing flooding or road impassibility, lightning and vertical wind shear. Systems with significant rainfall and duration help alleviate drought in places. Heavy snowfall can allow special recreational activities to take place which would not be possible otherwise, such as skiing and snowmobiling; the English word comes from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz meaning "noise, tumult". Storms are created when a center of low pressure develops with the system of high pressure surrounding it; this combination of opposing forces can create winds and result in the formation of storm clouds such as cumulonimbus.
Small localized areas of low pressure can form from hot air rising off hot ground, resulting in smaller disturbances such as dust devils and whirlwinds. There are many varieties and names for storms: Blizzard — There are varying definitions for blizzards, both over time and by location. In general, a blizzard is accompanied by gale-force winds, heavy snow, cold conditions; the temperature criterion has fallen out of the definition across the United States Bomb cyclone - A rapid deepening of a mid-latitude cyclonic low-pressure area occurring over the ocean, but can occur over land. The winds experienced during these storms can be as powerful as that of a hurricane. Coastal Storm — large wind waves and/or storm surge that strike the coastal zone, their impacts include coastal erosion and coastal flooding Derecho — A derecho is a widespread, long-lived, straight-line wind storm, associated with a land-based, fast-moving group of severe thunderstorms. Dust devil — a small, localized updraft of rising air.
Dust storm - A situation in which winds pick up large quantities of sand or soil reducing the visibility Firestorm — Firestorms are conflagrations which attain such intensity that they create and sustain their own wind systems. It is most a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, wildfires; the Peshtigo Fire is one example of a firestorm. Firestorms can be deliberate effects of targeted explosives such as occurred as a result of the aerial bombings of Dresden. Nuclear detonations generate firestorms. Gale — An extratropical storm with sustained winds between 34–48 knots. Hailstorm — a type of storm that precipitates round chunks of ice. Hailstorms occur during regular thunderstorms. While most of the hail that precipitates from the clouds is small and harmless, there are occasional occurrences of hail greater than 2 inches in diameter that can cause much damage and injuries. Hypercane -a hypothetical tropical cyclone that could form over 50 °C water; such a storm would produce winds of over 800 km/h.
A series of hypercanes may have formed during the astroid or comet impact that killed the non-avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago. Such a phenomenon could occur during a supervolcanic eruption, or extreme global warming. Ice storm — Ice storms are one of the most dangerous forms of winter storms; when surface temperatures are below freezing, but a thick layer of above-freezing air remains aloft, rain can fall into the freezing layer and freeze upon impact into a glaze of ice. In general, 8 millimetres of accumulation is all, required in combination with breezy conditions, to start downing power lines as well as tree limbs. Ice storms make unheated road surfaces too slick to drive upon. Ice storms can vary in time range from hours to days and can cripple small towns and large metropolitan cities alike. Microburst - a powerful windstorm produced during a thunderstorm that only lasts a few minutes. Ocean Storm or sea storm — Storm conditions out at sea are defined as having sustained winds of 48 knots or greater.
Just referred to as a storm, these systems can sink vessels of all types and sizes. Snowstorm — A heavy fall of snow accumulating at a rate of more than 5 centimeters per hour that lasts several hours. Snow storms ones with a high liquid equivalent and breezy conditions, can down tree limbs, cut off power connections and paralyze travel over large regions. Squall — sudden onset of wind increase of at least 16 knots or greater sustained for at least one minute. Thunderstorm -- A thunderstorm is a type of storm that generates both thunder, it is accompanied by heavy precipitation. Thunderstorms occur throughout the world, with the highest frequency in tropical rainforest regions where there are conditions of high humidity and temperature along with atmospheric instability; these storms occur when high levels of condensation form in a volume of unstable air that generates deep, upward motion in the atmosphere. The heat energy creates powerful rising air currents. Cool descending air currents produce strong downdraughts below the storm.
After the storm has spent its energy, the rising currents die away and downdraughts break up the cloud. Individual s
New Zealand pigeon
The New Zealand pigeon or kereru is a bird endemic to New Zealand. Māori call it kererū in most of the country but kūkupa and kūkū in some parts of the North Island in Northland. Called wood pigeon, they are distinct from the wood pigeon of the Northern Hemisphere, a member of a different genus; the New Zealand pigeon belongs to the family Columbidae, the subfamily Treroninae, found throughout Southeast Asia, Malaya and New Zealand. The members of this subfamily feed on fruits drupes. New Zealand pigeons are members of the pigeon genus Hemiphaga, endemic to the New Zealand archipelago and Norfolk Island; however a Hemiphaga bone was found on Raoul Island. The Chatham pigeon or Chatham Island pigeon is traditionally considered a subspecies of the kereru, but is here treated as a separate species; the New Zealand pigeon is a large, 550–850 grams, arboreal fruit-pigeon found in forests from Northland to Stewart Island/Rakiura, ranging in habitats from coastal to montane. The general morphology is that of a typical pigeon, in that it has a small head, a straight soft-based bill and loosely attached feathers.
It displays typical pigeon behaviour, which includes drinking by suction, a wing-threat display, hitting with the wing when threatened, a diving display flight, a'bowing' display, ritualised preening and'billing' during courtship. New Zealand pigeons build flimsy, twiggy nests and feed crop milk to hatchlings; the mainland New Zealand pigeon grows to some 51 centimetres in length and 650 grams in weight, compared to 55 centimetres and 800 grams for the Chatham Island variant. The head and wings are a shiny green-purple colour, but with a bronze tinge to the feathers; the breast is white and the bill red with an orange-ish tip. The feet and eyes are red. Juveniles have a similar colouration but are paler with dull colours for the beak and feet and a shorter tail; the New Zealand pigeons make occasional soft coo sounds, their wings make a distinctive "whooshing" sound as they fly. The bird's flight is very distinctive. Birds will ascend before making impressively steep parabolic dives; as accepted, there are three subspecies of New Zealand pigeon.
The other subspecies, Norfolk pigeon of Norfolk Island, is now extinct. The subspecies differ in physical morphology. In 2001, it was proposed that H. n. chathamensis, the Chatham pigeon, was distinct enough to be raised to full species status, H. chathamensis, instead of the traditional subspecies status, H. n. chathamensis. Few authorities outside New Zealand have followed this, with most still considering it a subspecies; the New Zealand pigeons are regarded as frugivorous eating fruits from native trees. They play an important ecological role, as they are the only birds capable of eating the largest native fruits and drupes, such as those of the taraire, thus spreading the seeds intact. While fruit comprises the major part of their diets, the New Zealand pigeon browses on leaves and buds nitrogen rich foliage during breeding. One of their favourite leaves to eat is from the common plum tree; the diet changes seasonally as the availability of fruit changes, leaves can comprise the major part of the diet at certain times of the year, such as when there is little fruit around.
Breeding depends on the availability of ripe fruit, which varies seasonally, by location. New Zealand pigeons, like other frugivorous pigeons, feed on many species with tropical affinities, including the Lauraceae and Arecaceae, which abound in the subtropical forests of northern New Zealand, they feed on podocarp species, thought to be relics of the flora of Gondwana, such as miro and kahikatea. In the warmer northern half of the North Island, pigeons can nest all year round, except when moulting between March and May, provided enough fruit is available. Further south fewer subtropical tree species grow and in these areas breeding occurs between October and April, again depending on fruit availability. New Zealand pigeons nest in trees, laying a single egg, in a flimsy nest constructed of a few twigs thrown together; the egg is incubated for 28–29 days and the young bird takes another 30–45 days to fledge. In seasons of plentiful fruit the pigeons can nest up to four times; the population of the New Zealand pigeon declined after the arrival of humans in New Zealand, this trend continues in the North Island, but they are still common in the west of the South Island and in coastal Otago.
They are found in native laurel forests, scrub and city gardens and parks. The introduced Australian common brushtail possum and introduced species of rats – the ship or black rat but the kiore or Polynesian rat and brown rat – have reduced the amount of fruit available for pigeons and other native birds and prey on eggs and nestlings. Pigeon populations are under threat from hunting, habitat degrad
Māui (Māori mythology)
In Māori mythology, as in other Polynesian traditions, Māui is a culture hero and a trickster, famous for his exploits and cleverness. Māui is credited with catching a giant fish using a fishhook taken from his grandmother's jaw-bone. In some traditions, his waka became the South Island, known as Te Waka a Māui, his last trick, which led to his death, involved the Goddess Hine-nui-te-pō. While attempting to make mankind immortal, Māui changed into a worm and entered her vagina, intent on leaving through her mouth while she slept. However, he was crushed by the obsidian teeth in her vagina. Māui-tikitiki Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga Māui-pōtiki. Maui te whare kino; the offspring of Tū increased and multiplied and did not know death until the generation of Māui-tikitiki. Māui is the son of the wife of Makeatutara, he has a miraculous birth – his mother threw her premature infant into the sea wrapped in a tress of hair from her topknot – hence Māui is known as Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Ocean spirits wrap the child in seaweed.
His divine ancestor, Tama-nui-te-rā takes the child and nourishes him to adolescence. Māui emerged from the sea and traveled to his mother's house, finding his four brothers, Māui-taha, Māui-roto, Māui-pae, Māui-waho. Māui's brothers are at first wary of the newcomer, but after he performed feats such as transforming himself into different kinds of birds, they acknowledged his power and admired him. At first, Taranga does not recognise Māui as her child; when he became old enough, he came to his relatives while they were gathered in the marae and being merry. Maui sat down behind his brothers. Soon his mother called the children and found a strange child, who proved to be her son, was taken in as one of the family; some of the brothers were jealous. In the days of peace remember the proverb,'When you are on friendly terms, settle your disputes in a friendly way, it is better for brothers, to be kind to other people. These are the ways by which men gain influence – by laboring for an abundance of food to feed others, by collecting property to give to others, by similar means by which you promote the good of others.
Thus Maui was received in his home. Māui's older brothers always refused to let him come fishing with them. One night, he wove for himself a flax fishing line and enchanted it with a karakia to give it strength, he stowed away in the hull of his brothers' waka. The next morning, when the waka was too far from land to return, he emerged from his hiding-place, his brothers would not lend him any bait, so he struck himself on the nose and baited the hook with his blood. Māui hauled a great fish, thus the North Island of New Zealand is known as Te Ika-a-Māui. When it emerged from the water, Māui left to find a tohunga to perform the appropriate ceremonies and prayers, leaving his brothers in charge. They, did not wait for Māui to return but began to cut up the fish, which writhed in agony, causing it to break up into mountains and valleys. If the brothers had listened to Māui, the island would have been a level plain, people would have been able to travel with ease on its surface. In Northern Māori traditions of New Zealand, Māui's waka became the South Island, with Banks Peninsula marking the place supporting his foot as he pulled up that heavy fish.
Besides the official name of Te Waipounamu, another Māori name for the South Island is Te Waka-a-Māui, the canoe of Māui. In southern traditions, the South Island is known instead as Te Waka o Aoraki and predates Māui's expedition. Māui sailed a canoe called Maahanui and after he had pulled up the North Island he left Maahanui on top of a mountain in the foothills behind what is now Ashburton; that mountain now bears the name Maahanui, the coastline between Banks Peninsula and the Waitaki River is called Te tai o Maahanui. Māui wanted to know where fire came from, so one night he went among the villages of his people and put all the fires out. Māui's mother Taranga, their rangatira, said that someone would have to ask Mahuika, the goddess of fire, for more. So Māui offered to find her. Mahuika lived in a cave in a burning mountain at the end of the earth, she gave Māui one of her burning fingernails to relight the fires, but Māui extinguished fingernail after fingernail until Mahuika became angry and sent fire to pursue Māui.
Māui transformed himself into a hawk to escape, but to no avail, for Mahuika set both land and sea on fire. Māui prayed to his great ancestors Tāwhirimātea, god of weather, Whaitiri-matakataka, goddess of thunder, who answered by pouring rain to extinguish the fire. Mahuika threw her last nail at Māui, but it missed him and flew into some trees including the māhoe and the kaikōmako. Māui brought back dry sticks of these trees to his village and showed his people how to rub the sticks together and make fire. Māui went fishing with the husband of his sister Hina. During the expedition, he became annoyed with Irawaru. In some, Māui was jealous of Irawaru's success at fishing.